Publications

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2020

Journal Article

Vijay P., Kumaran P., Arun Mamachan Xavier, and Dr. Balagopal Varma R., “Feeding difficulty in an infant with stickler’s syndrome – A case report”, A case report. ContempClin Dent , 2020.

2020

Journal Article

V. Ramanarayanan, Chandrashekar Janakiram, Joseph, J., and Krishnakumar, K., “Oral health care system analysis: A case study from India.”, J Family Med Prim Care, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 1950-1957, 2020.[Abstract]


Objectives: The health system of Kerala, India has won many accolades in having health indicators comparable to developed countries. But oral health has not received its due importance at the policy level. With the burden of oral diseases on the rise in the state, a critical introspection of the existing system is warranted. The objective of this review was to assess the oral health care system in Kerala to provide policy solutions.

Methods: This study adopted a mixed methodological approach that gathered information from the primary and secondary sources, which included health facility surveys, key informant interviews, review of published literature, and websites of governmental and non-governmental bodies. The WHO framework of health system building blocks was adapted for the assessment.

Results: A review of epidemiological studies conducted in Kerala suggests that the prevalence of oral diseases is high with the prevalence of dental caries at the age of 12 years ranging from 37-69%. The state has a dentist population ratio of 1:2200 which is well within the prescribed ratio by WHO (1:7500). Only 2% of dentists in Kerala work with government sector catering to 0.6 million of the approximately 33.4 million population. This point to the absence of oral care in first contact levels like primary health centers. Service delivery is chiefly through the private sector and payment for dental care is predominantly through out-of-pocket expenditure.

Conclusion: Despite having the best health indicators, the oral health system of Kerala is deficient in many aspects. Reorientation of oral health services is required to combat the burden of diseases.

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2020

Journal Article

Vineetha Karuveettil, S Kumar, V., Chandrashekar Janakiram, and Joseph, J., “Effectiveness of a curriculum-based educational intervention on oral health behavior and dental caries experience among Indian schoolchildren.”, J Educ Health Promot, vol. 9, p. 90, 2020.[Abstract]


BACKGROUND: The high incidence of dental diseases among Indian children can be attributed to low awareness regarding the oral health maintenance. The school health curriculum in India is deficient of an oral health component, and there are no organized oral health programs for schoolchildren existing at present. Therefore, the present study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of an oral health curriculum in improving the oral health behavior and dental caries experience in schoolchildren.

METHODS: A nonrandomized trial with pretest/posttest design was conducted among 600 schoolchildren. Two intervention arms were designed with one group receiving health education from a dental health professional and other from a school teacher. The oral health curriculum was customized for three sections of different age groups (lower primary [LP], upper primary [UP], high school [HS]) and implemented for a period of 1 year. Oral health behaviors were recorded using a Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) questionnaire and were evaluated at baseline, 6 months, and 1 year of the educational intervention. Dental caries experience was measured Pre and Post - intervention using deft and decayed, missing, and filled teeth indices. Descriptive statistics were calculated for continuous data, and the change in KAP scores and dental caries experience was analyzed using the repeated measures of ANOVA, independent -tests, and paired -tests.

RESULTS: There were significant improvements in KAP regarding oral health among Indian schoolchildren. Significant reductions in decayed primary teeth were observed in LP and UP schoolchildren post-intervention. However, there was no significant difference in primary outcome between the two intervention arms.

CONCLUSIONS: A curriculum-based health education intervention customized for different age groups was found to be effective in improving oral health behavior and dental caries experience among Indian schoolchildren.

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2020

Journal Article

Radhu Raj, Thankappan, K., Chandrashekar Janakiram, Iyer, S., and Anil Mathew, “Etiopathogenesis of Trismus in Patients With Head and Neck Cancer: An Exploratory Literature Review”, Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction, p. 1943387520917518, 2020.[Abstract]


Trismus refers to a person’s inability to normally open his or her mouth. Trismus can occur as a symptom due to tumor ingrowth or it can occur postsurgical following the treatment for head and neck cancer. Radiation-induced trismus is also a relatively common oral complication. This review aimed at reviewing the etiopathogenesis of trismus in patients with head and neck cancer. Of the 16 publications included after final screening, of which one was a nonrandomized control trial, one a randomized control trial, 6 prospective cohort studies, and 8 retrospective cohort studies. Among them, 6 articles addressed the possible mechanism for trismus related to tumor ingrowth, 8 articles suggested the likely reason for trismus in patients who had undergone radiation therapy and 2 articles addressed the postsurgical cause for trismus. This review highlights the possible involvement of infratemporal fossa as a predetermining factor for developing trismus related to tumor extension. The molecular mechanism of radiation-induced fibrosis is well studied in the literature.

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2020

Journal Article

Chandrashekar Janakiram, Dr. R. Venkitachalam, Fontelo, P., Iafolla, T. J., and Dye, B. A., “Effectiveness of herbal oral care products in reducing dental plaque & gingivitis - a systematic review and meta-analysis.”, BMC Complement Med Ther, vol. 20, no. 1, p. 43, 2020.[Abstract]


BACKGROUND: Despite the large number of trials conducted using herbal oral care products for the reduction of dental plaque or gingivitis, results are conflicting and inconclusive.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of herbal oral care products compared to conventional products in reducing dental plaque and gingivitis adults.

METHODS: We searched the following databases for Randomised controlled trials (RCTs): MEDLINE Ovid, EMBASE Ovid etc. which yielded 493 trails. Of which 24 RCTs comparing herbal toothpaste or mouth rinse with over the counter toothpaste or mouth rinse in adults aged 18 to 65 years were included. Two authors extracted information and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies using Risk of Bias. Meta-analyses using the random-effects model were conducted for four outcomes for tooth paste and mouth rinse respectively. Mean difference (MD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) were used to estimate the effect, with 95% confidence intervals.

RESULTS: A total of 1597 adults participated in 24 RCT studies. These were classified as herbal toothpaste (HTP) (15 trials, 899 participants) and herbal mouth rinse (HMR) (9 trials, 698 participants) compared with non-herbal toothpaste (NHTP) or non-herbal mouth rinse (NHMR). We found that HTP was superior over NHTP (SMD 1.95, 95% CI (0.97-2.93)) in plaque reduction. The long-term use of NHMR was superior in reduction of dental plaque over HMR (SMD -2.61, 95% (CI 4.42-0.80)). From subgroup analysis it showed that HTP was not superior over fluoride toothpaste (SMD 0.99, 95% CI (0.14-2.13)) in reducing dental plaque. However, HTP was favoured over non-fluoride toothpaste (SMD 4.64, 95% CI (2.23-7.05)).

CONCLUSION: For short-term reduction in dental plaque, current evidence suggests that HTP is as effective as compared to NHTP; however, evidence is from low quality studies.

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2020

Journal Article

M. Kumari, Patthi, B., Chandrashekar Janakiram, Singla, A., Malhi, R., and Rajeev, A., “Oral health-related quality of life in well-controlled diabetic patients of Modinagar city: A cross-sectional study”, Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry, vol. 18, p. 54, 2020.[Abstract]


Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease, which is characterized by elevated levels of glucose in the blood. According to the International Diabetes Federation, around 366 million people are currently estimated to have diabetes. Aim: The aim of the study was to find out the association of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) with diabetes among controlled diabetic patients of Modinagar city. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study with a sample of 163 respondents was conducted in a private hospital in Modinagar city, to assess the OHRQoL in a well-controlled diabetic patient. OHRQoL was estimated by the oral health impact profile-20 questionnaire. In addition, general health questionnaire (GHQ) – a 12-item questionnaire was included in this study to distinguish the impact of diabetes on general health of the patient. The analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 21.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Logistic regression was used to determine the association between OHRQoL and diabetes. Correlation between OHQoRL and GHQ was analyzed using Spearman's rho. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The study results showed that 93 patients (57.4%) had good and 69 patients (42.5%) had low OHRQoL. The study also found out a statistically significant association of OHRQoL with diabetes in case of age of the participants (2.375 [1.094–2.528], P = 0.029**), educational level (0.511 [0.268–0.974], P = 0.041**), and frequency of toothbrushing (0.446 [0.208–0.957], P = 0.038**), whereas its association with smoking status (0.527 [0.235–1.182]), duration of disease (0.757 [0.343–1.671]), and mouth dryness (0.692 [0.316–1.513]) was statistically nonsignificant. There was a highly significant correlation between the OHRQoL and general health of the participants (Spearman's rho [r (162) =0.996], whereP < 0.05). Conclusion: There is a good correlation between OHRQoL and general health among controlled diabetic patients. The association between diabetes and OHRQoL is confined only to some of the variables. The study findings emphasize the importance of oral health in maintaining the overall health of diabetic patients.

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2020

Journal Article

A. Rajeev, Patthi, B., Chandrashekar Janakiram, Singla, A., Malhi, R., and Kumari, M., “Influence of the previous dental visit experience in seeking dental care among young adults.”, J Family Med Prim Care, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 609-613, 2020.[Abstract]


Introduction: Dental fear is one of the highly prevalent types of fear which deters patients from seeking dental cares.

Aim: This study aims to assess the influence of a previous dental visit experience for seeking dental care among adults.

Methodology: Young adults ( = 150, 15-26 years) with previous dental visit for care were selected randomly among outpatients' visit in tertiary dental teaching hospital. To assess the influence of previous experience of dental visit in seeking care, we self-administered a Post-traumatic Check List-Civilian Version [posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)], an Autobiographical Memory Questionnaire (AMQ), and a Dental Fear Survey (DFS). The relationship of negative and positive experience of previous dental treatment, dental fear, and symptoms of PTSD was assessed using Pearson's correlations. Spearman's rho was used to find out the correlation between the DFS and PCL-C and history of dental treatment undergone.

Results: The mean score of the DFS and PCL-C was found to be 69.57 and 40.17, respectively. The characteristics of the most negative experience including physical reactions ( = 0.936), emotional intensity ( = 0.935), sight ( = 0.941), smell ( = 0.917), and sound ( = 0.911) of dental treatment showed a significant relationship with dental fear, whereas the characteristics of the most positive memory of dental treatment showed only a few statistically significant associations with dental fear. Most of the symptoms of PTSD also show significant associations ( < 0.05) with characteristics of the most negative memory. Spearman's correlation between the DFS and the PCL-C was also statistically significant, r (150) =0.365, indicating that dental fear is indeed associated with symptoms of PTSD.

Conclusion: There is a significant association between the characteristics of the most negative experiences of dental treatment and increased dental fear in young adults, while positive experiences did not show the inverse relationship with dental fear.

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2020

Journal Article

Chandrashekar Janakiram, Varghese, N., Dr. R. Venkitachalam, Joseph, J., and Vineetha Karuveettil, “Comparison of modified Bass, Fones and normal tooth brushing technique for the efficacy of plaque control in young adults- A randomized clinical trial.”, J Clin Exp Dent, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. e123-e129, 2020.[Abstract]


Background: To compare the anti plaque efficacy of Modified Bass, Fones and Normal brushing techniques in young adults.

Material and Methods: An investigator blinded randomized controlled trial with parallel design was adopted to compare the anti plaque efficacy of three tooth brushing techniques. The study population consisted of 120 dental students aged between 18 and 30 years.

Results: At the baseline, the mean plaque scores were 0.74 ± 0.39, 0.77 ± 0.34 and 0.98 ± 0.36 respectively, for Modified Bass, Fones and Normal brushing technique. After 24 hours without any oral hygiene activity, the plaque scores increased to 1.04 ± 0.30, 1.11 ± 0.32 and 1.21 ± 0.40, respectively. After 1 week of using the intervention, the mean plaque scores were 0.78 ± 0.36, 0.94 ± 0.34 and 1.03 ± 0.43, respectively and increased to 1.13 ± 0.44, 1.14 ± 0.40 and 1.08 ± 0.34 after 28 days. The mean gingival scores were 0.23 ± 0.66, 0.02 ± 0.52 and 0.42 ± 0.74 for Modified Bass, Fones and Normal Brushing technique during baseline visit and after 28 days.

Conclusions: There was a significant reduction in the amount of plaque with the three brushing techniques. Although the short-term outcomes with the Modified Bass method were promising, a long-term effect was not evident. Further, there was no significant difference in plaque control between the three groups. Gingival scores, plaque scores, tooth brushing techniques, young adults.

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2020

Journal Article

Aravind M. S., AH, N., B, V., R, J., and NA, K., “Assessment of Effectiveness of Integrated Teaching in Oral Radiology among Dental Students”, Amrita J Med , pp. 23-16, 2020.

2020

Journal Article

Rahul D. Prabha, Ding, M., Bollen, P., Ditzel, N., Varma, H. K., Nair, P. D., and Kassem, M., “Strontium ion reinforced bioceramic scaffold for load bearing bone regeneration”, Materials Science and Engineering: C, vol. 109, p. 110427, 2020.[Abstract]


Bone defects in load bearing areas require bone reconstruction with strong biomaterial having mechanical characteristics like cortical bone. Bioceramics are biomaterials that support bone formation as well as provide adequate mechanical properties. A strontium substitution of the bioceramic is expected to further increase its bioactivity by enhancing osteogenesis and protect the bone from osteoclastic resorption. The study involves development, characterization and in vivo testing of a newly developed strontium substituted hydroxyapatite based bioceramic scaffold (SrHAB) with sufficient biomechanical properties. Optimal concentration of strontium ion required for enhanced osteogenic differentiation was identified by comparing three compositions of SrHAB scaffold; namely Sr10HAB, Sr30HAB and Sr50 HAB for their Alkaline phosphatase activity in vitro. The selected Sr10HAB scaffold demonstrated in vivo bone formation with osteogenic differentiation of stromal derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from human and ovine sources in ectopic and ovine models. Thus, Sr10HAB scaffold has a potential for application in load bearing bone requirements of orthopaedics and dentistry.

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2020

Journal Article

R. G and Dr. Sarika K., “COVID-ified Dentistry: Clinical Dentistry in COVID Era”, International Journal of Science and Healthcare Research, vol. 5, no. 2, 2020.[Abstract]


“COVID-19”- Corona (CO) Virus (VI) Disease
(D) named as COVID and 19 stand for the year
2019. World Health Organization has declared it
as pandemic and as of now more than 180
countries have been affected and it is spreading
like a wild fire all over the world. No one could
predict the future and a lot of speculations about
the prospects of dentistry when the pandemic
goes untamed. This article is a modest attempt
to understand the Covid 19 crash, confront in
dental scenario when no dental school could
have envisaged such a situation of a prolonged
interlude. Due to the uniqueness of dental
settings, the peril of cross infection may be high.
In India all dental care other than emergency is
suspended at the moment. But as WHO put
forward, learning to live with Covid 19 may be
vital. So in no longer time we need to introduce
social, behavioral changes with effective
infection control protocols to normalize our life
to the best doable extend and to abide by the
guidelines issued by Indian Ministry of Health,
Indian Council for Medical Research and Indian
Dental Association.

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2020

Journal Article

Neelamana S. K., Girija K. L., Thomas V., Venugopal M., Ramachandran S., Asish R., and Dr. Sandhya K. N., “Cervical lymph node evaluation in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients using ultrasound‐guided fine‐needle aspiration cytology – A descriptive diagnostic evaluation study in a tertiary care centre.”, 2020.

2020

Journal Article

Dr. R. Venkitachalam, K, K., J, J., V, R., and C, J., “Oral health care system analysis: A case study from India”, Journal Family Medicine and Primary Care, 2020.[Abstract]


Objectives:

The health system of Kerala, India has won many accolades in having health indicators comparable to developed countries. But oral health has not received its due importance at the policy level. With the burden of oral diseases on the rise in the state, a critical introspection of the existing system is warranted. The objective of this review was to assess the oral health care system in Kerala to provide policy solutions.

