Background & objectives: AmpC β-lactamases which are often plasmid mediated hydrolyze all β-lactam antibiotics except cefepime and carbapenems. We evaluated the presence of AmpC β-lactamases among Enterobacteriaceae strains recovered prospectively from patients at five Indian tertiary care centres. Methods: The study included 909 consecutive Gram-negative isolates recovered from clinically significant specimens during June 2007 - May 2008 as part of an ICMR-ESBL study. Among the study isolates, 312 were found to be cefoxitin resistant by disc diffusion test (DDT). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination by E test was done against amikacin, levofloxacin, impinem, meropenem, ertapenem, tigecycline and piperacillin-tazobactam. Combined DDT using phenyl boronic acid as inhibitor with cefoxitin was used for phenotypic confirmation of AmpC phenotype. The common Amp C genotypes ACC, FOX, MOX, DHA, CIT and EBC were detected by multiplex PCR. Results: Plasmid mediated Amp C phenotype was confirmed in 114 of the 312 (36.5%) cefoxitin resistant isolates with 255 (81.7%) showing multidrug resistance. Susceptibility to tigecycline was highest (99%) followed by imipenem, meropenem (97%), ertapenem (89%), amikacin (85%), and piperacillin-tazobactam (74.6%). Levofloxacin resistance was 82 per cent. ESBL co carriage was observed among 92 per cent of Amp C producers. Among 114 Amp C producers, 48 could be assigned a genotype, this included CIT- FOX (n=25), EBC (n=10), FOX (n = 4), CIT (n=3), EBC-ACC (n=2) and one each of DHA, EBC-DHA, FOX -DHA and FOX-EBC-DHA. Interpretation & conclusions: Overall, AmpC phenotypes were found in 12.5 per cent isolates, multidrug resistance and ESBL co-carriage among them was high suggesting plasmid mediated spread. The study results have implications in rational antimicrobial therapy and continued surveillance of mechanisms of resistance among nosocomial pathogens.
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Aa Manoharan, Sugumar, Ma, Kumar, Ab, Jose, Ha, and Mathai, Da, “Phenotypic & molecular characterization of AmpC β-lactamases among Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. & Enterobacter spp. from five Indian Medical Centers”, Indian Journal of Medical Research, vol. 135, pp. 359-364, 2012.