Publication Type:

Journal Article


Microbiological Research, Volume 168, Number 7, p.396-406 (2013)



Acetylation, animal, Animals, antimicrobial activity, Bacteria, Bacteria (microorganisms), bacterial infection, Bacterial Infections, Bacterial peptidoglycan, bacterium, Cell membranes, cell organelle, cell wall, chemistry, Cytology, Fungi, fungus, genetics, human, Humans, Immune system, Immunity, immunology, Innate, innate immunity, Lead compounds, Meso-diaminopimelic acid, microbial activity, microbiology, Mycoses, mycosis, N-deacetylation, N-Glycolylation, Nucleotides, O-acetylation, Oligomerization, Oligomers, organic acid, peptidoglycan, Peptidoglycan recognition protein, Peptidoglycans, Polysaccharides, protein, Proteins, Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, review


The innate immune system constitutes the first line of defence against invading microbes. The basis of this defence resides in the recognition of defined structural motifs of the microbes called "Microbial associated molecular patterns" that are absent in the host. Cell wall, the outer layer of both bacterial and fungal cells, a unique structure that is absent in the host and is recognized by the germ line encoded host receptors. Nucleotide oligomerization domain proteins, peptidoglycan recognition proteins and C-type lectins are host receptors that are involved in the recognition of bacterial cell wall (usually called peptidoglycan), whereas fungal cell wall components (N- and O-linked mannans, β-glucans etc.) are recognized by host receptors like C-type lectins (Dectin-1, Dectin-2, mannose receptor, DC-SIGN), Toll like receptors-2 and -4 (TLR-2 and TLR-4). These recognitions lead to activation of a variety of host signaling cascades and ultimate production of anti-microbial compounds including phospholipase A2, antimicrobial peptides, lysozyme, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. These molecules act in cohort against the invading microbes to eradicate infections. Additionally pathogen recognition leads to the production of cytokines, which further activate the adaptive immune system. Both pathogenic and commensal bacteria and fungus use numerous strategies to subvert the host defence. These strategies include bacterial peptidoglycan glycan backbone modifications by O-acetylation, N-deacetylation, N-glycolylation and stem peptide modifications by amidation of meso-Diaminopimelic acid; fungal cell wall modifications by shielding the β-glucan layer with mannoproteins and α-1,3 glucan. This review focuses on the recent advances in understanding the role of bacterial and fungal cell wall in their innate immune recognition and evasion strategies. © 2013 Elsevier GmbH.


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Cite this Research Publication

Va Sukhithasri, Nisha, Na, Biswas, La, Kumar, VbAnil, and R.a Biswas, “Innate immune recognition of microbial cell wall components and microbial strategies to evade such recognitions”, Microbiological Research, vol. 168, pp. 396-406, 2013.