Methods:

This study adopted a mixed methodological approach that gathered information from the primary and secondary sources, which included health facility surveys, key informant interviews, review of published literature, and websites of governmental and non-governmental bodies. The WHO framework of health system building blocks was adapted for the assessment.

Results:

A review of epidemiological studies conducted in Kerala suggests that the prevalence of oral diseases is high with the prevalence of dental caries at the age of 12 years ranging from 37-69%. The state has a dentist population ratio of 1:2200 which is well within the prescribed ratio by WHO (1:7500). Only 2% of dentists in Kerala work with government sector catering to 0.6 million of the approximately 33.4 million population. This point to the absence of oral care in first contact levels like primary health centers. Service delivery is chiefly through the private sector and payment for dental care is predominantly through out-of-pocket expenditure.

Conclusion:

Despite having the best health indicators, the oral health system of Kerala is deficient in many aspects. Reorientation of oral health services is required to combat the burden of diseases.

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2020

Journal Article

Dr. R. Venkitachalam, V, C., M, M., B, V., and V, S., “Effect of LASER therapy Vs conventional techniques on clinical and radiographic outcomes of deciduous molar pulpotomy: A systematic review and meta-analysis”, Journal Clinical Experimental Dentistry, 2020.[Abstract]


Background

To systematically review the effectiveness primary molar pulpotomy based on the clinical and radiographic outcomes using lasers over the conventional therapies.

Material and Methods

This systematic review and meta-analysis included Randomized or Quasi-randomized trials comparing LASER with conventional pulpotomy therapies (formocresol, ferric sulphate, MTA or calcium hydroxide) with atleast 6-month follow-up period was included. Risk of bias of included studies was assessed and metanalysis was done using RevMan software.

Results

Of the 1383 articles that were searched, only 14 studies were included for qualitative synthesis and 10 for meta- analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in clinical success rate [OR 0.99, 95%CI (0.19,5.22)] or radiographic success rate [OR 0.77, 95%CI (0.31,1.87)] of LASER therapy compared to Formocresol in primary molar pulpotomy for 6 months. No statistically significant difference were found in clinical success rate [OR 1.04, 95%CI (0.35,3.07)] and radiographic success rate [OR 0.71, 95%CI (0.37,1.35)] at 12 month follow-up also. Comparison of LASER with Ferric Sulphate also did not show a statistically significant difference.

Conclusions

Meta-analysis showed no statistically significant difference in clinical and radiographic outcomes of LASER pulpotomy with conventional pulpotomy (formocresol and ferric sulphate) at 6 and 12 months follow-up. However, there was considerable risk of bias in the included studies.

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2020

Journal Article

Dr. R. Venkitachalam, C, J., P, F., TJ, I., and BA, D., “Effectiveness of herbal oral care products in reducing dental plaque & gingivitis - a systematic review and meta-analysis”, BMC Complement Med Ther , 2020.[Abstract]


Abstract

Background: Despite the large number of trials conducted using herbal oral care products for the reduction of dental plaque or gingivitis, results are conflicting and inconclusive.

Objective: To assess the effectiveness of herbal oral care products compared to conventional products in reducing dental plaque and gingivitis adults.

Methods: We searched the following databases for Randomised controlled trials (RCTs): MEDLINE Ovid, EMBASE Ovid etc. which yielded 493 trails. Of which 24 RCTs comparing herbal toothpaste or mouth rinse with over the counter toothpaste or mouth rinse in adults aged 18 to 65 years were included. Two authors extracted information and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies using Risk of Bias. Meta-analyses using the random-effects model were conducted for four outcomes for tooth paste and mouth rinse respectively. Mean difference (MD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) were used to estimate the effect, with 95% confidence intervals.

Results: A total of 1597 adults participated in 24 RCT studies. These were classified as herbal toothpaste (HTP) (15 trials, 899 participants) and herbal mouth rinse (HMR) (9 trials, 698 participants) compared with non-herbal toothpaste (NHTP) or non-herbal mouth rinse (NHMR). We found that HTP was superior over NHTP (SMD 1.95, 95% CI (0.97-2.93)) in plaque reduction. The long-term use of NHMR was superior in reduction of dental plaque over HMR (SMD -2.61, 95% (CI 4.42-0.80)). From subgroup analysis it showed that HTP was not superior over fluoride toothpaste (SMD 0.99, 95% CI (0.14-2.13)) in reducing dental plaque. However, HTP was favoured over non-fluoride toothpaste (SMD 4.64, 95% CI (2.23-7.05)).

Conclusion: For short-term reduction in dental plaque, current evidence suggests that HTP is as effective as compared to NHTP; however, evidence is from low quality studies.

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2020

Journal Article

B. R. Varma, Krishna S. Kumar, Verghese, R. Susan, and Janardhanan, M., “Unusual Presentation of Lipoma on the Tongue”, BMJ Case Reports CP, vol. 13, 2020.[Abstract]


Lipomas are benign soft tissue neoplasm which rarely occur in the oral cavity. Of the total reported cases of lipoma, only about 15% to 20% of cases have occurred in the head and neck region and the tongue is an even rarer site with only about 4% of the reported cases occurring in that region. They are slow growing and usually asymptomatic in nature. When it grows to a large size, it can hinder the physiological processes that are associated with the area. This case report describes the diagnostic features of tongue lipoma with a brief review of literature.

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2020

Journal Article

Dr. R. Venkitachalam, R, S., and L, P., “Protective masks in dental practice”, Malanadu Dental Journal , no. 9(1), pp. 59-62, 2020.

2020

Journal Article

Dr. Girisankar M., Shekhar, D., Dr. Jaeson Mohanan Painatt, V., D. Ravi, and Shyamsunder, D., “Reactive Plasmacytosis in a Relatively Rare Oral Subsite: A Case Report”, IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS), vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 59-61, 2020.[Abstract]


Reactive Plasmacytosis is a benign, immunologic inflammatory disease whose etiology largely remains speculative and is a diagnosis of exclusion. In this paper, we report a rare case of reactive plasmacytosis diagnosed in a 69-year-old male who reported with the complaint of swelling post dental extraction.Episodes of pain was also experienced and even though radiographs proved futile, diagnosis was reached based on clinical and histopathological examinations. The diagnostic dilemma confronted has been described in this report.

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2020

Journal Article

Dr. Parvathy Ghosh, N. K. Sapna Varma, V. V. Ajith, and Dr. Nihal Jayaprakasan, “Cephalometric reliability of Beta angle for evaluating antero-posterior skeletal discrepancy”, IJDSIR, 2020.

2020

Journal Article

Vineetha Karuveettil, Joseph, J., S, V. Kumar, Sanjeevan, V., Padamadan, H. Joseph, and Varghese, N. Jacob, “The Ominous beginning" Perceptions of Smokeless Tobacco Initiation among the Paniya Tribes of Wayanad: A qualitative Study.”, Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 1615-1622, 2020.[Abstract]


BACKGROUND: The prevalence of tobacco chewing, and related oral mucosal lesions is alarmingly high amongst the Paniya tribes of Wayanad. A deeper understanding of their socio-cultural factors, beliefs, attitudes and behaviours would shed greater insights into the indiscriminate use of smokeless tobacco and related products in this community.

METHODS: Ethnography was the theoretical framework adopted with network and convenience sampling. Fifteen in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions were conducted among the key informants from within the tribal colonies of Cheepram and Madikkunnu. The data was audio recorded and converted into verbatim transcripts. Thematic content analysis was done using an inductive approach performed using computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software (NVivo).

RESULTS: This study is suggestive of parental influence and peer pressure as the key factors for smokeless tobacco initiation amongst the adolescent. There was a greater predisposition for women to be chewers of tobacco, particularly after marriage. The key factors influencing initiation of the habit amongst men include peer pressure and availability of tobacco at workplace. The role of contextual factors such as enculturation, marginalization and perceived health benefits also play a substantial role in development of this habit.

CONCLUSION: Targeted strategies for effective tobacco control can be developed through an understanding of the socio-cultural factors leading to initiation of smokeless tobacco use among disadvantaged communities.

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2019

Journal Article

D. Mary Sam, Kumar, S. P., Varma, B., David, A. P., and Suresh, R., “Benign osteoblastoma of the palate: a rare clinical presentation.”, Oral Radiol, 2019.[Abstract]


Osteoblastoma is a rare, benign type of osteoblastic tumor. It constitutes approximately 1% of all primary bone tumors. Osteoblastoma most commonly affects the long bones; it very rarely affects the jaw bones. Because of its clinical and histological similarity with other bony tumors, such as osteoid osteoma and fibro-osseous lesions, osteoblastoma is a diagnostic challenge. Very few cases of osteoblastoma involving the maxillofacial region have been reported to date. We herein describe a 15-year-old female patient with osteoblastoma that presented as a palatal swelling of 6 months' duration.

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2019

Journal Article

R. D. Prabha, Nair, B. P., Ditzel, N., Kjems, J., Nair, P. D., and Kassem, M., “Strontium functionalized scaffold for bone tissue engineering.”, Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, vol. 94, pp. 509-515, 2019.[Abstract]


Drug functionalized scaffolds are currently being employed to improve local delivery of osteoprotective drugs with the aim of reducing their loading dose as well as unwanted systemic complications. In this study we tested a poly-(ε) caprolactone (PCL)-laponite-strontium ranelate (SRA) composite scaffold (PLS3) for its abilities to support growth and osteogenic differentiation of human marrow derived stromal stem cells (hMSC). The in vitro experiments showed the PLS3 scaffold supported cell growth and osteogenic differentiation. The in vivo implantation of hMSC seeded PLS3 scaffold in immunocompromised mice revealed vascularized ectopic bone formation. PLS3 scaffolds can be useful in bone regenerative applications in the fields of orthopaedics and dentistry.

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2019

Journal Article

A. Aiswarya, Suresh, R., Janardhanan, M., Savithri, V., Aravind, T., and Mathew, L., “An Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Podoplanin Expression in Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma to Explore its Potential to be used as a Predictor for Malignant Transformation.”, J Oral Maxillofac Pathol, vol. 23, no. 1, p. 159, 2019.[Abstract]


<p><b>Background: </b>Oral leukoplakia (OL) is a potentially malignant disorder with increased risk for the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Many cases of OSCC arise from the malignant transformation of preexisting OL. However, the risk of progression into OSCC and the possible prediction of malignant potential of OL remain inconclusive. Recent studies have shown that podoplanin, a mucin-like transmembrane glycoprotein specifically expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells, is expressed in various neoplasms including OSCC, indicating its possible biologic role in tumor cells. In this study, an evaluation of podoplanin expression in OL and OSCC has been carried out to assess its potential role as a biomarker to predict the possibility of malignant transformation in OL cases.</p>

<p><b>Aims and Objectives: </b>To assess the usefulness of podoplanin as a potential biomarker for predicting the risk of malignant transformation in OL, by comparing its immunohistochemical expression in OL and OSCC.</p>

<p><b>Materials and Methods: </b>Archival paraffin-embedded blocks of 25 OL cases with varying grades of dysplasia and 30 OSCC cases showing its varying grades were selected. Sections were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for podoplanin and compared with the control group for evaluation of results in the three groups.</p>

<p><b>Results: </b>A statistically significant increase in podoplanin expression was observed from normal mucosa through OL to OSCC. In the OL cases, the podoplanin staining score progressively increased from mild dysplasia to carcinoma , whereas in OSCC, well-differentiated group showed the maximum expression of podoplanin.</p>

<p><b>Conclusion: </b>The progressive increase in podoplanin expression through the increasing grades of dysplasia in OL is suggestive of an increased risk for malignant transformation with increased expression of podoplanin in OL cases. A high podoplanin expression in the well-differentiated OSCC may indicate a vital role for podoplanin in the early stages of tumorigenesis.</p>

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2019

Journal Article

V. Sanjeevan, Chandrashekar Janakiram, and Joseph, J., “Effectiveness of School-based Dental Screening in Increasing Dental Care Utilization: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis”, Indian J Dent Res, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 117-124, 2019.[Abstract]


Background: School based dental screening has been a popular public health intervention. However, literature provides contrasting evidence regarding effectiveness of such programs on the utilization of dental services.

Objectives: We designed this review to understand the differences in dental attendance rates of children below 15 years of age, receiving a school based dental screening versus those not receiving it.

Material and Methods: The standard methodological procedures prescribed by The Cochrane Collaboration for Systematic review and meta-analysis was employed. An electronic (MEDLINE via PUBMED, Cochrane trial registry, and Google scholar) and a manual search (2016) were made to identify studies.

Results: Five studies met the inclusion criteria, covering a population of 28208 school children of which 21447 were included in the meta-analysis. The review concludes that school based dental screening marginally increases the dental attendance by 16 percent as opposed to a non-screening group (RR 1.16 (95% CI 1.11, 1.21). The quality of evidence was found to be low.

Conclusions: There is evidence of marginally increased dental attendance rate of 16 % following screening. As the quality of evidence was found to be low, the results of this review may be used with caution.

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2019

Journal Article

M. Janardhanan, Suresh, R., Savithri, V., and Veeraraghavan, R., “Extranodal Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma of Maxillary Sinus Presenting as a Palatal Ulcer”, BMJ Case Rep, vol. 12, no. 2, 2019.[Abstract]


A multitude of disease processes ranging from periodontitis to malignancies can lead to formation of solitary ulcer on the palate. Hence solitary ulcers of palate can often be a challenging one to diagnose. We report an interesting case of a diffuse large B cell lymphoma of the maxillary sinus which perforated the palatal bone and presented clinically as a palatal ulcer. Initially the lesion manifested as a small ill-defined swelling in the posterior palatal slope in relation to 24and25 which were mobile and hence was erroneously diagnosed as chronic periodontal abscess. This paper is intended to stress the relevance of including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the differential diagnosis of solitary palatal ulcers as it may be often misdiagnosed as more common reactive or inflammatory lesions.

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2019

Journal Article

Sreekumar P., Kumaran P., Arun Mamachan Xavier, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., and Kumar S. J., “Qualitative and quantitative comparison of the remineralization potential of three suitable materials – An in-vitro SMH & SEM study”, J ClinDiag Res , vol. 13, no. 1, pp. ZC01-ZC04, 2019.

2019

Journal Article

Sathish A. M., Arun Mamachan Xavier, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Kumaran P., and Menon M. M., “Dental age assessment in 8-16 year old girls in a tertiary care hospital in Cochin – a comparative study”, Drug Inv Today , vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 996-999, 2019.[Abstract]


Introduction: Age determination plays a great role in forensic medicine, pediatric endocrinology, and pedodontic treatment planning. It helps in the management of different types of malocclusion in relation to maxillofacial growth. The aim of the study was to determine the dental developmental stages in female population and to test the applicability of Demirjian’s and Nolla’s criteria for maturity scoring in dental age assessment. Materials and Methods: Orthopantomographs of 200 females of 8–16 years were taken and the dental age was calculated using the Demirjian’s and Nolla’s dental age estimation method. Chronological age was also recorded and correlated to the dental ages obtained. Results: A strong correlation was found between chronological and dental ages (P < 0.005). The intraclass correlation coefficient between the two methods showed excellent agreement between the two (P < 0.005). Conclusion: A positive high degree correlation noticed between chronological age, dental age, and both age estimation methods may thus be applicable to the female population in Cochin.

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2019

Journal Article

Resmy Nair, Parvathy Kumaran, Arun Mamachan Xavier, and Dr. Balagopal Varma R., “Knowledge, attitude, and awareness of mothers toward emergency management of dental trauma in high literacy population”, J Int Oral Health, no. 11, pp. 287-292, 2019.

