In this paper, we propose a digital image watermarking scheme based on Genetic Algorithm (GA). The input digital host images undergo a set of pre-watermarking stages like image segmentation, feature extraction, orientation assignment, and image normalization to obtain image invariance properties when subject to attacks. Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm is used to segment the images and the features are extracted using Difference of Gaussian (DoG) technique. The feature maps from the feature extraction methods locate the magnitude by orientation assignment making the circular regions invariant. The resultant image is normalized by scaling to acquire the scaling invariance for the circular region. The watermark image is then embedded into the host image using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). During the extraction process, GA is applied to improve the robustness, and fidelity of the watermarked image by evaluating the fitness function. The perceptual transparency and the robustness of the watermarked and the extracted images are evaluated by applying filtering attacks, additive noise, rotation, scaling and JPEG compression attacks to the watermarked image. From the simulation results, the performance of the optimization technique can be understood based on the computed robustness and transparency measures along with the evaluated parameters like elapsed time, computation time and fitness value. The performance of proposed scheme was evaluated with a set of 50 textures images taken from online resources of Tampere University of Technology, Finland and the entire algorithm for different stages was simulated using MATLAB R2008b.
P. Surekha and Sumathi, S., “Optimization of Pre-Watermarked Digital Images using Genetic Algorithm”, International Journal of Imaging and Robotics, vol. 5, no. S.11, pp. 59-79, 2011.