5G aims at having a higher capacity than current 4G, with a greater density of mobile broadband users, and supporting device to device, massive machine and ultra-reliable communications, lower latency than 4G equipment and lower battery consumption, for better implementation of Internet of Things. In order to connect multiple devices into the network, real time functionality needs to be achieved, thus, the network components should be synchronized with respect to each other. A synchronization methodology consisting of numerous protocols and algorithms need to be included into the system in order achieve real time functionalities, minimal delay and high data rate. As per the previous researches, many algorithms have been formulated to provide synchronization between varying network components. However, while moving into 5G networks, the designed algorithms and protocols will be insufficient to support the rising traffic. Synchronization provided to cell sites can be costly as network grow and small cell proliferate. Hence, smart strategies for synchronization need to be developed that can pave way for the utilization of cost effective backhauls. Various parameters that can affect synchronization include transmission power, propagation effects, packet loss, jitter, security etc. So, to achieve synchronization in a 5G network, algorithms need to be developed that can overcome above effects as well as support upcoming rise in traffic. These algorithms and protocols need to be merged with 5G architecture to come up with an effective layer to layer synchronization methodology.
L. Rajagopal and Raj Dhanesh, “Study of Synchronization Facets for 5G Small Cell Use Case Scenario”, in 2017 2nd International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems (ICCES), 2017.