This article describes the load frequency control of a multi-area system. Each control area contains both a hydro and thermal power plant to form a multi-source multi-area hydro thermal system. The secondary proportional-integral controller has been tuned using Ziegler–Nichols, genetic algorithm, and fuzzy gain scheduling methods. On comparing the controller performance based on various performance indices, it is found that a fuzzy gain scheduling tuned proportional-integral controller is suitable for a multi-source multi-area hydro thermal system. Further improvement on the load frequency dynamics has been achieved by connecting superconducting magnetic energy storage unit in each control area and a static synchronous series compensator unit on a tie-line.
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V. Chandrakala, Sukumar, B., and Sankaranarayanan, K., “Load frequency control of multi-source multi-area hydro thermal system using flexible alternating current transmission system devices”, Electric Power Components and Systems, vol. 42, pp. 927–934, 2014.