2019

Journal Article

Abraham B., Kumaran P., Arun Mamachan Xavier, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., and Kumar S. J., “Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of Aloe Vera gel with milk and HBSS in maintaining the viability of PDL cells in avulsed teeth”, Drug Inv Today , vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 996-999, 2019.

2019

Journal Article

H. Padamadan Joseph, Dr. R. Venkitachalam, Joseph, J., and Chandrashekar Janakiram, “Health Promoting Schools in Kerala, India.”, Indian J Community Med, vol. 44, no. Suppl 1, pp. S38-S41, 2019.[Abstract]


Introduction: Health promoting school (HPS) is a holistic concept where health and learning coexist. The objective of this study was to assess the health promoting standards of schools in Kerala.

Methodology: A cross-sectional study was designed in Kerala, India, with schools in Kerala as a study unit. A questionnaire which consisted of 37 items across eight domains of the HPS concept was developed and validated. The schools were then graded into compliant and not compliant categories based on scores obtained. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was also done.

Results: Of 120 schools, 90.8% were compliant toward health education domain and only 8.3% were compliant with nutrition services. Majority of schools showed compliance with the other six domains. Average overall scores were 153 (58.8%) with the equal number of schools in both compliant and not compliant categories. There was a significant association between health education and physical education domain with respect to the type of school, i.e., privately managed had six times more chances of being compliant toward health education domain compared to government schools (odds ratio [OR] 6.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10-33.29). Hence, also private schools had two times more chance of being compliant toward physical education compared to government schools (OR 2.52; 95% CI 1.0 - 4.32). Physical education domain showed a significant association with respect to geographic region, i.e., the schools in North Kerala were found to be three times more compliant compared to South Kerala (OR 3.48; 95% CI 1.05-11.53).

Conclusions: Despite the good health and social indicators in Kerala, there is a deficiency in schools promoting health of children. A coordinated effort by the government and the education system can convert existing schools into health promoting.

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2019

Journal Article

Chandrashekar Janakiram, Sanjeevan, V., and Joseph, J., “Intergenerational Transfer of Tobacco Use Behaviour from Parent to Child: A Case Control Study.”, Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 3029-3035, 2019.[Abstract]


BACKGROUND: Parental influence may be a strong modifiable risk factor in the initiation of Tobacco habits among young adults. Parenting style may modify the risk of initiation of Tobacco use.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the intergenerational transfer of Tobacco habits amongst the urban and tribal populations in Kerala.

METHODOLOGY: A hospital based unmatched case control study was undertaken in urban and tribal health centres in Kerala, India. 239 cases (19-30 years of age using any form of Tobacco, 64.10% males) and 256 controls (35.90% males) were enrolled. Parental Tobacco exposure ascertainment was done by conducting in depth interviews using a validated structured questionnaire, parent bonding instrument and life grid technique. Multiple logistic regressions were performed.

RESULTS: The odds of a case initiating the habit of Tobacco use was nearly four times more when the parent was a Tobacco user [adjusted OR 4.26 (95% CI 2.39 - 7.58)] as opposed to controls. Among other covariates examined, low parental bonding with subject (especially father- warmth/care) was a strong risk factor for Tobacco usage [OR 2.17 (95% 1.11 - 4.23)]. The cases had nearly four times the probability of Tobacco uptake compared to controls if the mothers had no formal schooling [adjusted OR of 3.93 (95% CI, 2.12 - 7.26)].

CONCLUSION: Parental use of Tobacco influences the uptake of Tobacco habits in their children, with the father's parenting (low paternal warmth) being a strong risk factor.

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2019

Journal Article

P. Basavaraj, Chandrashekar Janakiram, Rai, M., Singla, A., Malhi, R., and Rajeev, A., “Risk of Having Myocardial Infarction in Periodontal Disease Patients: A Systematic Review”, vol. 17, 2019.[Abstract]


Introduction: Periodontal disease is a common inflammatory disease of the teeth. There is mounting evidence that poor dental health, especially the occurrence of periodontal disease, increases the probability of the occurrence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) which, in turn, is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity throughout the world. Objectives: The study objective was to systematically review the literature and check the risk factors of myocardial infarction (MI) in periodontal disease patients. Materials and Methods: A literature published in PubMed/ Medline, PubMed Central, Scopus, Complementary index, Ebscohost, SciELO, Open DOAR, Science Citation Index, and Web of Science was evaluated. Cross‑sectional studies assessing the prevalence of periodontal disease among MI patients searched above were included. The methodological quality was assessed using a 10‑item ordinal scale for cross‑sectional studies. Two authors extracted the information and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. The search was performed from 1990 till date for all the mentioned databases. There was no lower limit for the analyzed time frame and no language restrictions. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of MI in periodontal disease patients of each study. Results: Out of the total 46 titles appeared, 11 articles fulfilled the criteria and were selected for the review; most of the literature showed an association between MI and periodontal disease. There is a statistically significant increase in MI in periodontal disease patients. CVDs are associated with an increased incidence of periodontal disease, but the association is weak when adjusted with other potential cofounders. The lack of good‑quality studies is a major limitation to assess the association between MI and periodontal diseases. Conclusion: Periodontal disease is mostly associated with MI and CVD. The association between periodontal disease and CVD may be confounded by other cofactors such as age, diabetes mellitus, and smoking. However, the association remains weak, and the quality of study is low.

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2019

Journal Article

Chandrashekar Janakiram, Fontelo, P., Huser, V., Chalmers, N. I., Mitnik, G. Lopez, Brow, A. R., Iafolla, T. J., and Dye, B. A., “Opioid Prescriptions for Acute and Chronic Pain Management Among Medicaid Beneficiaries”, American Journal of Preventive MedicineAmerican Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 57, no. 3, pp. 365 - 373, 2019.[Abstract]


IntroductionMillions of Americans are affected by acute or chronic pain every year. This study investigates opioid prescription patterns for acute and chronic pain management among U.S. Medicaid patients.IntroductionMillions of Americans are affected by acute or chronic pain every year. This study investigates opioid prescription patterns for acute and chronic pain management among U.S. Medicaid patients.

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2019

Journal Article

M. Anil, Chandrashekar Janakiram, Sanjeevan, V., Arun, K., Joseph, J., Raj, S., and Mohan, S., “Reaching the Unreached-A Retrospection of the Nine Year long Oral Rehabilitative Program in the Tribal Hamlets of Kerala”, Indian Journal of Public Health Research & Development, vol. 10, p. 81, 2019.

2019

Journal Article

Chandrashekar Janakiram, Taha, F., Joseph, J., and Dr. R. Venkitachalam, “Assessment of Common Risk Factors Between Oral Diseases and Non-communicable Diseases in a Hospital-based Population in Kerala, India-A Cross-sectional Study”, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 13, pp. 16-20, 2019.[Abstract]


Introduction: Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) have assumed epidemic proportions around the world. Oral diseases also pose tremendous physical and emotional burden on the people. Both these conditions (NCDs and oral diseases), are largely caused by a cluster of risk factors like tobacco, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol (to name a few!). Aim: The objective of the study was to assess the common risk factors between Non- Communicable diseases (cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2 and stroke); and oral diseases. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a sample of 280 patients in four NCDs groups like cardiovascular diseases, pulmonary diseases, diabetes mellitus type 2 and stroke. The risk factors for each of NCDs disease were assessed by their medical records, interview of the Physician and patients. In the same patients, oral disease risk factors were assessed and enumerated by clinical examination and a validated clinical questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were used with the demographic data. Cohen’s Kappa was used to assess the degree of agreement for the risk factor to be common to both the NCDs and oral diseases. Results: History of smoking was the most common risk factor between dental caries and diabetes mellitus type 2 (agreement of 15%).Cardiac valve abnormalities were a common risk factor between dental caries and stroke with a 31% degree of agreement. Diabetes as a common risk factor between dental caries and MI had a degree of agreement of 44%.Asthma and oral diseases (dental caries and periodontal diseases) had obesity, history of smoking and positive family history as common risk factors. Conclusion: Smoking is the most common risk factor across the oral diseases and all the six NCDs included in the study followed by family history, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, high blood pressure, diabetes and excessive alcoholism. Thus, oral disease prevention programs can be integrated with the NCD prevention programs.

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2019

Journal Article

Chandrashekar Janakiram, Chalmers, N. I., Fontelo, P., Huser, V., Mitnik, G. Lopez, Iafolla, T. J., Brow, A. R., and Dye, B. A., “Sex and race or ethnicity disparities in opioid prescriptions for dental diagnoses among patients receiving Medicaid.”, J Am Dent Assoc, vol. 150, no. 10, pp. e135-e144, 2019.[Abstract]


BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to identify specific factors (sex, race or ethnicity, and health care provider type) associated with patient receipt of an opioid prescription after a dental diagnosis.

METHODS: The authors used Medicaid claims dated from January 1, 2013, through September 30, 2015, for 13 U.S. states in this study. The authors identified oral health-related conditions by using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes 520.0 through 529.9.

RESULTS: During the 2013 through 2015 study period, among the more than 1,008,400 Medicaid patients with a dental diagnosis, 19.8% filled an opioid prescription within 14 days of diagnosis. Female patients were 50% more likely to receive an opioid prescription for pain management of a dental condition than were men (odds ratio [OR], 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49 to 1.52). Non-Hispanic whites and African Americans were approximately twice as likely to receive opioids than were Hispanics (OR, 2.12; 95% CI, 2.05 to 2.19; OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.84 to 1.96, respectively). Patients receiving oral health care in an emergency department were more than 7 times more likely to receive an opioid prescription than were patients treated in a dental office (OR, 7.28; 95% CI, 7.13 to 7.43). Patients with a dental condition diagnosed were more than 4 times as likely to receive an opioid from a nurse practitioner as from a dentist (OR, 4.31; 95% CI, 4.19 to 4.44). Opioid use was substantially higher among African American female patients (OR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.93 to 2.10) and non-Hispanic white female patients (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 2.07 to 2.24) than among Hispanic female patients.

CONCLUSIONS: Opioid prescribing patterns differ depending on patient race or ethnicity, sex, and health care provider source in patients with a dental diagnosis in the United States.

PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS: Dentists are providing substantially fewer opioid prescriptions compared with their medical colleagues for pain treatment after a dental diagnosis in the Medicaid population. When considering pain management for dental and related conditions, dentists should continue with conservative prescribing practices as recommended.

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2019

Journal Article

I. Sabu, SK, S., Anil Mathew, S, P., and Chandrashekar Janakiram, “Efficacy of Occlusal Splints Fabricated in Different Temporomandibular Positions for Treatment in Temporomandibular Disorder Patients”, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development , vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 470-476, 2019.

2019

Journal Article

S. SK, Chandrashekar Janakiram, Anil Mathew, Subash, P., and Nair, P., “Efficacy of Occlusal Splints in Managing Temporomandibular Disorders”, Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development, vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 464-476, 2019.

2019

Conference Proceedings

Chandrashekar Janakiram, Fontelo, P., Tranby, E., Mitnik, G., Huser, V., Brow, A., and Dye, T. Iafolla Br, “Opioid Prescriptions for Dental Diagnosis among Medicaid Beneficiaries with Depression”, 97th General Session of the IADR, held in conjunction with the 48th Annual Meeting of the AADR and the 43rd Annual Meeting of the CADR. Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2019.

2019

Journal Article

Aravind M. S., ,, NJ, V., PK, N., Krishna S. Kumar, and R., J., “Role of Oral Physician in Improving Quality Of Life in PostCancer Treated Patients”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 1-44, 2019.

2019

Journal Article

Aravind M. S., U., M., and LP, D., “Sturge-Weber Syndrome - A Case Report”, Int J Sci Stud , vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 88-89, 2019.

2019

Journal Article

Aravind M. S., Ramachandran, A., Jose, R., Tunkiwal, A., R, B. Varma, Nair, P. K., Krishna S. Kumar, and Sam, L. Maria, “Effect of Deprogramming Splint and Occlusal Equilibration on Condylar Position of TMD Patients”, A CBCT assessment, CRANIO, 2019.

2019

Journal Article

A. J, J, B., RA, C., D, N., Krishna S. Kumar, and IE, J., “Oral Lesions Associated with Dengue Fever”, J Indian Acad Oral Med Radiol , pp. 307-10, 2019.

2019

Journal Article

Dr. R. Venkitachalam, Sanjeevan, V., and R, A., “Barriers to Tobacco Cessation Advice among Clinical Dental Students: A cross-sectional study”, Amrita Journal Medicine, 2019.

2019

Journal Article

V. Chandran, R Varma, B., Teena Mary Joy, Dr. R. Venkitachalam, Bhat Sangeetha Govinda, and Menon, M. Madhava, “Parental knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding the importance of primary dentition of their children in Kerala, India”, Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry, vol. 17, p. 247, 2019.

2019

Journal Article

J. Joseph, Y Kumar, S., Kumar, V. S., Vineetha Karuveettil, Padamadan, H. Joseph, Malliga, V., and Dr. R. Venkitachalam, “Curbing oral disease burden in India: Recommendations for integrating dentistry into public Health”, Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry, no. Issue 3, p. Vol. 17, 2019.[Abstract]


To tackle the combined burden of oral diseases and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), a comprehensive and integrated approach by focusing on common modifiable risk factors and social determinants is of importance. Experts from the field of dental public health and public health deliberated on finding common grounds for linking oral health and NCDs during theFirst Amrita International Public Health Conference 2018, Kochi. A symposium on oral health - a public health problem, panel discussion on NCD and oral health and a key note lecture on Universal Oral Health Coverage were conducted as a part of the conference. The following are the highlights of the scientific deliberations held during the conference.

Continuing surveillance of levels and patterns of various oral diseases is required for planning and evaluating community-based health promotion. Unfortunately, India has only a single nation-wide oral health survey to date. Therefore, integration of oral health with NCDs prevention program will be successful only if surveillance of oral disease is also concurrently done.[1] Persistent and consequential oral health inequities exist...

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2019

Journal Article

K. K. Aswini, Dr. R. Venkitachalam, Rejithan, A., Sajeev, R., and Suresh, R., “The effect of gender and clinical experience on shade perception”, Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry, vol. 31, pp. 608-612, 2019.[Abstract]


Abstract Objective Shade matching is a critical procedure in prosthetic dentistry. The correct identification of the shade by the doctor as well as the perception of the shade by the dental technician becomes critical due to the high patient expectations. The current study aims to evaluate the effect of gender and clinical experience on shade perception by dental professionals. Materials and Methods A total of 100 dental professionals with normal color vision who were categorized as dental students, dental doctors, and dental specialists were included in the study. Masked A2 and B2 shades tabs were made to match with a complete set of shade guide. The obtained data were entered, coded, and analyzed using SPSS version 17 for Windows. Results Total number of participants who identified both shade tabs correctly was 44%. There were no statistically significant differences among the gender or the clinical experience with regard to correct identification of shade tabs. Conclusion Within its limitations of fewer number (two) of shade tabs for comparison, the study concludes that multiple opinions may be taken clinically irrespective of the gender or clinical experience as gender and experience do not have a significant role to play for shade matching in prosthetic and restorative dentistry.

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2019

Journal Article

Dr. R. Venkitachalam, A., P., H, C., and J., J., “Prevalence of tobacco use and attitudes towards tobacco cessation counsel-ling among healthcare professionals: A cross sectional study”, Amrita J Med, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 7–11, 2019.

