• Indoor localization is a vital part of autonomous robots. Obtaining accurate indoor localization is difficult in challenging indoor environments where external infrastructures are unreliable and maps keep changing.

  • Triclosan is a widely used biocide to prevent Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreaks in hospitals. Lately, long term exposure to triclosan has resulted in certain strains showing susceptibility and thereby resistance and even enhancement of colonisation has been reported. Adhesion to host tissue is achieved by a large family of staphylococcal surface proteins that bind with varying degrees of specificity to host matrix proteins.

  • Bacteriocins are antimicrobial peptides produced by bacteria that kill or inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Bacteriocins differ from most therapeutic antibiotics in being proteinaceous and generally express a narrow specificity of action against strains of the same or closely related species.

  • Antibiotic resistance represents a looming public health issue across the globe. Strikingly several medical interventions will increase our vulnerability to infection with antibiotic resistant bacteria. Efforts to minimize fecal–orally transmitted pathogens are inadequate in many developing countries.

  • Alpha 1, 5- L endo-arabinase enzyme exhibits a number of industrial and biological applications which includes haze removal in wine and other beverages industry, anti-mycobacterial property, in production of cellulosic ethanol, paper and other food processing industries. The work started with the screening of effective producers of endo arabinase enzyme from different natural sources. We isolated about 78 different fungal isolates from different natural sources and from that through secondary screening we obtained effective 8 organisms which are active producers of endo arabinase enzyme and the enzyme was produced using specific media. Protein was precipitated using ammonium sulphate and purified by anion exchange chromatography. Protein bands were obtained in the 15% SDS gel corresponding to its molecular weight (. Enzyme was characterized and the kinetic study was done. During the study cost effective media was formulated for the production of endo arabinose.

  • The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized using leaf extracts as reducing and stabilizing agent are already reported and evaluated for antibacterial activity against drug resistant bacteria isolates. The effect of extract concentration, synthesis time, pH and temperature on the reaction rate and the shape of the Ag nanoparticles are investigated. The nature of AgNPs synthesized was characterized by UV–vis spectroscopy, Dynamic light scattering method and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The particle size was estimated around 100 nm. The antibacterial potential of synthesized AgNPs was compared with that of aqueous leaf extracts by well diffusion method. The AgNPs at 0.1-30 μg/ml concentration significantly inhibited bacterial growth against multi drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Escherichia coli (E. coli). The synthesized Ag NPs has been developed by using the fresh leaf extract of Bauhinia Acuminata, Cynodon dactylon, Gracinia cambogia and it showed minimum inhibition activity at 0.5 μl.

  • The main focus was on the biogenic routes for synthesis of silver nanoparticles and it paved the way for the search of new biosources capable to reduce metals to their nano sizes. In this line, like plant, microorganisms like bacteria and fungi have been experimented and proved to be successful. But very few reports are available on the use of endophytic microorganisms for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The present study was focused on the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using endophytes, from mangrove plants located at Aayirumthengu mangrove forests on the south west coastal region of Kerala, as a biological alternative to the chemical method. The silver nanoparticle synthesized were confirmed by UV/VIS spectroscopy and were characterized by Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for the analysis of size. The particles obtained were of size around 100 nm. 

  • Aspergillus niger capable of hydrolyzing naringin by growing the fungi at 280 C, on selective synthetic minimal medium, pH 6, containing 1% naringin was selected for the study. Naringinase enzyme was produced using the production media and the enzyme was precipitated using 60% ammonium sulphate. Purification was done using anion exchange chromatography. Enzyme was characterized in respect to pH and temperature. Application study revealed good results.

  • In comparison to the traditional biochemical tests for identification of bacteria, ribotyping is a high throughput method that enables rapid identification of microorganism. Ribotyping involves isolation of genomic DNA, amplification of 16S rRNA and finally sequencing of the variable region to establish the identity of the organisms. In this project bead beating method for the extraction of DNA is used and the products directly used for PCR amplification without any purification step.

  • Microbil Fuel cell is a bio-electrochemical fuel cell where the anode reaction is controlled by microorganisms. The work was carried out on different exoelectricigens and electrodes that could be more efficient and cheaper than the existing ones. A new soil isolate was used for this study to use as the anode respiratory bacteria and different electrodes were tried. The system showed an improved power generation when used the newly obtained organism with different electrodes.

  • Lectins are proteins, ubiquitous in nature and have garnered much attention due to specificity of its interaction with the carbohydrates. Glycosylation is a key step in many cellular processes and with more reports about the change in cell surface carbohydrates in different pathological conditions are more evident, research about exploiting lectins as a therapeutic tool is now at the forefront.

