Conventional methods of crop improvement, selection, mutation, polyploidy and clonal selection. Plant tissue culture: - History, Laboratory organization, Sterilization methods, Media preparation, Plant Growth Regulators, Micro propagation, Callus culture, Cell Culture, Protoplast Culture and Fusion, Organogenesis and Somatic embryogenesis. Application of tissue culture for crop improvement in agriculture, horticulture and forestry. Seed storage proteins, , Methods for Plant Conservation, Haploid production: - Anther, Pollen, Embryo and ovule culture and their applications. Somaclonal variations.
Secondary metabolite: Basic biosynthetic pathways, Techniques used in biosynthesis. Use of isotopes. Role of Sec. Metabolites: Defense, Communication in insets, plants, animals, Chemical Ecology, Interaction between organism using secondary metabolites, Production of bio active secondary metabolites by plant tissue culture. Plant genome organization, Organization and expression of chloroplast genome and mitochondrial genome, Cytoplasmic male sterility. Intergenomic interaction, Agrobacterium and crown gall tumors: - Ti plasmid & Ri Plasmid vectors. Mechanism of T-DNA transfer to plants, Agro infection. Plant viral vectors. Direct transformation of plants by physical methods. Genetic engineering in plants:-Selectable markers, Reporter genes and Promoters used in plant vectors. Genetic engineering of plants for bacteria, fungi, virus, pest and herbicide resistance. Production of antibodies, viral antigens and peptide hormones in plants, biodegradable plastics in plants. Applications of secondary metabolites: Isolation and characterization – drug development, Biopesticides, growth regulators, Biofertilizers. Value addition via bio transformation. Biocatalyst, Bio remediation, Bio fuels, Feed stock Chemicals, Designer Chemicals.