Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) and their substrates, cAMP and cGMP, are ubiquitously expressed in the immune system. Inhibiting PDEs may represent a novel approach for regulating immune functions and have a therapeutic potential in the management of autoimmune diseases. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDEi) have proved effective in clinical trials in the management of pulmonary artery hypertension and Raynaud's phenomenon. Data from animal models suggest that the immunomodulatory effect of PDEi may have a therapeutic potential in the management of diseases such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis. The antifibrotic potential of PDEi, as suggested by animal experiments, if proven in further studies will be a major step in the treatment of fibrosing diseases such as scleroderma and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Pa Shenoy, Agarwal, Vb, Agarwal, Ab, Misra, Rb, and Naik, Sb, “Potential for phosphodiesterase inhibitors in the management of autoimmune diseases”, Drug Development Research, vol. 72, pp. 772-778, 2011.