AbstractThe rhizome of ginger (Zingiber officinale) a common culinary agent is also known for its medicinal activity. We have earlier reported that pure 6-shogaol, an important component of ginger induces paraptosis in triple negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) and non small cell lung (A549) cancer cells. However, the chemopreventive potential of the whole ginger extract in food remains to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that ginger extract (GE) triggers similar anticancer activity/paraptosis against the same cell lines but through different molecular mechanisms. Q-TOF LC-MS analysis of the extract showed the presence of several other metabolites along with 6-shogaol and 6-gingerol. GE induces cytoplasmic vacuolation through ER stress and dilation of the ER. Drastic decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production along with the excess generation of ROS contributed to mitochondrial dysfunction. Consequently, GE caused the translocation of apoptosis inducing factor to the nucleus leading to the fragmentation of DNA. Taken together, these show a novel mechanism for ginger extract induced cancer cell death that can be of potential interest for cancer preventive strategies.
D. Nedungadi, Anupama Binoy, Vinod, V., Muralidharan Vanuopadath, Sudarslal Sadasivan Nair, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Nandita Mishra, “Ginger extract activates caspase independent paraptosis in cancer cells via ER stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, AIF translocation and DNA damage”, Nutrition and Cancer, pp. 1-13, 2019.