<p>Plumbagin (PLB) is an active secondary metabolite extracted from the roots of Plumbago rosea. In this study, we report that plumbagin effectively induces paraptosis by triggering extensive cytoplasmic vacuolation followed by cell death in triple negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231), cervical cancer cells (HeLa) and non-small lung cancer cells (A549) but not in normal lung fibroblast cells (WI-38). The vacuoles originated from the dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and were found to be empty. The cell death induced by plumbagin was neither apoptotic nor autophagic. Plumbagin induced ER stress mainly by inhibiting the chymotrypsin-like activity of 26S proteasome as also evident from the accumulation of polyubiquitinated proteins. The vacuolation and cell death were found to be independent of reactive oxygen species generation but was effectively inhibited by thiol antioxidant suggesting that plumbagin could modify the sulfur homeostasis in the cellular milieu. Plumbagin also resulted in a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential eventually decreasing the ATP production. This is the first study to show that Plumbagin induces paraptosis through proteasome inhibition and disruption of sulfhydryl homeostasis and thus further opens up the lead molecule to potential therapeutic strategies for apoptosis-resistant cancers.</p>
Anupama Binoy, Divya Nedungadi, Katiyar, N., Chinchu Bose, Dr. Sahadev Shankarappa, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Dr. Nandita Mishra, “Plumbagin induces paraptosis in cancer cells by disrupting the sulfhydryl homeostasis and proteasomal function”, Chemico-Biological Interactions, p. 108733, 2019.