Diabetes resulting from both genetic and lifestyle factors causes high insulin deficiency or its resistance. As hyperglycemia and decreased insulin secretion and/or its sensitivity appear to be the primary defects associated with diabetes, available treatments focus on reducing those defects. A novel approach of treatment is to target the incretin mimetic hormones, which are secreted by intestinal cells in response to food intake, provoking glucose-dependent insulin secretion from the pancreas. Efficacy and safety studies of dipetidyl peptidase inhibitors (DPP-IV), sitagliptin, vildagliptin and linagliptin provide similar improvements in HbA1c levels when compared with metformin, sulfonylureas or glitazones without contributing to weight gain and hypoglycemia. Caution is required when choosing the gliptin in people with renal or hepatic impairment and with a risk of pancreatitis. The glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) analogues Exenatide and Liraglutide also have positive impact on glycemic control especially when used as a combination therapy. Another upcoming approach is using sodium-glucose co transporter two inhibitors in kidney, by exploring pathophysiology of renal glucose re absorption in the proximal tubule. © 2013.
cited By (since 1996)0; Article in Press
R. E. George and Joseph, S., “A review of newer treatment approaches for type-2 diabetes: Focusing safety and efficacy of incretin based therapy”, Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 2013.