Publication Type:

Journal Article


Rubber Chemistry and Technology, Rubber Division of the American Chemical Society, Volume 89, Number 2, p.211-226 (2016)



Antioxidants, Central composite designs, Compression set, Contour diagrams, Cross-link densities, Density (specific gravity), Fillers, oxidation, Peroxides, Regression equation, Response surface, Response surface methodology, Rubber, Rubber compounding, Surface properties, Tear strength, Tensile strength, Vulcanization, zinc, Zinc oxide


Response surface methodology was used for assessing the role of various compounding ingredients, including zinc oxide, antioxidant, coagent, oil, and filler, in peroxide vulcanization of natural rubber. A face-centered central composite design with four factors at three different levels was used to obtain the relationship between vulcanizate properties and the level of ingredients. The four factors selected were filler and oil ratio and the contents of zinc oxide, antioxidant, and coagent. The filler and oil ratio was kept constant throughout the experiment. The vulcanizates were evaluated for their mechanical properties: tensile strength, elongation, modulus (M100), tear strength, hardness, compression set (70 and 100°C), and crosslink density. Regression equations were generated to model the properties of interest, and response surfaces and contour diagrams were plotted. © 2016, Rubber Division of the American Chemical Society.


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Cite this Research Publication

Ra Rajan, Varghese, Sa, Balachandran, M., and George, K. Ec, “Response surface methodology: A tool for assessing the role of compounding ingredients in peroxide vulcanization of natural rubber”, Rubber Chemistry and Technology, vol. 89, pp. 211-226, 2016.