Obesity in children & adolescents
Publication Type:Journal Article
Source:Indian Journal of Medical Research, Volume 132, Number 11, p.598-607 (2010)
Keywords:adjuvant therapy, adolescent, antiobesity agent, asthma, atherosclerosis, bariatric surgery, Blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, child, child health care, community care, comorbidity, depression, diabetes mellitus, diarrhea, diet, disease association, disease management, drug efficacy, dyslipidemia, energy metabolism, environmental factor, epidemic, fast food, feeding behavior, flatulence, focal glomerulosclerosis, Food Habits, food intake, gallbladder disease, gallstone, gastrointestinal disease, genetic predisposition, Genetic Predisposition to Disease, genetics, health, health education, heart rate, human, Humans, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, leptin, lifestyle, liver cirrhosis, liver fibrosis, lung embolism, malabsorption, menstruation disorder, metabolic syndrome X, metformin, nonalcoholic fatty liver, obesity, osteoarthritis, ovary polycystic disease, pathophysiology, physical activity, physiology, public health problem, review, risk factor, Risk Factors, sibutramine, side effect, sleep apnea syndrome, tetrahydrolipstatin, treatment indication, weight reduction, World Health
Worldwide, obesity trends are causing serious public health concern and in many countries threatening the viability of basic health care delivery. It is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and significantly increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The last two decades have witnessed an increase in health care costs due to obesity and related issues among children and adolescents. Childhood obesity is a global phenomenon affecting all socio-economic groups, irrespective of age, sex or ethnicity. Aetiopathogenesis of childhood obesity is multi-factorial and includes genetic, neuroendocrine, metabolic, psychological, environmental and socio-cultural factors. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, psychological, orthopaedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary and renal disorders are seen in association with childhood obesity. The treatment of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents requires a multidisciplinary, multi-phase approach, which includes dietary management, physical activity enhancement, restriction of sedentary behaviour, pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery. A holistic approach to tackle the childhood obesity epidemic needs a collection of activities including influencing policy makers and legislation, mobilizing communities, restructuring organizational practices, establishing coalitions and networks, empowering providers, imparting community education as well as enriching and reinforcing individual awareness and skills. The implications of this global phenomenon on future generations will be serious unless appropriate action is taken.
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