The present invention pertains to methods for forming metal-derived layers on substrates. Preferred methods apply to integrated circuit fabrication. In particular, selective methods may be used to form diffusion barriers on partially fabricated integrated circuits. In one preferred method, a wafer is heated and exposed to a metal vapor. Under specific conditions, the metal vapor reacts with dielectric surfaces to form a diffusion barrier, but does not react with metal surfaces. Thus, methods of the invention form diffusion barriers that selectively protect dielectric surfaces but leave metal surfaces free of diffusion barrier.
J. Dalton, Powell, R. A., Kailasam, S. K., and Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, “Forming Metal-derived Layers by Simultaneous Deposition and Evaporation of Metal”, U.S. Patent US 09/975,6122003.