  • Endophytes/ endosymbionts from marine micro algae have recently gained attention as potential sources of bioactive secondary metabolites. In the present study we could isolate and then identify the endophytes by molecular biology methods. The isolation procedure included sterilization (ethanol and sodium hypochlorite) followed by plating on to a medium made in artificial sea water. Different media were used to isolate bacteria and fungus.

  • The use of micro organisms as soil inoculants to promote plant growth and to protect the plant from pests and diseases is an emerging area in sustainable agricultural practices. Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) may promote plant growth directly by facilitating nutrient acquisition or modulating plant hormone levels and indirectly by decreasing the inhibitory effects of various pathogenic agents.

  • Chitin, a linear polymer of β-1,4 linked N-acetylglucosamine is a major structural component of fungal cell wall, exoskeletons of arthropods, internal structures of cephalopods, protozoan cyst walls and helminth eggs. Chitinases  are glycosyl hydrolases that cleaves the β-1,4-glycosidic bonds of chitin. It is present in a wide range of organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, higher plants and animals including mammals and play an important physiological and ecological role.

  • Natural products play a key role in meeting the global demand for new pharmacologically active substances. Endophytes, which live asymptomatically within living plant tissues, are an under explored group of microorganisms and hence studies on these microbes from unique ecosystems offer resources with immense biotechnological potential. In the present study an attempt was made to explore the bioactive potential of the endophytes residing in mangrove plants. These plants have already been reported to have bioactivities against different ailments. Among the 16 endophytic isolates screened, three bacterial and four fungal isolates showed antibacterial activity comparable to that of standard antibiotics. 3 fungal endophytes showed strong antioxidant activity compared to bacterial endophytes. Seven bacterial isolates and one fungal isolate were found to produce glutaminase free L-Asparaginase. One fungal isolate and three bacterial isolates showed significantly higher thrombolytic activity. Isolate RM-S-01 an endophytic  bacteria isolated from the stem of the mangrove Rhizophora mucronata was found to be positive for all the four activities screened in the study.  Therefore we conclude that these endophytes represent new sources of bioactive metabolites. Characterization of these endophytes and purification of active compound in the crude extracts need to be further researched on.

  • Meldrum’s acid has been reported to undergo a condensation reaction with aromatic aldehydes to afford adducts with a host of interesting chemical, physical as well as biological properties. In the present work we have prepared the Meldrum’s acid adduct of furfural which has been screened for antifungal activity. It has been reported that the Furfuryl adduct of Meldrum’s acid undergoes a ring opening reaction with secondary amines at room temperature to afford a new class of  donor-acceptor Stenhouse adducts (DASAs). Our group is trying to explore this property of the prepared derivative for trying out various biological applications.

  • Pectinases and Xylanases are group of enzymes which cause degradation of pectin and xylan respectively. In the present study micro organisms were screened for pectinolytic and xylanolytic properties, their enzyme activity were compared and degumming (bio bleaching) of bio fibre (banana fibre) was carried out with crude enzyme.

  • Plant based biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles has proved to be an effective and novel method of synthesis. Various parts of plants have been investigated for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles. In our present work we present the synthesis of metal nanoparticles using the extract taken from the leaves such as Sesbania grandiflora (Agati), Morinda Citrifolia (Noni) and Tectona Grandis (Teak).

  • DNA origami is the process in which long single-stranded DNA molecules are folded into arbitrary planar nanostructures with the aid of many short staple strands. DNA origami can be used to construct not only arbitrary two-dimensional nanostructures but also nano-sized breadboards for the arraying of nanomaterials or even complicated three-dimensional nano-objects.

  • Carbohydrate binding proteins are one among the least exploited natural product that could be a promising remedy for many problems faced by mankind these days including tumour. Less exploited doesn’t mean it’s less accessible, it’s a kind of protein that we could find in almost every living form. Functions of these proteins include cell adhesion, cellular signalling, glycoprotein synthesis etc. and there are things yet unknown about the protein class, Lectins.

  • Over the years, conjugation of bioactive molecules onto polymer matrices has emerged as a versatile strategy for a wide spectrum of applications including protein purification, waste water management, drug delivery, etc. In this work, we have explored the scope of employing chitosan the second most abundant biopolymer for protein purification via a facile bioconjugation protocol.

  • Incomparison to the traditional biochemical tests, Ribotyping is a high throughput method that enables rapid identification of microorganisms. For the isolation of genomic DNA, conventional method of DNA extraction is used. The DNA thus extracted is PCR ready genomic DNA. This could be directly used for PCR without any purification step. PCR is done to amplify the gene. One set of universal primers were used for the amplification. After amplification, the PCR product was run on agarose gel.

