Publication Type:

Journal Article


Molecular Carcinogenesis, Volume 52, Number 5, p.392-403 (2013)



antineoplastic activity, antineoplastic agent, Antineoplastic Agents, antiproliferative activity, Antitumor, apoptosis, article, BRCA1 protein, Breast Neoplasms, cell cycle arrest, Cell Cycle Checkpoints, controlled study, death receptor 5, DNA binding, drug mechanism, Drug Screening Assays, estrogen receptor, Estrogen Receptor alpha, female, flow cytometry, gel mobility shift assay, Gene Knockout Techniques, Humans, Membrane Potential, microarray analysis, Mitochondrial, mitochondrial membrane potential, molecular docking, Molecular Docking Simulation, Naphthoquinones, Ovarian Neoplasms, Phytogenic, plumbagin, Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases, priority journal, receptor binding, Response Elements, structure activity relation, Structure-Activity Relationship, suppression subtractive hybridization, Transcriptome, tumor necrosis factor related apoptosis inducing ligand


It has been shown earlier that plumbagin, a naturally occurring naphthaquinone has specific anticancer activity in BRCA1 blocked ovarian cancer cells. Plumbagin can induce estrogen dependent cell signaling and apoptosis in BRCA1 blocked ovarian cancer cells. Being a reactive oxygen species (ROS) generator and apoptosis inducing agent, plumbagin has immense potential as a promising anticancer agent. In this study we analyzed whether there would be increased anticancer activity if the positions of the functional groups on plumbagin were altered and further to analyze the detailed molecular mechanism of action of the lead molecule. Methods like MTT assay, apoptosis analysis by flow cytometry, assessment of mitochondrial membrane potential-Δψm, suppression subtractive hybridization, microarray, molecular docking and estrogen receptor-DNA binding activity by electrophoresis mobility shift assay (EMSA) were adopted for assessing the anticancer activity. Consequently we found that, plumbagin was the most potent anticancer agent when compared to structurally related compounds. The anti-cancer activities were in the order plumbagin>1,4-naphthaquinone>juglone>lawsone>menadione. Molecular docking studies showed that plumbagin could be well docked in the receptor ligand complex of TRAIL-DR5 complexes to activate the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Since the antiproliferative activity of plumbagin could be reduced by inhibiting ERα, we speculated that plumbagin interferes with the binding of ERα to ERE and we confirmed this by EMSA. This study clearly indicates that plumbagin can induce multiple pathways of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in BRCA1 blocked cells compared to unblocked cells. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


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Cite this Research Publication

K. Aa Thasni, Ratheeshkumar, Ta, Rojini, Ga, Sivakumar, K. Ca, Nair, R. Sa, Srinivas, Gb, Banerji, A., Somasundaram, Va, and Srinivas, Pa, “Structure activity relationship of plumbagin in BRCA1 related cancer cells”, Molecular Carcinogenesis, vol. 52, pp. 392-403, 2013.