The presence of IgD receptors (IgD-R) on T cells during a primary response to antigen causes augmented antibody production and facilitates priming for a secondary response. Cross-linked, but not monomeric IgD leads to a rapid upregulation of these receptors on T cells. As shown in the present study, the rapid upregulation of IgD-specific receptors is also induced by cross-linking of T cell surface molecules known to mediate triggering of T cell activation, such as CD3, CD2, and Thy 1. Furthermore, IgD-R are also upregulated by pharmacologically active compounds that increase intracellular cAMP and by PMA/DiOG plus ionomycin, but not by either PMA or ionomycin alone. The upregulation of IgD-R by anti-CD3 is inhibited by both calphostin C and herbimycin A, while that due to DiOG plus ionomycin is only inhibited by calphostin C. Upregulation of IgD-R by increased cAMP is blocked by HA1004, but not by low concentrations of staurosporine or herbimycin A. IgD itself does not cause an increase in intracellular cAMP, protein kinase C translocation, influx of extracellular Ca2+, or a change in membrane potential. Relatively specific inhibitors of these activation pathways, HA1004, calphostin C, and neomycin, also fail to interfere with IgD-receptor upregulation by IgD itself. However, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including herbimycin A, tyrphostin C11, and genistein, completely prevent the effect of IgD on IgD-R expression. Although an influx of Ca2+ is apparently not involved, a role for intracellular Ca2+ in the upregulation of IgD-R by IgD on T cells is indicated by the susceptibility to inhibition by BAPTA, W7, and FK520. We conclude that activation of at least three different second-messenger systems can cause IgD-R upregulation, but that the effect of IgD itself requires tyrosine kinase activity, perhaps in an intracellular Ca(2+)-dependent manner.
Ashok R Amin, Christina D Swenson, Bin Xue, Yuso Ishida, Dr. Bipin G. Nair, Tarun B Patel, Thomas M Chused, and G Jeanette Thorbecke, “Regulation of IgD-Receptor Expression on Murine T Cells: II. Upregulation of IgD Receptors Is Obtained after Activation of Various Intracellular Second-Messenger Systems; Tyrosine Kinase Activity Is Required for the Effect of IgD”, Cellular immunology, vol. 152, pp. 422–439, 1993.