BACKGROUND: Arthritis refers to inflammation of joints and includes common disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and spondyloarthropathies (SpAs). These diseases differ mainly in terms of their clinical manifestations and the underlying pathogenesis. Glycoproteins in synovial fluid might reflect the disease activity status in the joints affected by arthritis; yet they have not been systematically studied previously. Although markers have been described for assisting in the diagnosis of RA, there are currently no known biomarkers for SpA.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: We sought to determine the relative abundance of glycoproteins in RA and SpA by lectin affinity chromatography coupled to iTRAQ labeling and LC-MS/MS analysis. We also used ELISA to validate the overexpression of VCAM-1, one of the candidate proteins identified in this study, in synovial fluid from RA patients.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We identified proteins that were previously reported to be overexpressed in RA including metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 (TIMP1), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and several S100 proteins. In addition, we discovered several novel candidates that were overexpressed in SpA including Apolipoproteins C-II and C-III and the SUN domain-containing protein 3 (SUN3). Novel molecules found overexpressed in RA included extracellular matrix protein 1 (ECM1) and lumican (LUM). We validated one of the candidate biomarkers, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1), in 20 RA and SpA samples using ELISA and confirmed its overexpression in RA (p-value <0.01). Our quantitative glycoproteomic approach to study arthritic disorders should open up new avenues for additional proteomics-based discovery studies in rheumatological disorders.
M. Bhattacharjee, Sharma, R., Goel, R., Balakrishnan, L., Renuse, S., Advani, J., Gupta, S. Tankala, Verma, R., Pinto, S. M., Sekhar, N. Raja, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, Prasad, T. S. K., Harsha, H. C., Jois, R., Shankar, S., and Pandey, A., “A multilectin affinity approach for comparative glycoprotein profiling of rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthropathy”, Clinical proteomics, vol. 10, no. 1, p. 1, 2013.