Introduction to bonding, Classification of elements in the periodic table, Periodic properties, Types of bonds & factors affecting the bond formation, bond parameters, Polarity of bonds, semi polar bonds, Structure & hybridization of molecules, Hybridization of carbon in organic compounds, dipole moment & its applications, Van der Waals interactions, Hydrophilic & hydrophobic interactions, Importance of hydrogen bonds in bio molecules, Directionality of hydrogen bonding.
Solutions, types of solutions, solvation energy, lattice energy, Equivalent & molecular mass, mole concept, solubility & factors affecting solubility, Expression for concentration of solutions ,polarity of solvents, Importance of dielectric constant of solvents ,solvents other than water, classification of solvents ,Dilution factor, serial dilution, Solute–solvent interactions in solutions. Role of solvents in chromatography.
Equilibrium constant, Le Chatelier’s principle, Acid & bases, strength of acid & bases, pH of aqueous solutions, Acid –base titrations, indicators in titrations, Titration curves, Solubility product & applications, ionic product, Condition for precipitation, Hydrolytic reactions & expression for hydrolytic constant, Buffers, buffer action, Henderson equation & related problems.
Introduction to functional groups, chemical & physical properties, Reaction intermediates in organic chemistry, Electronic effects in organic compounds, Aromaticity with examples,SN1 & SN2 mechanism, Nucleophilic addition & substitution reactions at carbonyl group,E1 & E2 reactions in alcohols, Heterocyclic compounds, Configuration & projection formula, Optical & geometrical isomerism, Tautomerism & its applications