Since there has been a notable improvement in the performance of graphene-supported tin-based lithium ion battery anodes, they have become a viable alternative to state of the art graphite anodes. However, currently these anodes are produced by energy-demanding thermal processes and generate lithium chloride or other wastes. In this research, we demonstrate the formation of efficient and stable lithium ion battery anodes based on sodium stannate-coated reduced graphene oxide. Coating is performed at low temperatures and when a sodium peroxostannate precursor is used, the process can be carried out with zero waste discharge. Thermal treatment is required only for the solid material. The anode exhibited a charge capacity of 610 mA h g−1 after 140 cycles at 100 mA g−1. This is the first characterization of a sodium stannate-based anode for LIBs.
A. A. Mikhaylov, Medvedev, A. G., Mason, C. W., Nagasubramanian, A., Madhavi, S., Batabyal Sudip Kumar, Zhang, Q., Gun, J., Prikhodchenko, P. V., and Lev, O., “Graphene oxide supported sodium stannate lithium ion battery anodes by the peroxide route: low temperature and no waste processing”, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 3, pp. 20681–20689, 2015.