Water scarcity has been a major thrusting issue in rural India, warrantinga high demand to design and implement different water distribution networks for easy and efficient use of existing water sources. Both macro and micro level systems exist of which, macro level water distribution networks have higher capital and maintenance costs. This is due to its size and the remote beneficiaries to which it caters. This paper describes the design of one such water distribution system in two rural villages in India whose design considerations includes the local community needs, availability of labor, local resources, climate, cost, and time for implementation. This paper also compares the micro and macro water distribution network's impact on sustainability. Sustainability is defined in terms of water wastage, usage rate, source capacity, total network length, cost of deployment, source recharge, and the network leakage rate. The paper discusses the water distribution projectscompletedin a village in Orissa and in a village in Rajasthan (two states in India) where all households were given 24/7 access to clean and safe drinking water for more than a year. The paper also draws insights on the socio-economic impact of the project carried out in these two states.
Dr. Maneesha V. Ramesh, Renjith Mohan, M. Nitin Kumar, Deepak Brahmanandan, C. Prakash, Lalith Prakash E., M. Ananth Kumar, and Ramkrishnan R., “Micro water distribution networks: A participatory method of sustainable water distribution in rural communities”, Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC), 2016. IEEE, pp. 797-804, 2016.