Sodium-ion batteries are an alternative to lithium-ion batteries for large-scale applications. However, low capacity and poor rate capability of existing anodes are the main bottlenecks to future developments. Here we report a uniform coating of antimony sulphide (stibnite) on graphene, fabricated by a solution-based synthesis technique, as the anode material for sodium-ion batteries. It gives a high capacity of 730 mAh g−1 at 50 mA g−1, an excellent rate capability up to 6C and a good cycle performance. The promising performance is attributed to fast sodium ion diffusion from the small nanoparticles, and good electrical transport from the intimate contact between the active material and graphene, which also provides a template for anchoring the nanoparticles. We also demonstrate a battery with the stibnite–graphene composite that is free from sodium metal, having energy density up to 80 Wh kg−1. The energy density could exceed that of some lithium-ion batteries with further optimization.
D. YW, V, P. Petr, W Chad, M., Batabyal Sudip Kumar, Jenny, G., Sergey, S., G Alexander, M., and Ovadia, L., “High-capacity antimony sulphide nanoparticle-decorated graphene composite as anode for sodium-ion batteries”, Nature communications, vol. 4, 2013.