Publication Type:

Journal Article


BMJ Case Reports (2013)



adolescent, alkaline phosphatase, article, asymptomatic disease, bone biopsy, bone cyst, case report, clinical feature, complication, diastema, differential diagnosis, Dilatation, disease association, endocrine disease, enzyme blood level, human, Humans, hyperparathyroidism, lesions and defects, male, mandible fracture, mouth examination, multidetector computed tomography, osteolysis, Panoramic, panoramic radiography, paranasal sinus, paranasal sinus disease, Paranasal Sinus Diseases, parathyroid hormone, parathyroid hormone blood level, Pathologic, pneumosinus dilatans multiplex, premolar tooth, priority journal, radiography, Secondary, secondary hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D, vitamin D deficiency, vitamin supplementation


<p>Pneumosinus dilatans describes an abnormal dilation of one or more paranasal sinuses without radiological evidence of localised bone destruction, hyperostosis or mucous membrane thickening. Dilation of mastoid air cells also occurs rarely along with involvement of paranasal sinuses. This rare combination of unknown aetiology was reported in two cases in the literature and termed 'Pneumosinus Dilatans Multiplex' (PSDM). It is usually asymptomatic, and is detected incidentally on plain radiography, CT or MRI. If left untreated, it can further erode the bone leading to complications such as facial asymmetry, neurological disorders and pathological fractures. The aetiology of the condition remains obscure. Various hypotheses proposed are the presence of gas-forming microorganisms, spontaneous drainage of a mucocele, the presence of a one-way valve, dysregulation of hormonal levels leading to a disturbance of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity. This paper describes a case of PSDM possibly secondary to hormonal disturbance. Copyright 2013 BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.</p>


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Cite this Research Publication

Pa Ushas, Ravi, Va, Painatt, J. Ma, and Nair, P. Pb, “Pneumosinus dilatans multiplex associated with hormonal imbalance”, BMJ Case Reports, 2013.