Publication Type:

Journal Article


Biomaterials, Elsevier BV, Volume 35, Number 15, p.4557-4564 (2014)



Anesthetics, animal experiment, animal tissue, article, biocompatibility, Bupivacaine, DepoFoam, drug distribution, drug release, inflammation, liposome, male, mouse, Myotoxicity, neurotoxicity, nonhuman, pathology, priority journal, Rattus, sciatic nerve, Tissue, toxicity


Clinical translation of sustained release formulations for local anesthetics has been limited by adverse tissue reaction. Exparel™ (DepoFoam bupivacaine) is a new liposomal local anesthetic formulation whose biocompatibility near nerve tissue is not well characterized. Exparel™ injection caused sciatic nerve blockade in rats lasting 240mincompared to 120minfor 0.5% (w/v) bupivacaine HCl and 210minfor 1.31% (w/v) bupivacaine HCl (same bupivacaine content as Exparel™). On histologic sections four days after injection, median inflammation scores in the Exparel™ group (2.5 of 4) were slightly higher than in groups treated with bupivacaine solutions (score 2). Myotoxicity scores in the Exparel™ group (2.5 of 6) were similar to in the 0.5% (w/v) bupivacaine HCl group (3), but significantly less than in the 1.31% (w/v) bupivacaine HCl group (5). After two weeks, inflammation from Exparel™ (score 2 of 6) was greater than from 0.5% (w/v) bupivacaine HCl (1) and similar to that from 1.31% (w/v) bupivacaine HCl (1). Myotoxicity in all three groups was not statistically significantly different. No neurotoxicity was detected in any group. Tissue reaction to Exparel™ was similar to that of 0.5% (w/v) bupivacaine HCl. Surveillance for local tissue injury will be important during future clinical evaluation. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


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Cite this Research Publication

J. Bab c McAlvin, Padera, R. Fd, Dr. Sahadev Shankarappa, Reznor, Gbc, Kwon, A. Hfg, Chiang, H. Hbc, Yang, Jh, and Kohane, D. Sbc, “Multivesicular liposomal bupivacaine at the sciatic nerve”, Biomaterials, vol. 35, pp. 4557-4564, 2014.