Isatin, also called as 1H-Indole-2, 3-Dione is a compound which is endogenous in nature having eight carbon atoms. It is versatile in nature and distributed in tissues and body fluids. Isatin is a naturally occurring heterocyclic class of compound with an indole ring and two oxo groups in its ring system. Isatin is a naturally occurring compound, but was synthesized by Erdmann and Laurent in 1840 before it was found in nature. It is a useful scaffold which undergoes a variety of chemical transformations, but however its structure is relatively simple. In this article is a review of some methods of synthesis and physical and chemical properties isatin. There is also a description about its various activities like antiviral, anti -inflammatory, anticonvulsant, CNS -MAO inhibition, anxiogenic and antitumor activities, antimicrobial, antitubercular, inhibition of glucose and amino acid uptake. Diverse activities of Isatin include fibrinolytic, muscle relaxant, immunosuppressant, anti thrombotic activity and antiallergic.It also acts as an inhibitor of various protein kinase families, mainly that of tyrosine kinase receptors and serine/threonine specific protein kinase such as the cycline dependent kinases which is an effect of its indole ring.
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R. G. Pai, Surya, M., Javahar, P. B. Muhammed, Dr. Subin Mary Zachariah, and George, N., “An endogenous heterocyclic compound isatin”, Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences, vol. 7, pp. 107-120, 2016.