Cost-performance advantage of electrochemical processing technologies has enabled a paradigm shift in chip making. The dual Damascene process for Cu chip metallization and the C4 (flip-chip) technology for area array chip-package interconnection have placed electrochemical technologies among the most sophisticated fab processing technologies. These processing technologies have now been integrated into 300 mm wafer processing facilities for chip fabrication. New materials and processes are continuously being developed to meet the microprocessor industry's increasing performance and miniaturization trends. Electromigration issues, and the need for novel polishing approaches to integrate ultra low-k dielectric materials with Cu metallization are some of the immediate concerns in chip making. Development of a compliant, cost-effective Pb-free C4 chip-package interconnection is another key objective of the microelectronics industry, which is making an effort to market Pb-free products in few years. All of these developments provide ample opportunities for electrochemical processing technologies.
Dr. Madhav Datta, “Electrochemical processing technologies in chip fabrication: challenges and opportunities”, Electrochimica acta, vol. 48, pp. 2975–2985, 2003.