The source of many environmental and natural resource problems lies in ill-defined property rights. In this chapter, we explain how the tragedy of the commons can result from existing types of ownership/property rights regimes and examine the consequences. The implications for policy-making are also briefly discussed. The dire consequences of the tragedy are illustrated by the case of the Aral Sea.
Yeti N. Madhoo, “An Illustration of the Tragedy of the Commons: The Demise of the Aral Sea”, in Saving Small Island Developing States, Commonwealth Secretariat, UK, 2010, pp. 133–144.