As-deposited amorphous GeBiSe films were crystallized by thermal and laser annealing. Their structural properties were studied using a glancing angle X-ray diffractometer (GAXRD) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Films were crystallized into either a polycrystalline or a highly oriented state, depending on the choice of parameters, such as annealing temperature, rate and duration, and substrate nature and composition. All phases have been identified. The effect of annealing conditions on the relative proportion of these phases has been investigated. A wide range of surface topographical features, such as pyramidal needle shapes of 3 μm length and spherical crystallites with average sizes of 0.35–2 μm, were observed on annealing. The laser scan parameters have been optimized to only obtain crystallization. The film composition and annealing parameters have been optimized in order to obtain strongly oriented crystalline films with a smooth surface topography.
Dr. T. Rajagopalan and Reddy, G. B., “Formation of highly oriented GeBiSe films from the as-deposited amorphous state by annealing”, Thin Solid Films, vol. 377–378, pp. 501 - 506, 2000.