The soil, Soul of Infinite Life, is the entity responsible for sustaining life on earth. In spite of significant advances in the service sector, agriculture remains the major provider of employment and source of revenue in India. Soil testing is a valuable tool for evaluating the available nutrient status of soil and helps to determine the proper amount of nutrients to be added to a given soil based on its fertility and crop needs. In the current study, the soil test report values are used to classify several significant soil features like village wise soil fertility indices of Available Phosphorus (P), Available Potassium (K), Organic Carbon (OC) and Boron (B), as well as the parameter Soil Reaction (pH). The classification and prediction of the village wise soil parameters aids in reducing wasteful expenditure on fertilizer inputs, increase profitability, save the time of chemical soil analysis experts, improves soil health and environmental quality. These five classification problems are solved using the fast learning classification technique known as Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) with different activation functions like gaussian radial basis, sine-squared, hyperbolic tangent, triangular basis, and hard limit. After the performance analysis of ELMs with diverse activation functions for these soil parameter classifications, the gaussian radial basis function attains the maximum performance for four out of five problems, which goes above 80% in most of the accuracy rate calculations in every problem, followed by hyperbolic tangent, hard limit, triangular basis, and sine-squared. However, the performance of the final classification problem, i.e. the pH classification, gives moderate values with the gaussian radial basis and best performance (near 90%), with the hyperbolic tangent.
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M. .S.Suchithra and Maya L. Pai, “Improving the Prediction Accuracy of Soil Nutrient Classification by Optimizing Extreme Learning Machine Parameters”, Information Processing in Agriculture , 2019.