Segmental bone defects resulting from trauma or pathology represent a common and significant clinical problem. In this study, a triphasic ceramic (calcium silicate, hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate)-coated hydroxyapatite (HASi) having the benefits of both HA (osteointegration, osteoconduction) and silica (degradation) was used as a bone substitute for the repair of segmental defect (2 cm) created in a goat femur model. Three experimental goat femur implant groups--(a) bare HASi, (b) osteogenic-induced goat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured HASi (HASi+C) and (c) osteogenic-induced goat bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured HASi+platelet-rich plasma (HASi+CP)--were designed and efficacy performance in the healing of the defect was evaluated. In all the groups, the material united with host bone without any inflammation and an osseous callus formed around the implant. This reflects the osteoconductivity of HASi where the cells have migrated from the cut ends of host bone. The most observable difference between the groups appeared in the mid region of the defect. In bare HASi groups, numerous osteoblast-like cells could be seen together with a portion of material. However, in HASi+C and HASi+CP, about 60-70% of that area was occupied by woven bone, in line with material degradation. The interconnected porous nature (50-500 microm), together with the chemical composition of the HASi, facilitated the degradation of HASi, thereby opening up void spaces for cellular ingrowth and bone regeneration. The combination of HASi with cells and PRP was an added advantage that could promote the expression of many osteoinductive proteins, leading to faster bone regeneration and material degradation. Based on these results, we conclude that bare HASi can aid in bone regeneration but, with the combination of cells and PRP, the sequence of healing events are much faster in large segmental bone defects in weight-bearing areas in goats.
Dr. Manitha B. Nair, Varma, H. K., John, A., Menon, V., and Shenoy, S., “Reconstruction of goat femur segmental defects using triphasic ceramic-coated hydroxyapatite in combination with autologous cells and platelet-rich plasma”, Acta Biomater , vol. 5, no. 5, 2009.