We, in our previous work, detailed the new design technology for the synthesis of novel TiO2/TiO2-WO3 core/shell composite (Ti/Ti–W) via the application of titanium turnings. Herein, we exploited the strategy with appropriate alternations to broaden the industrial significance of the method as well as the material. The work embodies a polyaniline assisted modification of Ti/Ti–W (0.1 g Ti metal/1:2 Ti–W) to develop a novel hybrid composite that has not yet been synthesized and studied. The composite was used to fabricate a sensing electrode for dopamine detection by electroless deposition from Ni–P bath. Cyclic voltammetric results revealed the sensing performance of Ni–P/PANI/Ti/Ti–W electrode towards dopamine detection. Further, differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was employed to detect the sensing potential and sensing current, and the detection limit was found to be as low as 0.0037 μM with a sensitivity of 44.7 μA/μM cm2. The linear range of the optimized sensing electrode was 0.1–50 μM. Moreover, the electrode offered a remarkable detection of dopamine even in presence of other electroactive species such as AA, UA, NaCl and glucose. The real sample analysis explored Ni–P/PANI/Ti/Ti–W as a potential sensing electrode and can detect dopamine from urine sample with high sensitivity and accuracy. The obtained electroanalysis results confirm a 2H+/2e− mechanism of sensing in the developed electrode.
Athira Krishnan, Dr. Beena S., and S.M.A. Shibli, “A novel high performance Ti/Ti–W- reinforced polyaniline functionalized Ni–P electrode for high sensitive detection of dopamine from urine sample”, Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 244, p. 122680, 2020.