2019

Journal Article

S. K. Chandran, Dr. Jaini J. L., Babu, A. Serene, Anil Mathew, and Keepanasseril, A., “Digital Versus Conventional Impressions in Dentistry: A Systematic Review”, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. ZE01-ZE06, 2019.[Abstract]


Introduction: Accuracy of definitive impressions determines
the quality of final prosthesis to a great extent. In conventional
impression, elastic impression materials are used to replicate
the anatomy and prosthesis is fabricated indirectly. Digital
impression on the other hand gains popularity due to the
advantages like 3D previsualisation, cost effectiveness and
decreased time consumption.
Aim: To review the existing reports, to bring forth the
comprehensive overview on the comparative superiority
of digital impression technique based on accuracy, patient
acceptance, operators preference and time effectiveness when
compared to conventional technique.
Materials and Methods: Search strategy for this review
was based on Population, Intervention, Comparison, and
Outcome(PICO) framework. An electronic search of articles
published from 1980 to 2017 in PubMed, Medline and Cochrane
via Ovid, along with additional hand searches were done.
Data screening and extraction was performed in covidence
systematic reviews of tware. Clinical and preclinical studies and
randomised controlled trials which compared optical impression
with conventional impressions based on accuracy, patient
outcome and operator outcome were included in the study.
Results: A total of 36 articles that complied fully with the
inclusion criteria were evaluated. Among the 24 studies
which compared digital and conventional impressions based
on accuracy, 16 articles reported that digital impressions are
superior to conventional impressions; however no statistical
significance was mentioned. Based on patient preference, four
articles concluded digital impression as the preferred choice.
Eight articles assessed the operator preference and the outcome
was in favour of digital impressions.
Conclusion: This review has concisely summarised that digital
impressions are superior to conventional impressions, without
any statistically significant difference, based on assessment of
accuracy, patient preference and operator preference.

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2019

Journal Article

R. Zarina, Kuriakose, S., Dr. Jaini J. L., D'Souza, A., Padmakumari, B., and Jeeva, P., “Evaluation of Inter-pair Differences in Caries among South Indian Monozygotic Twins: A Cross-sectional Study.”, Int J Clin Pediatr Dent, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 318-324, 2019.[Abstract]


Introduction: Assessment of difference in caries prevalence among twins may help determine the character and the extent of the influence exercised by the environment, as a complement of the genetic constitution.

Aim: To investigate the inter-pair differences in caries prevalence among South Indian monozygotic twins in relation to birth weight, birth order, and gender. Possible correlation among other attributes such as breastfeeding, socioeconomic status, oral habits, frequency of brushing, and sweet intake were also assessed.

Materials and methods: A sample of 40 monozygotic children between the age group of 6 and 12 was selected. The parents were asked to complete the questionnaire and report with their children. Then dental examinations were carried out and the prevalence of dental caries among the twins were assessed.

Results: Among the total samples, 61.5% exhibited caries. Lower birth weight twins showed an increased chance of caries (72.22%), compared to higher birth weight twins (68.18%). Second of the twins had an increased risk of dental caries (70%) compared to the first (60%). 90% of the male twins and 45% of the female twins had caries. The association between dental caries and other variables were also assessed; those who were exclusively breastfed had an increased risk (70%) of caries. Evaluation of socioeconomic status and caries revealed a risk of for the high (65%), middle (62.5%), and lower groups (58.33%). Children without oral habits showed a higher prevalence (73.3%) of caries when compared to those without any habits (50%). It was noticed that the brushing frequency is not related to the severity of caries. The strongest association was noticed between excessive sweet liking and prevalence of dental caries.

Conclusion: The study revealed difference in caries prevalence among monozygotic twins in relation to birth weight, birth order, and gender. It was found that variations in caries prevalence existed with other attributes also.

How to cite this article: Zarina R, Kuriakose S, Evaluation of Inter-pair Differences in Caries among South Indian Monozygotic Twins: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2019;12(4):318-324.

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2019

Journal Article

G. Pai, Dayakar, M., Dr. Anjali R. Nath, and Ashwini, G., “Phytotherapeutics in the management of periodontal disease - A review”, SRM Journal of Research in Dental Sciences, vol. 10, p. 82, 2019.[Abstract]


Phytotherapy is the usage of herbal species with medicinal properties for the management of various diseases. Gingivitis and periodontitis are diseases that involve the role of both the bacteria and the host immune response. Over the years, various researches have shown the importance of herbal products in the management of periodontal diseases. Plants have phytochemicals such as alkaloids, essential oils, avonoids, and tannins that have strong antimicrobial activity and used as an anti‑inammatory, antibiotic, analgesic, and antioxidative agents. The aim of this review is to provide the current literature to validate the traditional use of medicinal plants in the management of periodontal diseases.

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2019

Journal Article

D. MM, PaiPG,, Dr. Anjali R. Nath, and G, A., “A case report on Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma”, International Journal of Current Research, vol. 8, no. 2, 2019.

2019

Journal Article

Dr. Parvathy Ghosh, “Risk factors and treatment modalities for management of obstructive sleep apnea”, JIDAK, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 6-12, 2019.

2019

Journal Article

Dr. Parvathy Ghosh, “Epidemiological study on prevalent risk factors and craniofacial skeletal patterns in Obstructive Sleep Apnea”, Indian Journal of Dental Research- IJDR , 2019.

2019

Journal Article

Krishnapriya V. N., “Effect of particle size of nano-oxides on colour stability and mechanical properties of maxillofacial silicone elastomers – an in vitro study ”, IJP-214/R2, 2019.

2018

Journal Article

S. Vellappally, Kheraif, A. A. Al, Anil, S., Assery, M. K., K Kumar, A., and Divakar, D. Devang, “Analyzing Relationship between Patient and Doctor in Public Dental Health using Particle Memetic Multivariable Logistic Regression Analysis Approach (MLRA2).”, J Med Syst, vol. 42, no. 10, p. 183, 2018.[Abstract]


In the developing technology managing patient and doctor relationship and communication process is one of the critical factors because the patient may take high risk surgery, treatment and diagnosis. Due to the importance of the patient-doctor relationship, in this paper investigate the various aspects of relation between the doctor and dental problem related patients. During the analyzing process, data has been collected from adults who are facing dental problems and other dental injuries in which data has been gathered from 423 individuals by conducting interviews. The gathered data is investigated with the help of particle-memetic multivariable logistic regression analysis method which examines the patient income, dental surgical details, injuries and other factors relationship has been investigated. From the analyzed data, how the patients are treated by doctors examined for improving the relationship between patient and doctor in public dental health aspects.

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2018

Journal Article

Manju V., Anitha A., Dr. Deepthy Menon, Dr. Subramania Iyer K., Shantikumar V Nair, and Dr. Manitha B. Nair, “Nanofibrous yarn reinforced HA-gelatin composite scaffolds promote bone formation in critical sized alveolar defects in rabbit model”, Biomedical Materials, vol. 13, no. 6, p. 065011, 2018.[Abstract]


Alveolar ridge resorption and crestal bone loss necessitate the use of bone graft substitutes for dental rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to compare the bone regenerative property of nanofibre incorporated two composite matrices (nanofibrous sheet layered matrix (CS-S) and nanofibrous yarn reinforced matrix (CS-Y)) in critical sized mandibular defect in a rabbit model (under load bearing scenario). Histological evaluation revealed continuous bone formation in the defect implanted with fibre reinforced scaffolds than those without fibres as well as commercial nanoHA-collagen graft. Interestingly, the mineralisation and the mineral density were significantly higher with nanoyarn reinforced scaffolds. Moreover, the compressive strength of new bone formed from CS-Y scaffolds was almost similar to that of native rabbit mandible. It can be concluded that the mechanical strength provided by three-dimensionally reinforced nanoyarns in the matrix could promote bone formation in load bearing mandibular region, and these can be proposed as a scaffold of choice for alveolar bone augmentation and dental rehabilitation.

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2018

Journal Article

V. Savithri, Dr. Rakesh S., Janardhanan, M., and Thara Aravind, “Metastatic Adenocarcinoma of Mandible: in Search of the Primary”, BMJ Case Rep, vol. 11, no. 1, 2018.[Abstract]


We present here a case of a 64-year-old female patient who reported with a complaint of pain in the chin region of 3-month duration. The radiographs revealed an irregular radiolucent lesion in the anterior part of the mandible. An incisional biopsy was carried out and the microscopy showed features of adenocarcinoma. Suspecting a metastatic lesion, the patient was then sent for whole body examination which showed a mass in the lungs. A whole body scan also showed metastasis to other organs such as kidney, gallbladder and vertebrae. This case is unusual in that the patient complained only of a vague jaw pain with no other systemic symptoms even in the presence of widespread disease.

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2018

Journal Article

A. K. Krishnan, Menon, P., Kumar, K. P. Gireesh, Sreekrishnan, T. P., Garg, M., and Kumar, V. S., “Electrocardiogram-guided technique: An alternative method for confirming central venous catheter tip placement”, Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock, vol. 11, pp. 276-281, 2018.[Abstract]


Background: The current standard followed for assessing central venous catheter (CVC) tip placement location is through radiological confirmation using chest X-ray (CXR). Placement of CVCs under electrocardiogram (ECG) guidance may save cost and time compared to CXR. Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the accurate placement of the CVC tip using anatomical landmark technique with ECG-guided technique. Another objective is to compare CVC placement time and postprocedural complications between the two techniques. Methods and Materials: A total of 144 adult individuals, who were critically ill and required CVC placement in the Emergency Department, were included for the study. Study duration was 6 months. Anatomical landmark and ECG-guided groups were assigned 72 participants each. Analyses were performed using t and Chi square-tests. Results: It was observed that 13 (18%) in the landmark technique were malpositioned as compared to none in the ECG-guided technique (P = 0.000). The landmark group had 22 (30.6%) participants with arrhythmias during the procedure, compared to none in the ECG-guided group (P = 0.000). The landmark group revealed that 30 (41.7%) of the CVC were overinserted and required immediate repositioning, compared to none in the ECG-guided group (P = 0.000). Conclusion: ECG-guided technique was found to be more accurate for CVC tip placement than the anatomical landmark technique. Furthermore, the ECG-guided technique was more time-effective and had less complications than the anatomical landmark technique. Hence, ECG-guided CVC placement is relatively accurate, efficient, and safe and can be considered as an alternative method to conventional radiography for confirmation of CVC tip placement. © 2018 Medknow Publications.All rights reserved.

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2018

Journal Article

M. John, Oommen, S., Jagan, O. Anilkumar, George, S., and Pillai, S., “A study on the circulating genotypes of hepatitis C virus in a tertiary care hospital in Central Kerala.”, Indian J Med Microbiol, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 532-536, 2018.[Abstract]


<p><b>Background: </b>Hepatitis C is an emerging infection in India, which is known to progresses to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The persistence of chronic HCV infection is due to the existence of various genotypes and its various subtypes. There are seven different genotypes of HCV. These genotypes vary in their severity to cause infections as well as their response to treatment.</p>

<p><b>Aim: </b>This study aims at identifying the predominant genotypes of HCV in a population of patients presenting in a tertiary care center in Central Kerala.</p>

<p><b>Settings and Design: </b>This study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital and medical college, located in Central Kerala in the Department of Microbiology from January 2014 to June 2015.The sample size was 600 and a high risk group of patients attending the gastroenterology department, deaddiction centre and health care workers were screened.</p>

<p><b>Materials and Methods: </b>Serum samples were subjected to EIA, either rapid card or ELISA. Serum samples that were positive for HCV antibodies were confirmed by PCR. Twenty seven samples were positive for HCV antibodies by ELISA/rapid card, out of which 16 were confirmed by PCR. These 16 samples were subjected to gene sequencing to identify the genotype.</p>

<p><b>Results: </b>The prevalent genotypes isolated in this study was genotype 1, 3 and 4. Genotype 1 and 3 was predominantly seen transmitted by blood transfusions and multiple hemodialysis. The variability in laboratory parameters like SGOT and SGPT and its ratio with each genotype was also evaluated.</p>

<p><b>Conclusion: </b>To conclude, the occurrence of genotype 4 at a similar level to genotype 1 shows diffusion of new genotype in Kerala.</p>

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2018

Journal Article

M. Janardhanan, Dr. Rakesh S., Savithri, V., and Thara Aravind, “Peripheral Ameloblastoma with Neoplastic Osseous Invasion Versus Peripheral Intraosseous Ameloblastoma: A Challenging Diagnosis”, J Oral Maxillofac Pathol, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 396-400, 2018.[Abstract]


Peripheral ameloblastoma, a soft-tissue analogue of intraosseous ameloblastoma, is a rare odontogenic tumor with histologic characteristics of ameloblastoma. In contrast to conventional ameloblastoma, peripheral ameloblastomas are considered as innocuous lesions which usually do not show invasion of the underlying structures. Rarely, intraosseous ameloblastoma which penetrates the alveolar bone can fuse with the overlying oral epithelium and eventually manifest as an exophytic peripheral lesion. Such lesions which mimic peripheral ameloblastoma both clinically and microscopically are termed as peripheral intraosseous ameloblastoma. As per the existing criteria, soft-tissue ameloblastomas showing bone invasion are strictly excluded from the category of peripheral ameloblastoma and are considered as peripheral intraosseous ameloblastoma. We report a rare case of extraosseous ameloblastoma with clear origin from the superficial epithelium showing the presence of a few odontogenic islands in the underlying bone suggestive of a neoplastic osseous invasion. This paper discusses the diagnostic challenges associated with peripherally occurring ameloblastomas and stresses the need for accurate diagnosis in deciding the treatment modalities

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2018

Journal Article

M. N. S., “Hollow Bulb Obturator with Cast Retainers: a Case Report”, J Indian Prosthodont Soc, vol. 18, no. Suppl 2, p. S100, 2018.

2018

Journal Article

B. A. S., Manju V., and K., G. V., “Effect of chemical disinfectants and accelerated aging on maxillofacial silicone elastomers: An In vitro Study”, Indian Journal of Dental Research , vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 67-73, 2018.[Abstract]


CONTEXT:
Maxillofacial prostheses need frequent refabrication due to degradation of color and deterioration of physical properties of the elastomer.

AIMS:
This study attempted to evaluate the change in color stability, Shore A hardness, and surface roughness of two maxillofacial silicones, A-2186 and Cosmesil M511, when submitted to chemical disinfection and accelerated aging.

SETTINGS AND DESIGN:
This was a comparative in vitro study.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS:
The materials included two silicone elastomers - A-2186 and Cosmesil M511 (Factor II Incorporated) - functional intrinsic red pigment and three disinfectants - Fittydent tablet, chlorhexidine gluconate 4%, and neutral soap. The specimens in each group of elastomer were evaluated initially for color, hardness, and surface roughness, which were further divided into subgroups and subjected to disinfection and accelerated aging. The evaluation of color was performed with the help of an ultraviolet reflectance spectrophotometer. Shore A hardness was evaluated using a durometer and surface roughness, with a digital roughness tester followed by scanning electron microscopy analysis.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: :
Analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparison test were used for statistical analysis.

RESULTS:
Accelerated aging caused a significant decrease in color, increase in Shore A hardness, and variation in surface roughness in both silicone elastomer groups. Chemical disinfection presented significant changes in color and surface roughness whereas no significant effect on Shore hardness, irrespective of the disinfectant used.

CONCLUSIONS:
The maxillofacial silicone elastomers presented deterioration in color, hardening, and significant variations in surface roughness when subjected to chemical disinfection and accelerated aging, which provides a valid baseline for future research.

