Recent advances in the development of electrochemical metal-removal processes for microfabrication are reviewed in this paper. After a brief description of the process, several important parameters are identified that determine the material-removal rate, shape control, surface finishing, and uniformity. The influence of surface film properties, mass transport, and current distribution on microfabrication performance are discussed. Several examples of microelectronic component fabrication are presented. These examples demonstrate the challenges and opportunities offered by electrochemical metal removal in microfabrication.
Dr. Madhav Datta, “Microfabrication by electrochemical metal removal”, IBM journal of research and development, vol. 42, pp. 655–670, 1998.