Cancer immunotherapeutic strategies have shifted the focus of cancer treatment from eradicating the tumor cell by conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, to educating the immune system to eliminate tumor, thereby preventing the recurrence of cancer. The understanding of tumor microenvironment and its components which generate an immunosuppressive environment is critical in further developing efficient immunotherapies. In this review, we have classified the current immunotherapies based on their effect in modulating the tumor microenvironment. Additionally, we propose the inclusion of nanotechnology and tissue engineering approaches, which provide unique strategies to enhance the therapeutic efficacy and could lead to developing nano/engineered immunotherapies for improved clinical outcomes. Specifically, we focus on criteria for designing nano/engineered immunotherapies and discuss targeted delivery strategies that can optimize the bioavailability of immunotherapies and, in turn, improve the therapeutic outcomes in the treatment of cancer.
N. Parayath, Padmakumar, S., Nair, S. V., Dr. Deepthy Menon, and Amiji, M. M., “Strategies for Targeting Cancer Immunotherapy Through Modulation of the Tumor Microenvironment”, Regenerative Engineering and Translational Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 29–49, 2019.