Polymicrobial infections involving S. aureus exhibit enhanced disease severity and morbidity. We reviewed the nature of polymicrobial interactions between S. aureus and other bacterial, fungal and viral co-colonizers. Microbes that were frequently recovered from the infection site with S. aureus are Haemophilus influenzae, Enterococcus faecalis, P. aeruginosa, S. pneumoniae, Corynebacterium sp, Lactobacillus sp, Candida albicans and influenza virus. Detailed analysis of several in vitro and in vivo observations demonstrate that S. aureus exhibits cooperative relations with C. albicans, E. faecalis, H. influenzae and influenza virus and competitive relations with P. aeruginosa, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Lactobacillus sp, and Corynebacterium sp. Both of these interactions influence changes in S. aureus that alter its characteristics in terms of colony formation, protein expressions, pathogenicity and antibiotic susceptibility.
N. Nair, Dr. Raja Biswas, Götz, F., and Biswas, L., “Staphylococcus aureus in polymicrobial infections: impact on pathogenesis”, Infection and Immunity, p. IAI–00059, 2014.