In isolated perfused rat hearts, epidermal growth factor (EGF; 15 nM) increased cellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) content by 9.5-fold. In rat cardiac membranes, EGF also stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in a dose-dependent manner, with maximal stimulation (35% above control) being observed at 10 nM-EGF. Half-maximal stimulation of adenylate cyclase was observed at 40 pM-EGF. Although the beta-adrenergic-receptor antagonist propranolol markedly attenuated the isoprenaline-mediated increase in cAMP content of perfused hearts and stimulation of adenylate cyclase activity, it did not alter the ability of EGF to elevate tissue cAMP content and stimulate adenylate cyclase. The involvement of a guanine-nucleotide-binding protein (G-protein) in the activation of adenylate cyclase by EGF was indicated by the following evidence. First, the EGF-mediated stimulation of adenylate cyclase required the presence of the non-hydrolysable GTP analogue, guanyl-5'-yl-imidodiphosphate (p[NH]ppG). Maximal stimulation was observed in the presence of 10 microM-p[NH]ppG. Secondly, in the presence of 10 microM-p[NH]ppG, the stable GDP analogue guanosine 5'-[beta-thio]diphosphate at a concentration of 10 microM blocked the stimulation of the adenylate cyclase by 1 nM- and 10 nM-EGF. Third, NaF + AlCl3-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was not altered by EGF. The ability of EGF to stimulate adenylate cyclase was not affected by pertussis-toxin treatment of cardiac membranes. However, in cholera-toxin-treated cardiac membranes, when the adenylate cyclase activity was stimulated by 2-fold, EGF was ineffective. Finally, PMA by itself did not alter the activity of cardiac adenylate cyclase, but abolished the EGF-mediated stimulation of this enzyme activity. The experimental evidence in the present paper demonstrates, for the first time, that EGF stimulates adenylate cyclase in rat cardiac membranes through a stimulatory GTP-binding regulatory protein, and this effect is manifested in elevated cellular cAMP levels in perfused hearts exposed to EGF.
Dr. Bipin G. Nair, Hani M. Rashed, and Tarun B Patel, “Epidermal growth factor stimulates rat cardiac adenylate cyclase through a GTP-binding regulatory protein.”, Biochem. J, vol. 264, pp. 563–571, 1989.