Advances in electronic materials, processing technologies, and integration schemes have resulted in phenomenal miniaturization of electronic components. Since the development of through-mask plating for thin film heads in the1960s and 1970s, an enormous amount of industrial and academic R&D effort has positioned electrochemical processing among the most sophisticated processing technologies employed in the microelectronics industry today. Electrochemical processing has thus become an integral part of advanced wafer processing and an enabling technology for nanofabrication. In this review we begin with a brief discussion of the phenomenal advances in IC based electronics and Moore's law as indicators of the paradigm shifts in microelectronics. We then highlight the important role played by electrochemical processing in the electronics industry. A detailed discussion of the dual Damascene plating technology and electroplated C4 technology form the key elements of the review. Finally, the challenges and opportunities offered by these technologies in extending Moore's law are discussed.
Dr. Madhav Datta, “Paradigm Shifts in Electronics Enabled by Electrochemical Micro/Nano Processing”, Micro and Nanosystems, vol. 1, pp. 83–104, 2009.