Electronic components such as semiconductor wafer VLSI and ULSI integrated circuit devices are provided having a robust barrier layer in the device interconnects. The robust barrier layer provides excellent step coverage, low resistance and enhanced adhesion to CVD copper and the interconnect has a double structure of a layer of a barrier material and a metal layer thereon. The metal layer is preferably tungsten and is formed by replacing silicon or other such atoms on the surface of the barrier layer with tungsten metal. A layer of silicon can be formed on the barrier layer, silicon atoms can be formed on the surface by reacting the barrier layer with a silicon containing reactant or a silicon containing barrier layer can be used.
S. H. Lee and Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, “Method for the Formation of Diffusion Barrier (Granted)”, U.S. Patent 6887781, US 10/425,3062005.