  • Diabetes is a long term prevailing disease which affects millions of people worldwide. It is a condition where the body fails to utilize the ingested glucose. There has been a dire need for the development of low cost yet effective glucose sensing device.

  • A Microbial Fuel Cell(MFC) or Biological fuel cell is a bioelectrochemical system that drives a current by using bacteria and mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature.Usually a microbial cell consists of two electrodes separated by a semi permeable membrane. The main objective of the present study was to work on different exoelectrogen and electrodes that could be more efficient and could be more efficient and could be cheaper than the existing ones.

  • Microfluidics is a multidisciplinary field which integrates physics, chemistry, biology, biotechnology, nanotechnology etc. We are focusing its mechanics as well as biological application in our project. Present work focuses on the behavior of biological macromolecules in a microfluidic device.

  • Aspergillusniger has the ability to produce Naringinase enzyme in a selective media under specific conditions. Naringinase has α-L-rhamnosidase and β-D-glucosidase activities. This hydrolytic enzymatic complex has wide occurrence in nature and has been reported in plants, yeasts, fungi and bacteria. Naringinase is commercially attractive due to its potential usefulness in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  • Bacteriocins are antibacterial proteins produced by bacteria that can kill or inhibit the growth of other bacteria.

  • Treatment of diabetes and its complications is a major challenge in India owing to several issues, including sociocultural factors, lack of appropriate facilities for diabetes care, an inadequate health system, poor monitoring and follow-up of patients, and problems in implementing effective management and educational strategies.

  • Antimicrobial resistance is increasing worldwide and is of particular concern in Gram-negative bacilli where there is a paucity of new and effective antimicrobial agents. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are associated with increased mortality and morbidity, especially in immunocompromised and burns patients respectively.

  • Nowadays researchers are interested in cell patterning and here is a method used for patterning mammalian cells that does not require access to photolithographic capabilities. This work describes a versatile process for forming microstructures of polymers, ceramics and metals.

  • Aspergillus sp. has the ability to produce Naringinase enzyme in a selective media under specific conditions. Naringinase has α-L-rhamnosidase and β-D-glucosidase activities. This hydrolytic enzymatic complex has wide occurrence in nature and has been reported in plants, yeasts, fungi and bacteria. Naringinase is commercially attractive due to its potential usefulness in pharmaceutical and food industries.

  • Peptidoglycan (PG) hydrolases or autolysins are a group of enzymes which degrades bacterial cell wall at specific sites. Staphylococcus aureus produces two major PG hydrolases: major autolysin (AtlA) and Aaa, a autolysin/adhesin protein. Amidase are surface-associated proteins that have both enzymatic and adhesive functions. AtlA is the most predominant autolysin in Staphylococcus aureus. The AltA protein only with an amidase domain and the two repeat sequences R1 and R2 is 62 kDa.

  • The folding of DNA to create nanoscale shapes is known more commonly as DNA origami. DNA origami is a fairly new technique in field of nanobiotechnology. It is mainly used in drug target transfer process and drug delivery. It is also used in making fairly simple designs such as smileys, dolphins, trapezium square etc. This again used to create three dimensional structures too for example cube, capsules etc.

  • Malnutrition is a huge complex problem in developing nations with special reference to South Asia. Ethnically accepted fermented food and beverages, if designed properly, can potentially solve the problem in two ways: providing crucial nutrition and compete out the gut infection. We aim to develop probiotic strains from those food and drinks which are popular and economically affordable in Kerala.

  • Microflora of fish intestines appear to vary with the complexity of the fish digestive system. The genera present in the gut generally seem to be those from the environment or diet which can survive and multiply in the intestinal tract. The main aim of the work is to identify the organism present in the gut of fish through ribotyping technique. To start up with the procedure first standardized the ribotyping technique.

  • Bacillus clausii, a gram positive, spore forming bacteria is widely used a probiotic in preventing and treating various gastrointestinal disorders, are known to colonize in host systems. But Staphylococcus aureus, though gram positive and show ability to colonize in host systems, is pathogenic in nature.

  • Bacteriocins are antibacterial proteins produced by bacteria that can kill or inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Many lactic acid bacteria produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Many bacteriocins have been characterized biochemically or genetically and though there is a basic understanding of their structure, function, biosynthesis and mode of action, many aspects of these compounds are still unknown.