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2018

Journal Article

Leena Unnikrishn Menon, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Parvathy Kumaran, Arun Mamachan Xavier, Bhat Sangeetha Govinda, and J. Suresh Kumar, “Efficacy of a Calcium Sucrose Phosphate Based Toothpaste in Elevating the Level of Calcium, Phosphate Ions in Saliva and Reducing Plaque: A Clinical Trial.”, Contemp Clin Dent, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 151-157, 2018.[Abstract]


Aim: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of "calcium sucrose phosphate" (CaSP) toothpaste (Enafix 5%) with ordinarily used calcium, phosphate-containing toothpaste in elevating the level of calcium, phosphate ions in saliva. Secondary aims were to evaluate substantivity and plaque-reducing ability of CaSP toothpaste.

Materials and Methods: Thirty study participants of age group 6-13 years were divided into two groups: Group X (Control group) was made to continue brushing with their regularly used calcium, phosphate-containing toothpaste and Group Y (Test group) was allotted CaSP toothpaste. 1 ml of unstimulated saliva was periodically collected from both groups to determine any alteration in the salivary calcium, phosphate level. Parameters such as substantivity and plaque-reducing ability of CaSP toothpaste were also evaluated. Salivary mineral's intergroup comparison was evaluated by Student's -test while its intragroup comparison along with the plaque amount variation in Group Y was evaluated by ANOVA and Tukey's test.

Results: Group Y showed an increase in the salivary calcium level though not statistically significant. The increase was pronounced in samples collected on day 1. Group Y showed a consistent level of calcium, phosphate in samples collected immediately and 6 h postbrushing, indicating its substantivity. In addition, Group Y had an impact in reducing the plaque level when the 1-month plaque score was compared with the 12-month score.

Conclusion: CaSP leads to an increase in the salivary calcium level though it was not statistically significant. Supervised brushing and dietary habits showed a positive effect on both the groups. CaSP toothpaste also showed substantivity and plaque-reducing ability.

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2018

Journal Article

George T., Parvathy Kumaran, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Arun Mamachan Xavier, Janardhanan S. K., and S., G. B., “Salivary Interleukin-6 levels of children with Early Childhood Caries and Ventricular Septal defect – A randomized clinical trial”, J IndSocPedodPrev Dent , vol. 36, pp. 130-134, 2018.

2018

Journal Article

Chandrashekar Janakiram, Taha, F., and Joe, J., “The Efficacy of Plaque Control by Various Toothbrushing Techniques-A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis”, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 12, 2018.[Abstract]


Introduction: Efficient removal of dental plaque plays a key role in the maintenance of oral health. Dental Plaque is responsible for the occurrence of dental caries and periodontal diseases. Aim: To compare the various toothbrushing methods in effective removal of plaque. Materials and Methods: Systematic review with meta-analysis methodology developed by Cochrane Corporation was used in this review. Computerised searches Medline, the Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials and the Google Scholar for randomised controlled trials were searched up to May 2017 to identify appropriate studies. Information regarding methods, participants, interventions, outcome measures and results were independently extracted, in duplicate. A meta-analysis was attempted on two trials. The test group was using ‘modified Bass technique’ and the control group was using ‘horizontal scrub technique’ in both the selected trials. Standard Mean Deviation (SMD) was calculated using random-effects models. Results: In total, 664 unique papers were found, of which seven met the eligibility criteria. The meta-analysis of two studies showed that the modified Bass technique provided significantly better plaque control (SMD=-1.22, p

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2018

Journal Article

Chandrashekar Janakiram, Antony, B., Joseph, J., and Dr. R. Venkitachalam, “Prevalence of Dental Caries in India among the WHO Index Age Groups: A Meta-Analysis”, JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH, vol. 12, 2018.[Abstract]


Introduction: Dental caries is widely prevalent globally but the distribution and severity of dental caries varies across countries and regions. In the absence of surveillance or real time monitoring of dental caries in India, there exist a need to assess the prevalence in the country for planning and implementation of oral health programs. Aim: To assess the combined prevalence and mean DMFT of dental caries in India among the WHO index age groups (5, 12, 15, 35-44 and 65-74 years). Materials and Methods: Epidemiological/point prevalence studies conducted (among index age groups) in various parts of India from January 2000 to April 2016 were retrieved from Pubmed central database using ‘Dental caries’ AND ‘India’ as MeSH terms and information from the only National Oral Health Survey and Fluoride Mapping (2002-2003) in India were used. The combined mean deft/DMFT and pooled prevalence of the dental caries was assessed region wise for each age group. Results: The mean deft/DMFT was 2.36, 1.95, 3.31 and 7.01 among 5, 12, 15 and 65-74 years respectively. The SiC index shows steady increase from 3.36 to 8.11 across the groups. The mean prevalence of dental caries is almost similar at 5 years and 12 years at 49% while it shows steady increase from 15 years (60%) to 35-44 years (78%) and peaks at 65-74 year group (84%). In the Eastern and Western regions of India, the 15 year old had higher caries prevalence and mean DMFT compared to the 12-year-old. Across India, the 60-74-year-old had the highest DMFT of 7.01. In North and South India, 65-74-year-old had the highest caries prevalence of 84% and 85% respectively. Conclusion: Irrespective of age groups, the prevalence of dental caries was found to be high and varied across India. This data could help health policy makers to tailor region specific oral health interventions. © 2018, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

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2018

Journal Article

Chandrashekar Janakiram, Dr. R. Venkitachalam, J, J., S, V., and JV, N., “Comparison of antiplaque efficacy of toothpaste and toothpowder in young adults: A randomized controlled single blinded equivalence trial”, Journal of International Academy of Periodontology , vol. 20, 4 vol., pp. 116-122, 2018.

2018

Journal Article

V. Kumar, Vineetha Karuveettil, Joseph, J., Yeturu, S., Rakesh, P. S., and Chandrashekar Janakiram, “Association of Dental Caries and Oral Health Impact Profile in 12-Year-Old School Children: A Cross-Sectional Study”, JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH, vol. 12, 2018.[Abstract]


Introduction: The healthcare today is undergoing a paradigm shift from biomedical to biopsychosocial approaches. This holds true for dentistry as well, as the ultimate goal of oral health does not mean the mere absence of disease, rather the patients mental and social well-being. Oral health status in children is traditionally assessed by oral examination. But with the emergence of psychosocial factors affecting oral health and vice-versa, it is necessary to assess the subjective component of oral health in order to get a complete picture. Oral health related quality of life questionnaire can be used as a tool for the assessment of the impact of oral health on various dimensions of subjective well-being. Aim: To determine the association between dental caries and oral health impact profile among 12-year-old school children in Ernakulam. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2017 on a representative sample of 281 school children aged 12 years from Ernakulam district. The data regarding caries experience were collected through oral examination using DMFT and deft indices. Oral health related quality of life was evaluated using a self-administered Child Oral Health Impact Profile questionnaire (COHIP). Descriptive statistics were computed for continuous data, whereas for categorical data, the respective frequencies were taken. Pearson’s correlation was used to test the correlation between each domain of questionnaire and decay (D) component of DMFT. Results: The mean COHIP score obtained for this population was 101.58±15.66. The prevalence of dental caries in this population was found to be 71.5%. The mean DMFT and deft scores did not have any significant correlation with the domains of the COHIP questionnaire. The association between the domain school environment and decay component (D) of DMFT was found to be significant (p-value – 0.024). Conclusion: The results are conclusive that dental caries has a negative impact on the oral health related quality of life, thereby leading to loss of school hours and adversely affecting the student’s academic performance. © 2018, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

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2018

Journal Article

V. Naveen Jacob, Dr. R. Venkitachalam, Chandrashekar Janakiram, and Joe, J., “Assessment of Quality of Prescription Writing among Dental and Medical Students and Practitioners in Kerala.”, J Nat Sci Biol Med, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 27-33, 2018.[Abstract]


Background: The medical prescription is a valid and legal document. Prescriptions can also be used as a measure of the quality of medical education, observance of the laws and regulations, and sociocultural beliefs.

Aims: To assess the quality of prescription written by dental and medical students and practitioners.

Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was conducted in three dental and two medical colleges in Kerala covering 345 participants (dental - 235 and medical - 110).

Materials and Methods: Simulation exercise was conducted for drafting a model prescription based on a given clinical condition. The variables were identified based on the model prescription format by the Medical Council of India and were classified into four domains. Points were assigned for each variable.

Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis was performed using descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U-test.

Results and Conclusion: The total scores were found to be higher among dental fraternity (10.93 ± 2.88) to medical (10.81 ± 2.55). The medical house surgeons and postgraduates fared better in the doctor identification domain. Among the dental professionals, there was a significant difference among the undergraduates (mean score = 1.91) and postgraduates (mean score = 1.60) in the doctor identification domain. However, among the medical professionals, in the patient identification domain, house surgeons had a significantly higher score compared to postgraduates. There were no significant differences in quality of prescription writing among medical and dental professionals.

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2018

Conference Proceedings

Chandrashekar Janakiram, “Opioid Prescriptions for Dental Diagnoses Varies by Provider Type and Patient Characteristics in Medicaid Populations”, 2018 National Oral Health Conference . Louisville, Kentucky, 2018.

2018

Conference Proceedings

Chandrashekar Janakiram, “Opioid Prescriptions for Dental Diagnosis among Medicaid Populations”, 35th Academy Health 2018 Annual research meeting Seattle . National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research National Institutes of Health Gender and Racial Disparities, USA, 2018.

2018

Conference Paper

Chandrashekar Janakiram and Chalmers, N. I., “Gender and Racial Disparities in Opioid Prescriptions for Dental Diagnosis Among Medicaid Populations”, in Podium Presentation 2018 ARM Annual Meeting of Academy Health, USA , 2018, vol. 149, no. 4, pp. 246-255.

2018

Journal Article

Aravind M. S., J B, V., N, V., L, S., and PK, N., “Ectopic Presentation of Erythema Nigrans”, Int J Sci Stud , vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1-2, 2018.

2018

Journal Article

Aravind M. S., A, R., B, V., R, J., and LM, S., “Allergic Contact Stomatitis (stomatitis venenata): A Case Report of Oral Hypersensitivity Reaction to Tooth Paste”, Indian J Case Reports, 2018.

2018

Journal Article

A. J, IE, J., AC, R., Nappali,, Krishna S. Kumar, and J, B., “Dental practitioner’s Opinion and Methods in the management of Oral Mucosal lesions and TMJ Disorders in Dakshina Kannada District:A Questionnaire based survey”, Int Healthc Res J, vol. 2, no. 7, pp. 168-175, 2018.

2018

Journal Article

A. J, Krishna S. Kumar, D, N., and IE, J., “Maxillary Odontogenic Keratocyst Masquerading A Periapical Cyst”, Int Healthc Res J, vol. 2, no. 6, pp. 133-137, 2018.

2018

Journal Article

A. J, Krishna S. Kumar, RA, C., and J, B., “Bilateral Nasolabial Cyst: A Rare Case”, BMJ Case Rep, 2018.

2018

Journal Article

Dr. Sarika K., “Skeletal Maturity Indicators – A review”, International Journal of Innovative Research in Dental Sciences, vol. 3, no. 5, 2018.

2018

Journal Article

A K Nabeel, Jesmith Elsa Jacob, Tinky Bose, K P Sangeetha, Dr. Sandhya K. N., and Anita Balan, “Great Radiologic Imitators: Arteriovenous Malformation of Mandible - A Case Series.”, Contemp Clin Dent, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 502-508, 2018.[Abstract]


An arteriovenous malformation (AVM) is a vascular malformation characterized by anomalous communications between arteries and veins without the normal intervening capillary bed. AVMs of jaw are extremely rare conditions that can give rise to dreadful complications if handled carelessly. Fifty percent of all intraosseous AVMs occur in the maxillofacial region and are extremely infrequent in the mandible. Only six cases of extraosseous submandibular AVMs have been mentioned in the literature. Three cases of AVMs involving the mandible, with a massive case involving both the mandible and submandibular region is reported. To the best of our knowledge, only one case is documented as a combined AVM involving both the mandible and submandibular region in literature.

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2018

Journal Article

Dr. R. Venkitachalam, “Softwares and web-based applications: Essential tools for Researchers.”, Malanadu Dental Journal , no. 7(2), pp. 80-85, 2018.

2018

Journal Article

P. Jeeva, Gopinathan, A., Dr. Jaini J. L., Zarina, R., and Sibi, A., “Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf Extracts of Moringa, Laxmitaru, Mullatha, and Communist Paccha against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans : An in vitro Study”, International Journal of Preventive and Clinical Dental Research, vol. 5, pp. 11-14, 2018.

2018

Journal Article

P. Pudukadan, Alapatt, J., Manjuran, N., Dr. Jaini J. L., Shenoy, V., and Kunnamkumarath, E., “Evaluation of Temporization Period with Zinc Oxide Eugenol and Non-eugenol Cement on Bond Strength of Self-adhesive Dual-cure Resin Cement.”, International Journal of Oral Care & Research, vol. 6, pp. 69-76, 2018.[Abstract]


Context: Eugenol-based cements are used for temporization;
however, they affect the physical properties of resin cements.
Aim: To evaluate effect of eugenol and non-eugenol-containing
temporary cements on the tensile bond strength of self-adhesive
dual-cure resin cement (SARC) at intervals of 24 hours, 7 days,
and 14 days.
Settings and design: Preclinical in vitro material study.
Materials and methods: A total of 105 freshly extracted, intact,
maxillary premolars were divided into seven groups consisting
of 15 teeth each followed by preparation to receive cast metal
crowns. They were temporized using eugenol cement in groups II,
III, and IV, non-eugenol cement in groups V, VI, and VII, and stored
in distilled water for specific periods. Provisional cement was
removed using ultrasonic scaler and cleaned with pumice-water
slurry. Thereafter, the cast crowns were cemented using SARC.46
The tensile bond strength of SARC in the respective groups were
tested on the universal testing machine using “Crown pull test”
at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure.
Results: Results were analyzed using analysis of variance
(ANOVA) and Tukey’s post hoc test. After 24 hours, significant
reduction in the bond strength was observed in both eugenol
and non-eugenol groups. After 7 and 14 days, the reduction in
the bond strength was insignificant. No significant differences
were found in the bond strengths of SARC among eugenol and
non-eugenol groups.
Conclusion: The study showed that waiting for a week before
performing cementation with SARC when using eugenol or
non-eugenol provisional cements displayed favorable results.

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2018

Journal Article

Dr. Jaini J. L., “Marginal Accuracy Analysis of Cast Base Metal Implant Frame Works- An In Vitro Study.”, IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences, 2018.

2018

Journal Article

J. Alapatt, Manjuran, N., Dr. Jaini J. L., Sreelal, T., Karunakaran, H., and Ravichandran, R., “Effect of Diameter and Surface Treatments on the Retentivity of New Esthetic Posts”, International Journal of Preventive and Clinical Dental Research, vol. 5, pp. 68-75, 2018.

2018

Journal Article

D. MM, G, A., George,, and Dr. Anjali R. Nath, “Pyogenic Granuloma mimicking Capillary Hemangioma - A Case Report”, International Journal of Current Research, vol. 7, no. 8, 2018.

