Publication Type:

Journal Article


Indian journal of public health, Volume 57, Number 2, p.105-108 (2013)



adult, article, Cross-Sectional Studies, cross-sectional study, Dental Calculus, female, health, human, Humans, India, male, Oral Health, periodontal disease, Periodontal Diseases, periodontal pocket, prevalence, rural population, Smokeless, smokeless tobacco, smoking, Statistics, Tobacco, tooth calculus, urban population


A cross-sectional study was designed to assess the prevalence of periodontal diseases among tobacco and non-tobacco users. A total of 2,156 dentate subjects were selected in the age group of 35-44 years through multi-stage sampling method. A total of 350 and 175 subjects were selected from household survey from each district in rural and urban areas. Subjects were interviewed for the tobacco usage status, followed by clinical assessment of periodontal status. Prevalence of calculus, periodontal pockets of 4-5 mm depth and loss of attachment of 0-3 mm and 4-5 mm was significantly more frequent among current tobacco users. The subject with smoking and chewing tobacco has an odds ratio (OR) 1.6 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.14-2.31) and OR 1.7 (95% CI 1.38-2.28) respectively. The findings contribute to the evidence of smoking as a risk factor for periodontal disease.


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Cite this Research Publication

S. Mohamed and Chandrashekar Janakiram, “Periodontal status among tobacco users in Karnataka, India.”, Indian journal of public health, vol. 57, pp. 105-108, 2013.