  • Lack of drinking water and proper sanitation are the major causes of enteric infection leading to huge malnutrition and other health problems in developing nations. Solving the sanitation challenge in the developing world will require radically new innovations that are deployable on a large scale. We aim to reduce the bacterial load of waste water by developing bacteriophages from sewage against the enteric pathogens. Bacteriophages are the viruses which infect bacteria and kill them.

  • DNA microarrays have rapidly evolved to become one of the essential tools to examine expression or mutation of thousands of genes simultaneously. There is a need for alternative patterning methods that must be very simple, reproducible, cost-effective, and eventually transferable to any laboratories for their own problematic situations.

  • There are reports on derivatives of azobenzene that exhibit light-triggered association of Bovine Serum Albumin. To this end, an azobenzene-triazine conjugate was prepared by reacting Disperse Orange 3 dye with trichlorotrizaine. This intermediate was then conjugated to the biopolymer chitosan by a facile nucleophilic substitution.

  • As the importance of blood glucose control for both diabetic and non diabetic patients continues to increase, there is a need for advanced glucose sensing technologies. The low accuracy and sensor drift become major problems with in vivo environments especially for enzyme based electrochemical glucose sensors. This study dealt with the use of E.coli as an effective biorecognition element in a whole cell based biosensor. A lac operon based sensor has been decided to develop.

  • The list of pollutants which pose environmental and health hazard are tough for biodegradation, is a long one and involves solvents, wood preservative chemicals, refrigerants, plasticizers, coal tar wastes, pesticides, biphenyls, synthetic fibers, plastics etc. The present study deals with the isolation of plastic degrading microorganisms from the plastic samples, analysis of physical or changes produced during biodegradation and the study of enzymes involved in biodegradation.

  • The current studies provided a direct illustration that electrical power can be generated economically in a two chambered microbial fuel cell. Under the anaerobic condition at the anode, the electrons released by the Proteus vulgaris are directed towards the cathodic chamber through an external circuit. Low cost and less oligodynamicity encouraged the use aluminium as anode. Anaerobic condition of the anodic chamber is achieved by using an air-tight rubber suction outer lid.

  • Bacillus clausii, a gram positive, spore forming bacteria is widely used a probiotic in preventing and treating various gastrointestinal disorders. In order to understand the functioning of this strain as a probiotic, one needs to study the molecular level of interaction of this strain with host systems. Considering the fact that the first level of interaction can happen at the extracellular level, the project aims to characterize extracellular matrix proteins of Bacillus calusii.

  • Flavanoids like naringin and naringenin are functional chemicals with important properties in the field of health care, cosmetics, food and agriculture. Naringin composed of aglycon naringenin and the disaccharide neohespiridose, is the principle bitter flavanone glycoside and the primary bitter component in citrus fruits. Enzymatic hydrolysis is a possibility to overcome the bitterness. This study aimed to isolate Aspergillus sp.

  • The microorganisms in biofilms live in a self-produced matrix of hydrated extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that mainly comprises of polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids and lipids and provide mechanical stability to the biofilms by mediating their adhesion to surfaces and forming a cohesive, three-dimensional polymer network that interconnects and transiently immobilizes biofilm cellsThe mainaim of this study was to analyse the potential use of fungal enzymes like polysaccharidase

  • Pulmonary diseases are very common. The main causative agents of these diseases are Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, haemophilus influenza etc. Medication is the most important treatment of most diseases of pulmonology. The essential oils produced by many plants have been traditionally used for curing respiratory tract infections and are used as ethical medicines for cold. These oils have antimicrobial activity.

  • The aim of this study was to determine the effects of environmental factors on the biofilm formation of Klebsiella pneumoniae , by allowing the organism to grow under different condition. The organism was grown in different media, pH, temperature, time, and substratum and in different body fluids. The amount of biofilm formed was determined using microtiter plate assay. Klebsiella showed more biofilm production in Tryptic soy broth than in Nutrient Borth, LB broth and BHI broth.

  • Dental plaque is the community of microorganisms found on a tooth surface as a biofilm, embedded in a matrix of polymers of host and bacterial origin. Over 400 microbial
    species can be found in the typical adolescent human mouth. The most virulent of these species is Streptococcus mutans, which has been found to be the initiator of most dental caries. As a result, dental caries can be considered one of the most widespread and common infectious disease.

  • Scientific understanding of probiotics and their potential for preventing and treating health conditions is at an early stage. Probiotics is rapidly gaining importance in medical science and food science. We created a review of literature on various aspects of probiotics including mechanism of action, health benefits, side effect, stability and antimicrobial activity.