2017

Journal Article

Dr. Chandrashekar Janakiram, Joseph, J., and Antony, B., “Career satisfaction among dental public health specialists in India – A cross-sectional survey”, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 11, pp. ZC97-ZC101, 2017.[Abstract]


Introduction: The satisfaction in career is an important indicator for the growth of the discipline and the profession. An empirical investigation of satisfaction in career and amendments needed in course and profession may help in growth of discipline. Aim: To assess career satisfaction among Dental Public Health (DPH) specialists working in India and analyze their perspective on changes required in the profession. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire for this cross-sectional survey was adapted from Minnesota Job Satisfaction Survey which included 40 enquiries to understand the reasons for choosing public health dentistry as career, competencies of public health dentists, satisfaction as a public health dentist and changes required in the profession. The questions were both open and closed end type. Updated electronic mail details of all registered public health dentists were collected from the head office of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry. Each participant was contacted by electronic mail and consent to participate were sought. Reminders were e-mailed thrice during three months. A total of 580 participants were contacted. A total of 183 responses were received, among which 179 consented. Results: Nearly half of the respondents felt they are yet to achieve the accomplishment from the present career as public health dentist. Only 46.9% felt that there is advancement in the profession as career. Nearly three-fourth of respondents could not attain recognition as a public health dentist. A 45.8% of respondents were of the opinion that career in public health dentistry would provide them a steady employment and 53.1% of public health dentists would envision as satisfied in their career in next 10 years. Nearly 85% felt public health dentistry training needs a major course correction. Conclusion: There has been some reservation or skepticism about the future of the specialty as the jobs are in declining stage. This information provides insight about success and failures of public health dentistry as profession which would be needed for planning the dental manpower. © 2017, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

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2017

Journal Article

Chandrashekar Janakiram, Kumar, C. V. Deepan, and Joseph, J., “Xylitol in preventing dental caries: A systematic review and meta-analyses”, Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine, vol. 8, pp. 16-21, 2017.[Abstract]


Xylitol is a sugar alcohol having the properties that reduce levels of mutans streptococci (MS) in the plaque and saliva. To assess the role of xylitol in preventing dental caries. Systematic review and meta-analysis developed by Cochrane cooperation were adapted. Electronic search was carried out in PubMed through the period up to 2014. Included clinical studies were done on (1) humans (2) participants include both individuals and as pairs (mother-child) (3) participants using orthodontic appliances (4) xylitol dispensed in any form (5) compare the effect of xylitol on dental caries and on other phenotype that determines the preventive effect on dental caries, such as decayed, missing, and filled (DMF/dmf) and salivary or plaque MS level. Twenty articles of the 477 articles initially identified. Among 20 studies indexed, 16 articles were accessed, systematically reviewed, and the meta-analysis was carried out. The evaluation of quality of the studies was done using risk of bias assessment tool. The quality of the studies was high risk and unclear risk for six and five trials. The meta-analysis shows a reduction in DMF/dmf with the standard mean (SM) of -1.09 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], -1.34, -0.83) comparing xylitol to all controls. The effect of DMF/dmf reduction by xylitol to fluoride varnish was with the SM of -1.87 (95% CI, -2.89, -0.84). The subgroup analysis, there was a reduction in MS count with SM of 0.30 (95% CI, 0.05, 0.56) when compared with all other caries preventive strategies; however, it was insignificant. Xylitol was found to be an effective strategy as self-applied caries preventive agent. © 2017 Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine.

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2017

Journal Article

S. V., Chandrashekar Janakiram, Joseph, J., S.K., Y., and Dr. R. Venkitachalam, “Letter to the editor: ‘Long-term effectiveness of school-based children oral hygiene program on oral health after 10-year follow-up’ by Lai et al. (2016)”, Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, vol. 45, pp. 189-190, 2017.[Abstract]


‘Long-term effectiveness of school-based children oral hygiene program on oral health after 10-year follow-up

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2017

Journal Article

T. Aravind, Janardhanan, M., Dr. Rakesh S., Savithri, V., and Unnikrishnan, U. G., “Immunolocalization of osteopontin in dysplasias and squamous cell carcinomas arising from oral epithelium”, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, vol. 21, pp. 18-23, 2017.[Abstract]


Background: Early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains one of the most efficient ways to ensure patient survival and improved quality of life. Although specific biomarkers related to OSCC have been investigated, a useful biomarker that assesses the transition potential of potentially malignant lesion to OSCC remains to be found. Osteopontin (OPN) has been recognized as an important factor in tumorigenesis and their expression in OSCC have been investigated earlier. In the present study, evaluation of OPN expression in premalignant and malignant lesions has been carried out to assess their possible role as a biomarker in the early diagnosis and prognosis of OSCC. Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the role of OPN as a biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis of OSCC. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of archival paraffin-embedded blocks of ten cases each of varying grades of OSCC, oral epithelial dysplasias and epithelial hyperplasias. Sections were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for the biomarker OPN. Results: A positive OPN expression was noticed in epithelial dysplasias and SCC arising from the oral epithelium. A progressive increase in the intensity of staining was seen with increasing grades of dysplasias and a decrease in OPN expression with an increase in grades was observed in OSCC. Conclusion: The expression of OPN in full thickness of epithelium in severe dysplasias, carcinoma in situ, and in the superficial epithelium of OSCC suggest the possibility of considering OPN expression in full epithelial thickness in dysplasias as an indicator for malignant transformation. © 2017 Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

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2017

Journal Article

Dr. Jaeson Mohanan Painatt, Veeraraghavan, R., and Puthalath, U., “Temporomandibular joint dislocation in an 18-month-old child”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 155-157, 2017.[Abstract]


Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation in children is extremely rare. In our case, an 18-month-old child presented with a history of inability to close her mouth. To confirm the clinical diagnosis, a computed tomogram was taken. Clinical examination and X-ray of the TMJ revealed bilateral TMJ dislocation. Bilateral TMJ reduction was achieved manually after giving analgesia and procedural sedation. This is one of the few case reports of an acute dislocation in a toddler.

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2017

Journal Article

Dr. Jaeson Mohanan Painatt, Veeraraghavan, R., Puthalath, U., and Subash, P., “Zygomatic implants in traumatic loss of maxilla”, International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeryInternational Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 46, no. 1, p. 271, 2017.[Abstract]


Maxillary defects that occur after trauma are highly challenging for the maxillofacial surgeon to reconstruct and rehabilitate. The aim of rehabilitation is not only to provide a cosmetically acceptable appearance, but also to restore oral functions. Zygomatic implants are not only an alternative to complex free or vascularised bone grafting but are also used when these techniques have failed. However, implant placement in the zygoma is difficult due to the variable anatomy following trauma in the maxillofacial region.

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2017

Journal Article

Dr. Jaeson Mohanan Painatt, Veeraraghavan, R., Puthalath, U., Peter, S., Rao, L. P., and Kuriakose, M., “Profile Changes and Stability following Distraction Osteogenesis with Rigid External Distraction in Adult Cleft Lip and Palate Deformities”, Contemporary clinical dentistry, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 236 - 243, 2017.[Abstract]


OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to analyze the hard and soft-tissue profile changes as well as the upper airway changes after distraction osteogenesis (DO) using rigid external distraction device in adult cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients. The study also evaluates the stability of the surgical result. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken: Predistraction (T1), postdistraction (T2), and 1 year after distractor removal (T3). The treatment changes (T1 vs. T2) and the stability (T2 vs. T3) were analyzed. The overall treatment changes after 1 year were also evaluated (T1 vs. T3). The lateral cephalograms were digitally analyzed with the help of software named Dolphin. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks test was used, and the probability value (P value) of 0.05 was considered as statistically significant level. RESULTS: Eleven adult patients with CLP were retrospectively analyzed. After distraction, there was a significant mean maxillary advancement of 14 mm (P < 0.01) from a T1 value of 73.54 ± 10.38 to a T2 value of 88.2 ± 10.49. The lower facial height and the incisor exposure were significantly increased. The nasolabial angle had a significant improvement of 24.5° (P < 0.01) from a T1 value of 56.6 ± 21.03 to a T2 value of 81.18 ± 14.4.The upper airway was significantly improved by 3.7 mm (P < 0.01) with a T1 value of 13.5 ± 3.8 to a T2 value of 17.2 ± 3.66. After 1-year follow-up, there was a significant maxillary relapse of 3.20 mm (P < 0.05) from a T2 value of 8.29 ± 6.84 to a T3 value of 5.09 ± 5.59. However, the soft-tissue profile and upper airway remained stable. CONCLUSION: The clinician should have an understanding of the related hard and soft tissues as well as airway changes which may assist him when planning for maxillary advancement for CLP patients with DO. There were significant improvements immediately after distraction, but during the 1-year follow-up, some relapse was seen. This stressed on the need for overcorrection of about 35%-40% for adult CLP patients.

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2017

Journal Article

Dr. Jaeson Mohanan Painatt, “A rare subcutaneous benign tumor ”, Kerala Dental Journal (KDJ), vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 243-245, 2017.

2017

Journal Article

A. V., Balakrishnan, B., Dr. Jaeson Mohanan Painatt, and P., J., “A Rare Case Report of Squamous Odontogenic Tumor”, IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS), vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 85-87, 2017.[Abstract]


The squamous odontogenic tumor (SOT) is a rare, benign, locally infiltrative neoplasm of the jaws thatappears to originate from the rests of Malassez, gingival surface epithelium or from remnants of the dental lamina. The clinical presentation of the lesion is often asymptomatic, yet it can present with symptoms of pain and mobility of adjacent teeth... CBCT images show hypodense expansive lesions in between the left premolars .Excision of the lesion was performed and sent for microscopicanalysis , which is distinguished by multiple islands of squamous epithelial cells surrounded by mature connective tissue stroma , consistent with the diagnosis of SOT.

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2017

Journal Article

N. Raakesh, Ravi, V., Ushass, P., Dr. Jaeson Mohanan Painatt, V Kumar, M., Sasikumar, P., Subhash, A. K., and Navya, P., “Role of Corticosteroids in reducing Postoperative Swelling, Pain, and Trismus following Surgical Extraction of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars”, International Journal of Oral Care & Research, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 265-269, 2017.[Abstract]


Surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molar is a common procedure in routine maxillofacial practice. This procedure is generally followed by pain, trismus, and swell-ing. Various methods have been attempted to reduce these unfavorable postoperative sequelae and to improve patient comfort in postoperative period. Use of steroids is one of the commonly followed practices. In our study, we compare the ef-ciency of steroids given preoperatively in reducing postoperative sequelae, when given in equivalent steroid doses.

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2017

Journal Article

R. Sreeraj, Krishnan, V., Manju V., and Thankappan, K., “Comparison of Masticatory and Swallowing Functional Outcomes in Surgically and Prosthetically Rehabilitated Maxillectomy Patients.”, The International Journal of Prosthodontics, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 573–576, 2017.[Abstract]


PURPOSE:
This study compared masticatory and swallowing functional outcomes in maxillectomy patients who underwent surgical and prosthetic rehabilitation or prosthetic rehabilitation only following surgical resection.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:
This comparative cross-sectional study involved 20 maxillectomy patients and compared their masticatory and swallowing functions following combined surgical and prosthodontic management vs an exclusively prosthodontic approach. Masticatory performance was measured by an originally modified sieve method using hydrocolloid material, and video fluoroscopic examination was employed for swallowing assessments.

RESULTS:
Masticatory performance was significantly better in the patient group treated with flaps and removable denture prostheses compared to patients treated with obturator prosthesis alone. Swallowing outcomes were comparable in both groups.

CONCLUSION:
Flap reconstruction followed by an obturator prosthesis seems to be a preferable option when planning for functional rehabilitation in maxillectomy patients. Further research is needed to substantiate the functional outcomes noted in this study.

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2017

Journal Article

N. Renahan, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Parvathy Kumaran, and Arun Mamachan Xavier, “Unique Approach to Dental Management of Children with Hearing Impairment.”, Int J Clin Pediatr Dent, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 107-110, 2017.[Abstract]


The number of deaf children has dramatically increased in the past few decades. These children present to the pediatric dentist a unique set of challenges mostly pertaining to the establishment of communication with them. There have been very few attempts in the past to break down these challenges and formulate a strategy on how to manage them effectively. This is a case report of a child who was successfully managed using two different modes of communication. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages are mentioned, and a common strategy incorporating the positives of both the methods has been devised.

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2017

Journal Article

D. C Kumar, Joseph, J., Chandrashekar Janakiram, and Gopinath, M., “Health-related quality of life and the perceived palliative care needs among oral cancer patients”, Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 327 - 333, 2017.[Abstract]


Introduction: Survival rate is the only outcome measure for cancer management which fails to recognize the impact of on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Optimizing QoL before a timely, dignified, and peaceful death is the primary aim of good palliative care. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the HRQoL of oral cancer patients and explore whether there is a need for professional palliative services to focus on social, psychological, and spiritual well-being. Materials and Methods: A mixed methodological approach was adopted. A validated closed-ended questionnaire was used to assess the HRQoL, and in-depth interviews were conducted to assess the palliative care needs. The study encompassed of 876 participants, among which 317 consented for administration of questionnaire and 12 participants consented for interview. Karl Pearson's coefficient test was used to find the association between the well-being score and demographic factors. Results: The general well-being of these patients was compromised. Elderly participants experienced bad (31%) general well-being. Semi-skilled (7%) and unskilled workers (5%) experienced bad general well-being while unemployed (13%) and retired (13%) experienced good general well-being in majority. Conclusions: HRQoLs are low in oral cancer patients, and early referral for palliative care might increase the QoL.

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2017

Journal Article

Chandrashekar Janakiram, Basapathy, R., Farheen, T., Dr. R. Venkitachalam, AKALGUD, H., and Kadanakuppe, S., “Equity in Oral Healthcare in India: A Review on Health System Analysis”, Economic and political weekly, vol. 52, p. 82, 2017.[Abstract]


Oral health is a critical but overlooked component of overall health and well-being. Although there have been impressive advances in both dental technology and in our scientific understanding of oral diseases, significant disparities in both the prevalence of dental disease and access to dental care among population subgroups remain. This paper attempts to elaborate on the nature of oral health equity in India by exploring the process and trajectories of oral health inequity.

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2017

Journal Article

Chandrashekar Janakiram, Joseph, J., and Antony, B., “Career Satisfaction Among Dental Public Health Specialists in India - A Cross-sectional Survey.”, J Clin Diagn Res, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. ZC97-ZC101, 2017.[Abstract]


INTRODUCTION: The satisfaction in career is an important indicator for the growth of the discipline and the profession. An empirical investigation of satisfaction in career and amendments needed in course and profession may help in growth of discipline.

AIM: To assess career satisfaction among Dental Public Health (DPH) specialists working in India and analyze their perspective on changes required in the profession.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Questionnaire for this cross-sectional survey was adapted from Minnesota Job Satisfaction Survey which included 40 enquiries to understand the reasons for choosing public health dentistry as career, competencies of public health dentists, satisfaction as a public health dentist and changes required in the profession. The questions were both open and closed end type. Updated electronic mail details of all registered public health dentists were collected from the head office of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry. Each participant was contacted by electronic mail and consent to participate were sought. Reminders were e-mailed thrice during three months. A total of 580 participants were contacted. A total of 183 responses were received, among which 179 consented.

RESULTS: Nearly half of the respondents felt they are yet to achieve the accomplishment from the present career as public health dentist. Only 46.9% felt that there is advancement in the profession as career. Nearly three-fourth of respondents could not attain recognition as a public health dentist. A 45.8% of respondents were of the opinion that career in public health dentistry would provide them a steady employment and 53.1% of public health dentists would envision as satisfied in their career in next 10 years. Nearly 85% felt public health dentistry training needs a major course correction.

CONCLUSION: There has been some reservation or skepticism about the future of the specialty as the jobs are in declining stage. This information provides insight about success and failures of public health dentistry as profession which would be needed for planning the dental manpower.

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2017

Journal Article

Anil Mathew, Chandrashekar Janakiram, Radhu Raj, and P., D., “Trismus: Aetiology and Management”, Journal of Prosthetic and Implant Dentistry , vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 52-58, 2017.

2017

Journal Article

S. SK, Anil Mathew, and Chandrashekar Janakiram, “Temporomandibular disorders in Edentulous”, Journal of Prosthetic and Implant Dentistry , vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 44-51, 2017.

