Addition of catalytic amounts of fullerenes as coordinating ligand to the low valent titanium reagent resulted in the remarkable increase in the yields of phenanthrenes (3) from orthomethoxy aryl aldehydes/ketones (1) (SCHEME I) via intramolecular C-C coupling. This is the first report on the use of fullerenes as a ligand in transition metal mediated organic synthesis.
S. Talukdar, Nayak, S. K., and Banerji, A., “Remarkable Effect of Fullerenes on Low-Valent Titanium Mediated Organic Reaction”, Fullerene Science and Technology, vol. 3, pp. 327-332, 1995.