An introduction to fermentation processes :Microbial biomass, Microbial enzymes, Microbial metabolites, Recombinant products, Transformation processes .The isolation, preservation and improvement of industrially important micro-organisms Screening methods, Storage at reduced temperature, Storage in a dehydrated form, The selection of induced mutants, use of auxotrophs, resistant mutants, revertant mutants, Modification of the permeability, use of recombination systems, protoplast fusion techniques.Fermentation systems Batch culture, Continuous culture, Fed-batch culture, Kinetics of growth and product formation,Design of a fermenter:Basic functions of a fermenter for microbial or animal cell culture, Aseptic operation and containment, Body construction & components, Sensor probes, different types of fermenters, fermenters for animal cell culture, instrumentation and control. Media for industrial fermentations :Typical media, Medium formulation, The addition of precursors and metabolic regulators to media, Antifoams. Sterilization-The design of batch sterilization processes, Calculation of the Del factor during heating and cooling, HTST, The scale up of batch sterilization processes , Filter sterilization of air, Sterilization of fermenter exhaust air, The theory& design of depth filters. The development of inocula for industrial fermentations-Criteria for the transfer of inoculums, The development of inocula for bacterial processes, The development of inocula for mycelial processes. Aeration and agitation -Determination of kla values, Fluid rheology, Factors affecting kla values in fermentation vessels, Power number, Reynold’s number, Scale-up and scale-down, Scale-up of aeration/agitation regimes in stirred tank reactors, The scale-up of air-lift reactors, Scale-down methods . Downstream processing Filtration, Centrifugation, Cell disruption, Liquid-liquid extraction, Chromatography, membrane processes, Drying, Crystallization, Whole broth processing, effluent treatment. Fermentation economics-Space requirements, capital investment, Raw materials, highest-yielding strain, automation, Recovery and purification procedures, Heat and power, effluent discharge, safety guidelines and regulations.Industrial products and process-Microbial enzymes, Fuels and industrial chemicals, Health care products, Food and beverage fermentations, Food additives and supplements, Microbial biomass production biotransformation.