<p>Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is altered in response to different physiological and pathological stimuli. GFAP(+ve)/nestin(+ve) radial glial like Type-1 progenitors are considered to be the resident stem cell population in adult hippocampus. During neurogenesis these Type-1 progenitors matures to GFAP(-ve)/nestin(+ve) Type-2 progenitors and then to Type-3 neuroblasts and finally differentiates into granule cell neurons. In our study, using pilocarpine-induced seizure model, we showed that seizure initiated activation of multiple progenitors in the entire hippocampal area such as DG, CA1 and CA3. Seizure induction resulted in activation of two subtypes of Type-1 progenitors, Type-1a (GFAP(+ve)/nestin(+ve)/BrdU(+ve)) and Type-1b (GFAP(+ve)/nestin(+ve)/BrdU(-ve)). We showed that majority of Type-1b progenitors were undergoing only a transition from a state of dormancy to activated form immediately after seizures rather than proliferating, whereas Type-1a showed maximum proliferation by 3 days post-seizure induction. Type-2 (GFAP(-ve)/nestin(+ve)/BrdU(+ve)) progenitors were few compared to Type-1. Type-3 (DCX(+ve)) progenitors showed increased expression of immature neurons only in DG region by 3 days after seizure induction indicating maturation of progenitors happens only in microenvironment of DG even though progenitors are activated in CA1 and CA3 regions of hippocampus. Also parallel increase in growth factors expression after seizure induction suggests that microenvironmental niche has a profound effect on stimulation of adult neural progenitors.</p>
Dr. Indulekha C. L. Pillai, Sanalkumar, R., Thekkuveettil, A., and James, J., “Seizure induces activation of multiple subtypes of neural progenitors and growth factors in hippocampus with neuronal maturation confined to dentate gyrus”, Biochem Biophys Res Commun, vol. 393, no. 4, pp. 864-71, 2010.