2017

Journal Article

T. AE, B, V., S, K., R, J., ChandyM,, SP, K., and Aravind M. S., “Evaluation of Efficacy of 1% Curcuminoids as Local Application in Management of Oral Lichen Planus”, Interventional Study.JCDR , vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 89-93, 2017.

2017

Journal Article

Aravind M. S., AP, D., B, V., S, K., and DM, S., “Assessment Of Panoramic Radiomorphometric Indices Of Mandible In Diabetes Mellitus Patients And Non Diabetic Individuals”, JCDR, vol. 11, no. 11, pp. 35-39, 2017.

2017

Journal Article

Aravind M. S., B, V., DM, S., R, J., M, J., and SP, K., “Squamous Odontogenic Tumor: A Rare Presentation”, wjpr, vol. 6, no. 14, pp. 380-385, 2017.

2017

Journal Article

Aravind M. S., ,, B, V., R, J., R, V., R, S., and Aravind M. S., “Unicystic Ameloblastoma”, wjpr, vol. 6, no. 15, pp. 547-555, 2017.

2017

Journal Article

Dr. Sandhya K. N., K P Sangeetha, Anita Balan, K L Girija, and Tinky Bose, “Extraskeletal Ewing’s Sarcoma of Floor of Mouth: A 1 year follow up-of the Ra-re Disease in a Rare Location”, International Journal of Scientific Study, vol. 4, no. 11, 2017.[Abstract]


Extraskeletal Ewing's sarcoma (EES) are very rare soft tissue neoplasms, especially in the head and neck region. Only very
few cases of extraskeletal ES in this site is reported in literature. A soft tissue swelling in the floor of mouth in a 15-year-old
boy, which was diagnosed as extraskeletal ES of the sublingual gland after extensive investigations is reported. To the best of
our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of extraskeletal ES of the sublingual gland. This case highlights the importance
of considering this tumor in the differential diagnosis of soft tissue mass in the oral cavity

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2017

Journal Article

Sangeetha P, Tinky C, Anita Balan, and Dr. Sandhya K. N., “Odontogenic Myxoma –Report Of A Rare Case”, IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences, vol. 16, pp. 13-17, 2017.[Abstract]


Odontogenic myxoma is an uncommon, benign, locally invasive neoplasm arising from embryonic mesenchyme of dental primordium and exclusively present in tooth bearing areas of the jaws. It is most often seen in females of 20-40 years of age and mainly affects the posterior mandible. The lesion remains asymptomatic until it reaches a noticeable size. The radiographic features are variable. This article presents a case of odontogenic myxoma presenting in an unusual site and age with classic radiographic appearance. The clinical, radiological, histopathological features and surgical dilemmas in managing the same is discussed.

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2017

Journal Article

Dr. R. Venkitachalam, Mathews, P. Philip, R, S., Kuruvilla, S., and Latti, P., “Knowledge, Attitude And Practices about apron hygiene among clinical dental students in a dental college In Kerala - A Cross Sectional Survey”, Journal of Odontological Research. , 2017.

2017

Journal Article

Dr. Girisankar M., Dr, J., and Dr, R., “A rare subcutaneous benign tumor-Oral Lipoma”, Kerala Dental Journal, vol. 40, no. 3, 2017.

2017

Journal Article

J. G. Alapatt, Manjuran, N. George, Dr. Jaini J. L., and Sreelal., D. T., “The effect of diameter and surface treatments on the fracture resistance of new esthetic posts”, Global Journal for Research Analysis UGC Approved; Indian Citation Index, vol. 6, pp. 2277 - 8179, 2017.[Abstract]


The effect of diameter and surface treatment on prefabricated zirconium dioxide (diameter 1.4mm and 1.7mm) and
glass ber-reinforced (diameter 1.3mm and 1.6mm) endodontic posts were studied. The Zr posts were divided into
groups A, B, and C, based on the surface treatment. Group A, the control group was given no surface treatment, group B was airborne particle
abraded using 110m alumina and group C roughened with a coarse grit diamond bur. FRC-posts without any surface treatment constituted
Group D. The samples were tested for fracture resistance in an Instron Universal Testing Machine. One way ANOVA, small sample student t
test, & Pearson correlation coefficient were the statistical tools employed to analyze the observations. Zirconium dioxide posts showed
statistically signicant higher fracture resistance when compared to glass FRC-posts. Surface treating the Zr posts with airborne particle
abrasion further signicantly improved the fracture resistanc

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2017

Journal Article

R. Zarina, Dr. Jaini J. L., and R. Raj, S., “Evolution of the Software and Hardware in CAD/CAM Systems used in Dentistry”, International Journal of Preventive and Clinical Dental Research, 2017.[Abstract]


The computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems were introduced into dentistry in 1970s. This technology has evolved rapidly that, starting from a single crown to full mouth, rehabilitation is possible in a single day now. This article reviews the history, evolution, components, and various materials used for fabrication of prosthesis. It also evaluates popular CAD/CAM systems, its limitations, future evolvement, and also the dental considerations while using them

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2017

Journal Article

Dr. Jaini J. L., Jeeva, P. P., Raj, R., and Mohan, S., “Ethnopharmacological Reflections in Oral Health: A Review on Current Concepts”, International Journal of Oral Care & Research, vol. 5, pp. 310-316, 2017.

2017

Journal Article

R. Zarina, Dr. Jaini J. L., and Raj, R., “A Systematic Approach for Rehabilitation of Occlusion in Fixed Partial Denture”, International Journal of Preventive and Clinical Dental Research, vol. 4, pp. 136-141, 2017.

2016

Journal Article

Chandrashekar Janakiram, Dr. R. Venkitachalam, and Joseph, J., “Profile of Institutional Ethics Committees in Dental Teaching Institutions in Kerala, India”, Accountability in Research, vol. 23, pp. 219-229, 2016.[Abstract]


Objectives: To assess the existence, structure, and functioning of Institutional Ethics Committees (IECs) in dental teaching institutions in Kerala. Methodology: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted by personally approaching Heads of Institutions/Ethics Committee (EC) in-charge of all dental colleges (23) in Kerala. The validated questionnaire consisted of two parts. The first part pertained to details of institutions, and the second part assessed the structure and functioning of the IEC. The data obtained was tabulated and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Of the participating 17 colleges, 13 colleges had a functioning IEC. Only four of these IECs were accredited to a central agency. Only one among the 12 colleges completely adhered to recommended structure. Regarding the functioning of IECs, 69% of the IECs had neither a separate application form for ethical review of proposals nor a proforma for its evaluation. On average, more than ten proposals were reviewed in a single EC meeting in 54% of the colleges. Nearly 40% of the IECs had no representation of a lay person. Conclusion: The absence of IEC in four colleges and non-accreditation to a central agency was a matter of concern. Enforced accreditation is the need of the hour to ensure ethical protection to human participants. © 2016 Taylor &amp; Francis.

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2016

Journal Article

Medhini Menon, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Dr. Sajitha Krishnan, Parvathy Kumaran, Sangeetha G. Bhat, Arun Mamachan Xavier, and Suresh Kumar J., “Evaluation of salivary interleukin-6 in children with early childhood caries after treatment”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 7, pp. 198-202, 2016.[Abstract]


Background: The role of cytokines as a marker in the oral inflammatory process in ECC has not been fully explored before and after full mouth rehabilitation. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the level of salivary interleukin-6 (IL-6) in children with ECC and to compare its levels before and after comprehensive full mouth rehabilitation. Methods and Materials: Saliva samples were collected from children with ECC prior to dental treatment and 3-month post treatment. The salivary IL-6 levels were analyzed using the ELISA method. The gingival index was also timely recorded. Oral health awareness sessions were conducted for children and their parents at regular intervals during the 3-month study period. Statistical analysis used: Wilcoxon Signed Rank test compared the levels of salivary IL-6 while, the paired t test compared the values of gingival index before and after treatment. Results: The mean level of salivary IL-6 before and 3 months after treatment had reduced and this reduction was statistically significant (P&lt; 0.000). The gingival index scores had also reduced significantly 3-months post treatment (P&lt; 0.002). Conclusions: Children with ECC when completely rehabilitated and kept under frequent follow up, which includes reinforcement of oral hygiene measures and maintaining a low caries activity state, the level of inflammation (IL-6) can definitely be minimized and thereby improving the quality of life of affected children. © 2016 Contemporary Clinical Dentistry. Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

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2016

Journal Article

Dr. Sravan Kumar, Acharya, Sb, Urala, A. Sc, and Pentapati, K. Cd, “Effect of Aloe vera, chlorine dioxide, and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque and gingivitis: A randomized controlled trial”, Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research, vol. 6, pp. 55-59, 2016.[Abstract]


Objective: To evaluate the effect of Aloe vera, chlorine dioxide, and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque and gingivitis in orthodontic treatment. Materials and methods: A randomized single-center, single-blind, parallel group, controlled trial was conducted among 90 subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. The subjects were randomly divided into one of the three study groups (Aloe vera, chlorhexidine, chlorine dioxide). Plaque and gingivitis were assessed using modified Silness and Loe Plaque Index and Gingival Index at baseline and at follow-up after 15 days. Paired t-test and ANOVA with post hoc Dunnett test were used. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 85 participants completed the study; among them, 40 were male and 45 were female. There was significant reduction in mean plaque and gingival scores in all the 3 groups at follow-up when compared to baseline. A significantly higher reduction (plaque and gingival scores) was found in chlorhexidine when compared with the Aloe vera group. However, no significant difference was seen between chlorhexidine and chlorine dioxide with respect to mean reduction in plaque and gingival scores. Conclusion: Chlorine dioxide can be a suitable and economical alternative for chlorhexidine. Further long-term studies are recommended for evaluating their effectiveness. © 2015 Craniofacial Research Foundation. More »»

2016

Journal Article

Dr. Sreeja P. Kumar, Dr. Marina Lazar Chandy, Shanavas, Mb, Khan, Sc, and Suresh, K. Vd, “Pathogenesis and life cycle of herpes simplex virus infection-stages of primary, latency and recurrence”, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology, 2016.[Abstract]


Aims and objectives: (1) To understand the molecular level mechanism involved in immune evasion leading to primary HSV infection. (2) To explain the neuronal latency of herpes simplex virus. (3) To explain the reason for the specificity in the sites of primary and recurrent HSV lesions. Methods: A systematic review was done to understand the molecular level mechanism involved in primary, latency and recurrent herpes simplex infections. We prepared this article by compiling the data from various textbooks, literatures and PubMed, Embase, and EBSCOhost databases. Results and conclusion: Herpes simplex virus is a highly contagious human pathogen that has widespread infections in the oro-facial region which is associated with HSV-1. This single review article can provide the entire knowledge about the pathogenesis, its interesting property of latency and clinical features of HSV infection under one tree. Thus, this article enlightens the dental professionals with an adequate knowledge about the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and specific sites of primary and recurrent lesions which will highly help them in timely diagnosis, management and also for controlling the spread of infection. © 2016 Asian AOMS, ASOMP, JSOP, JSOMS, JSOM, and JAMI.

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2016

Journal Article

Dr. Marina Lazar Chandy, Soman, C., Dr. Sreeja P. Kumar, Kurup, S., and Jose, R., “Understanding molecular mechanisms in multivariant actions of levamisole as an anti-helminthic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-neoplastic and immunomodulatory drug”, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology, 2016.[Abstract]


Levamisole is an imidothiazole derivative with a wide variety of applications in medical field. It has long been used as an anti-helminthic where its primary action is through the opening of acetyl choline receptor channels. It is widely used as an immunomodulatory drug through its action on dentritic cells and by enhancing the release of cytokines like interleukins 12 and 10. The antioxidant action of levamisole is by the enhancing effect on the major cellular redox systems like glutathione, enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase and also possible effects on glutathione related enzymes. On the other hand, the anti-inflammatory action is by the inhibition of TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor) and interleukin 6. Anti-neoplastic action of levamisole is by two ways that is, through its apoptotic action causing cell cycle inhibition and increased endothelial cell adhesion and the second action is through its anti-angiogenic property. This article enlightens upon the various mechanisms of action of levamisole at molecular level describing its diverse uses as an anti-helminthic, immunomodulatory, anti-neoplastic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant drug. © 2016 Asian AOMS, ASOMP, JSOP, JSOMS, JSOM, and JAMI.

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2016

Journal Article

A. S. Babu, Manju V., Nair, V. P., and Thomas, T., “Prosthetic rehabilitation of surgically treated orbital defects - Evisceration, enucleation, and exenteration: A case series”, Journal of Indian Prosthodontist Society, vol. 16, pp. 216-220, 2016.[Abstract]


The rehabilitation of a patient who has suffered the psychological trauma due to loss of an eye requires a prosthesis that will provide the optimum cosmetic and functional result. The mode of rehabilitation varies based on the type of defect and surgical approach being adopted. A case series of prosthetic rehabilitation of three types of orbital defects - evisceration, enucleation and exenteration have been reported in this article. The clinical relevance of surgical approaches highlights the preservation of remaining anatomic structures creating a negative space or concavity to aid in future prosthetic rehabilitation. A multidisciplinary management and team approach is essential in providing esthetics and to regain the confidence. Follow-up care for the patient is mandatory. © 2016 The Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society. More »»

2016

Journal Article

Chandrashekar Janakiram and Porteri, Cb, “Ethical Process Reporting in Indian Dental Journals”, Accountability in Research, vol. 23, pp. 163-177, 2016.[Abstract]


Aim: To study the proportion of articles reporting ethical review board (ERB) approval and informed consent process (ICP) in articles published in dental journals in India. Methods: A descriptive study was designed, and ten Indian dental journals published by different dental specialty professional associations were selected. Among 702 retrieved articles, from 40 issues of the 10 selected journals published in 2008 and 2011, 428 meet the inclusion criteria, and they were analyzed. The entire text of the articles was manually searched for statements for ICP and ERB approval. The data was retrieved independently by two observers using an ad hoc developed template. Results: 10.3% (44) of authors stated ICP, while 9.8 % (42) reported ERB approval in their articles; 6.1% (26) articles reported both the ICP and ERB. There are 21 times more chances that authors who report the ERB will also report ICP in their articles when compared to authors who report either ICP or ERB only (OR 21.3, 95% CI 8.5–52.8). Seven journals stated the ethical process reporting in the instructions for authors. Overall, 15.7% articles declared the conflicts of interests. Conclusions: The low compliance of reporting ethical protection measures in dental research among Indian dental journals is of high concern. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

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2016

Journal Article

A. Aruna Ramadas, Jose, R., Arathy, S. L., Kurup, S., Chandy, M. Lazar, and Kumar, S. P., “Systemic absorption of 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide as topical application in management of oral lichen planus.”, Indian J Dent Res, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 230-5, 2016.[Abstract]


<p><b>CONTEXT: </b>Topical corticosteroids are the treatment of choice for oral lichen planus (OLP) due to its potential anti-inflammatory effect. However, chronic nature of OLP often requires long-term and frequent applications, exposing patients to local and systemic side effects.</p><p><b>AIM: </b>To detect the systemic absorption of 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) through the oral mucosa of patients with OLP.</p><p><b>SUBJECTS AND METHODS: </b>This was a pilot pharmacokinetic study carried out in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology in collaboration with the Department of Toxicology, over 10 months. A total of twenty patients with OLP were included and advised to apply 0.1% TAC 3 times/day for 2 weeks and 2 times/day for next 2 weeks. Blood samples were obtained on the first and second visits and analyzed for triamcinolone using High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC).</p><p><b>STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: </b>Paired t-test was done to compare visual analog scale (VAS) score for burning sensation at the first and second visits, statistically significant if P < 0.05. The baseline demographic data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.</p><p><b>RESULTS: </b>Paired t-test was done to compare VAS score for burning sensation at the first and second visits, which turned to being statistically significant (P = 0.001). Although HPLC is an established method for the detection of TAC, none of the study populations showed evidence of steroid (TAC) in the blood sample during 4 weeks of treatment duration.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS: </b>0.1% triamcinolone is a relatively safe drug to be used with no systemic absorption in the standard dose regimen for oral lichen palnus.</p>

