<p>This paper provides the taxonomy of country experiences in managing their water utilities. Institutions for water supply for various uses and their financial implications are analysed. Different episodes of governmental intervention in water supply and charging are examined. From the survey of different regimes and the existing literature, cost recovery and affordability emerge as the major building blocks for any reform of water utilities. Privatization of water services in terms of ownership change, public-private arrangements and international involvement seems to be a mixed blessing and donor assistance to water projects raises issues in international inequality and does not increase cost recovery levels. Cost recovery is positively associated with economic development, institutional quality and performance of water utilities.</p>
Yeti N. Madhoo, “International Trends in Water Utility Regimes”, Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, vol. 78, pp. 87–135, 2007.