<p>With shrinking metal lines and increased stacking of layers, BEOL processes today show higher dominance in affecting device performance. To maintain high process margin with low cost-of-ownership, a robust Cu process module is essential to any high volume manufacturing environment. Electroplating techniques with sophisticated current & voltage application methodologies are commonly used in the presence of electrolytes with widely varying conductivities to produce uniform Cu films. Well known also are the importance of organic additives to plating baths and their influence on the “bottom-up” or “super-filling” of Cu in damascened interconnect structures.</p>
Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, Wang, Q., Brooks, B., and Sahota, K., “Influence of Bath Lifetimes and Electroplating Performance”, in Meeting Abstracts, 2007.