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2016

Journal Article

A. M. Xavier, Sunny, S. M., Rai, K., and Hegde, A. M., “Repeated exposure of acidic beverages on esthetic restorative materials: An in-vitro surface microhardness study.”, J Clin Exp Dent, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. e312-7, 2016.[Abstract]


<p><b>BACKGROUND: </b>A manifold increase in the consumption of aerated beverages has witnessed a twin increase in tooth wear and raised demand for esthetic restorative materials. This study aimed to evaluate the surface microhardness changes of esthetic restorative materials following treatment with aerated beverages in an in-vitro situation.</p><p><b>MATERIAL AND METHODS: </b>The initial surface microhardness of the restorative materials GC Fuji II LC, GC Fuji IX, Nano Glass ionomer, Resin and Nano composite was recorded. These materials were studied under 3 groups that included those exposed to the acidic beverages daily, weekly once in a month and those that had no exposures at all. The final surface microhardness of the materials was recorded following experimentation and was subjected to statistical comparisons.</p><p><b>RESULTS: </b>The restorative materials were compared for their surface microhardness changes following respective treatments using the T-test and One-way ANOVA analysis. Inter-comparisons between the groups showed statistical significance (p<.05), when treated with both the beverages. The five restorative materials revealed surface microhardness loss; the maximum reduction noticed with the Nano glass ionomer cement tested (p<.0005).</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS: </b>The surface microhardness of restorative materials markedly reduced upon repeated exposures with acidic beverages; the product with phosphoric acid producing the maximum surface microhardness loss.</p><p><b>KEY WORDS: </b>Restorative materials, acidic beverages, surface microhardness, resin composites, glass ionomers.</p>

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2016

Journal Article

Ra Gupta, Malhi, Ra, Patthi, Ba, Singla, Aa, Chandrashekar Janakiram, Pandita, Va, Prasad, Ma, and Kumar, J. Ka, “Experience from classroom teaching to clinical practice regarding shortened dental arch (SDA) concept among dentists – a questionnaire study”, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 10, pp. ZC27-ZC32, 2016.[Abstract]


Introduction: Periodontal disease and dental caries are the common oral conditions which cause loss of teeth, mostly molars. This further leads to Shortening of Dental Arch and Shortened Dental Arch (SDA) concept provides the overall requirements of functional dentition at reduced cost without compromising the health. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) towards SDA concept among dentists of Ghaziabad city (Uttar Pradesh, India). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 514 dentists working as academicians or clinicians or both. KAP questionnaire consisting of questions related to SDA concept was distributed to them. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 18.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and descriptive and analytical tests, including mean, standard deviation, and Chi square test were used. Results: Of the 514 dentists, only 493 dentists responded to the questionnaire, generating the response rate of 95.5%. Only 113 (22.9%) had knowledge about this concept. Clinicians were found to have more knowledge regarding the SDA concept (p&lt;0.05). Also years of experience and level of knowledge among dentists regarding SDA was found to be statistically significant (p&lt;0.05). Conclusion: The study showed lack of knowledge regarding SDA concept among dentists and also only few dentists practice the SDA concept on their patients. If used judiciously the SDA concept can serve as a cost effective and functionally oriented approach in clinical management of patients. © 2016, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

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2016

Journal Article

A. Ga Joseph, Chandrashekar Janakiram, and A., M., “Prosthetic status, needs and oral health related quality of life (OHRQOL) in the elderly population of Aluva, India”, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 10, pp. ZC05-ZC09, 2016.[Abstract]


Introduction: Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQOL), being a patient-centred outcome has profound association with the existing prosthetic status and needs. Aim: To assess the association between the prosthetic status and needs with OHRQOL in the elderly population of Aluva, Kochi, Kerala, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the elderly residing in the municipal wards of Aluva municipality, Kochi, Kerala, India. A total of 539 subjects whose age was 60 years or above were considered for the study. Proforma utilizing a validated structured questionnaire of two sections; the first section noted with demographic details with WHO assessment of prosthetic needs and details regarding loss of teeth and denture wear and the second section consisted of Oral Health Impact Proflie (OHIP)-14 questions to measure the OHRQOL which was prepared in the local language. Type III oral examination (WHO Basic Oral Health Assessment 2013) was carried out on selected elderly subjects from house hold survey at municipal wards and recordings were done by the trained local health worker. ANOVA was used to find out the association between different domains of the OHIP and prosthetic status and need. Results: The prosthetic status was 18.2% and 14.7% and the prosthetic needs 62.7% and 60.3% of the upper and lower jaws respectively for the population. The prosthetic status was found to have no impact on the OHRQOL. However, the prosthetic need was significantly related to various components of OHRQOL of the study population. Of all the domains in OHRQOL, physical pain was the most affected in this population. Conclusion: There is high unmet prosthetic care for non-institutionalised elderly population in Aluva. © 2016, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

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2016

Journal Article

Navya P. Menon, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Janardhanan, S., Parvathy Kumaran, Arun Mamachan Xavier, and Bhat Sangeetha Govinda, “Clinical and radiographic comparison of indirect pulp treatment using light-cured calcium silicate and mineral trioxide aggregate in primary molars: A randomized clinical trial”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 7, pp. 475-480, 2016.[Abstract]


Aim: To clinically and radiographically evaluate the reparative dentin formation in indirect pulp treatment (IPT) using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and light cured calcium silicate (TheraCal) in primary molars over a period of 6 months. Materials and Methods: A clinical trial on IPT on 43 primary molars in 21 patients between the age of 4-7 years, divided into two groups: 22 teeth in MTA group and 21 in TheraCal group. Measurement of the variation in dentin thickness was done on the digitalized radiograph at baseline, 3 months and 6 months using CorelDRAW X3 software. Results: Statistical analysis using an independent t-test for intragroup and intergroup comparison showed a significant increase in dentin thickness in both the MTA and TheraCal group (intragroup comparison [P < 0.05]). However, intergroup comparison between MTA and TheraCal showed no statistical difference in reparative dentin formation (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Clinically and radiographically, both MTA and TheraCal are good IPT materials. The better handling characteristics and comparable reparative dentin-forming ability of TheraCal make this material an alternative to MTA in pediatric restorative procedures. © 2016 Contemporary Clinical Dentistry | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. More »»

2016

Journal Article

P. Ca Dathan, Kumar, T. Ma, Ravindran, Sa, Nair, KbChandrasek, and Kumar, A., “Prosthetic rehabilitation of lower limb with RTV siliconee using prosthodontic clinical and laboratory techniques – A case report”, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 10, pp. ZD35-ZD37, 2016.[Abstract]


variety of unique clinical and prosthetic challenges, because of distinctly different amputation levels of the lower limb. A female patient with history of Partial Foot Amputation (PFA) surgery at metatarsophalangeal joint level, due to crush injury reported for prosthetic rehabilitation. This case was successfully rehabilitated using room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) medical grade silicone for fabrication of foot prosthesis. Though limited in its function, it amply proves that the clinical and laboratory techniques used in fabrication of maxillofacial prosthesis can be effectively adapted for the fabrication of body prosthesis like toes and feet to enhance the quality of life of the patients. The patient was reviewed every year for three years. © 2016, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved. More »»

2016

Journal Article

S. Yeturu, Annapurani, R., Chandrashekar Janakiram, Joseph, J., and Pentapati, K., “Assessment of knowledge and attitudes of fire safety – An institution based study”, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, vol. 8, pp. 1281-1284, 2016.[Abstract]


Introduction: Fire safety is essential component and requirement in building infrastructure plans and provision of fire safety systems is mandatory even in dental care settings. Knowledge regarding the use of these systems in various instances is essential to all health care workers including dentists, dental students and auxiliaries. Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of fire safety among undergraduate, postgraduate dental students and staff in Amrita School of Dentistry and to find any association between education level and knowledge regarding fire safety. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted by distributing a 20 itemed self-administered questionnaire which consisted of 4 dichotomous responses, 6 rating scale responses, 3 multiple responses and 7 open ended questions. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 270 participated in the study. Nearly half of the participants have a positive attitude towards fire safety and very few participants knew the way to use fire control measures in case of fire accident. Conclusion: There was an appreciably good knowledge about fire safety among dentists and dental students with a positive attitude towards safe practice.

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2016

Journal Article

Dr. Jaeson Mohanan Painatt, “Residual Cyst: An Unusual Presentation of a Usual Scenario”, 12, no. 2, pp. 1-44, 2016.

2016

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier, “Give good care to your teeth”, Manorama Arogyam, vol. 3, pp. 20-24, 2016.

2016

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier, Steffy M. Sunny, and Radhamany K., “Prenatal and Perinatal Oral Health Awareness and Promotion among Pregnant Women - A Dental Home Initiative”, Jpn J Ped Dent , vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 248 (P1-014), 2016.

2016

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier, Kavita Rai, Amitha M. Hegde, and Suchetha Shetty, “A spectroscopic and surface microhardness study of enamel exposed to beverages supplemented with ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate. A randomized in vitro trial.”, Am J Dent, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 132-136, 2016.[Abstract]


PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy between supplementing ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate to carbonated beverages by recording the in vitro mineral loss and surface microhardness (SMH) changes in human enamel.

METHODS: 120 enamel blocks each (from primary and permanent teeth) were uniformly prepared and the initial SMH was recorded. These enamel specimens were equally divided (n = 60) for their respective beverage treatment in Group 1 (2 mmol/L ferrous sulfate) and Group 2 (2 mmol/L ferrous fumarate). Each group was further divided into three subgroups as Coca-Cola, Sprite and mineral water (n= 10). The specimens were subjected to three repetitive cycles of respective treatment for a 5-minute incubation period, equally interspaced by 5-minute storage in artificial saliva. The calcium and phosphate released after each cycle were analyzed spectrophotometrically and the final SMH recorded.

RESULTS: The results were tested using student's t-test, one-way ANOVA and Wilcoxon signed rank test (P < 0.05). The spectrophotometric assessment of calcium and phosphate withdrawal found more loss with the supplementation of 2 mmol/L ferrous sulfate than ferrous fumarate (P < 0.005). Similarly, the mean surface microhardness reduction was less with the supplementation of 2 mmol/L ferrous fumarate than with ferrous sulfate (P < 0.005). Statistical comparisons revealed the maximum surface microhardness and mineral loss with primary enamel and the maximum loss produced in all groups by Coca-Cola (P < 0.005).

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2016

Journal Article

I. Valsan, Joseph, J., Chandrashekar Janakiram, and Mohamed, S., “Oral Health Status and Treatment Needs of Paniya Tribes in Kerala.”, J Clin Diagn Res, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. ZC12-ZC15, 2016.[Abstract]


INTRODUCTION: The tribal communities of Kerala have been largely left out of the gains of the Kerala model of development.

AIM: The study was aimed to obtain baseline data of oral health status and treatment needs of Paniyas, in Kerala, India.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive population based survey of adult Paniya belonging to index age groups of 35-44 years and 65-74 years was conducted. The study population comprised of 420 subjects drawn from three talukas by stratified cluster sampling. Modified version of WHO Oral Health Assessment Form (1997) was used to assess the oral health status.

RESULTS: Caries prevalence was 40%. The mean DMFT in the 35-44 years age group was 1.52±1.95 and in 65-74 age group it was 18.47 ± 13.10. Oral mucosal lesions were seen in 4.52% and 76.9% had periodontal disease. Tooth brushing was reported by 55.5% of the subjects. Paan chewing, with tobacco or without tobacco, habit was reported by 89.3%. Bi-variate analyses between the CPI scores and age groups showed high statistical significance. The maximum mean treatment requirement was for extraction (1.37 ± 4.01) and was observed in 65-74 age groups.

CONCLUSION: The lack of basic oral health care access is important for high oral disease burden in these populations. Efforts are to be done for basic oral health care facility to these marginal populations.

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2016

Journal Article

Chandrashekar Janakiram, Vinita, S., and Joe, J., “Public healther: The true role of public health dentist”, Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 241 - 242, 2016.

2016

Journal Article

R. Gupta, Malhi, R., Patthi, B., Singla, A., Chandrashekar Janakiram, Pandita, V., Kumar, J., and Prasad, M., “Tracking WHO MPOWER in South East Asian region: An opportunity to promote global tobacco control”, Journal of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 218 - 223, 2016.[Abstract]


Introduction: Tobacco use is a major public health challenge worldwide and to counter the global tobacco epidemic, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) to provide new legal dimensions for international health cooperation. Further WHO introduced the MPOWER package to monitor the tobacco control programs among the countries to accomplish the FCTC objective. Aim: The aim is to quantify the implementation of MPOWER tobacco control policies in South East Asia Region (SEAR) from the year 2008 to 2015. Materials and Methods: Information was collected from the WHO report on the Global Tobacco epidemic program SEAR from 2008 to 2015 using MPOWER. This assessment was based on the checklist which was designed previously by Iranian and International tobacco control specialists in their study on tobacco control. Results: Various countries of SEAR were ranked by scores and these scores were obtained from each indicator for each activity. Among SEAR region, Thailand got the highest scores and significant positive change was seen from a score of 8 in 2008 to 32 in 2015 where certain countries like Korea and Timore-Leste showed no significant positive change. Conclusion: Tobacco control policies have reduced the tobacco consumption, but still multisectoral efforts are needed toward effective enforcement of the law to bring about a significant decline in the prevalence of tobacco use.

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2016

Journal Article

M. Prasad, Patthi, B., Singla, A., Gupta, R., Chandrashekar Janakiram, Kumar, J. Krishna, Vashishtha, V., and Malhi, R., “The Clinical Effectiveness of Post-Brushing Rinsing in Reducing Plaque and Gingivitis: A Systematic Review.”, J Clin Diagn Res, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. ZE01-7, 2016.[Abstract]


INTRODUCTION: Dental plaque is the major etiological factor associated with the development of gingivitis. Hence, maintenance of oral hygiene is very essential.

AIM: To systematically review the literature on the effects of a post toothbrushing rinsing on plaque and parameters of gingival inflammation.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature review was performed in PubMed Central and Cochrane library, embase, google scholar were searched up to February 2015 to identify appropriate studies. The primary outcome measure was plaque and gingival inflammation reduction.

RESULTS: Out of the total 56 titles appeared, 08articles fulfilled the criteria and were selected for the review. One article which was hand searched and one article which was through e-mail was included. A statistically significant reduction in overall plaque and gingivitis was noted when different mouth rinses were compared to the control (p<0.05). It was seen that chlorhexidine is the best antiplaque and antigingivitis agent but due to its side effects after continuous use, was not indicated for long term use. Probiotic was superior to chlorhexidine in terms of reduction of gingival inflammation.

CONCLUSION: There are relatively few studies evaluating the association between post toothbrushing rinsing and gingivitis. A clear effect was observed, indicating that different mouthrinses (chlorhexidine, probiotic, herbal, essential oil mouthrinse) when used as an adjunct to mechanical means of oral hygiene, provides an additional benefit with regard to plaque and gingivitis reduction as compared to a placebo or control.

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2016

Journal Article

Dr. R. Venkitachalam, Mohamed, S., Chandrashekar Janakiram, and Joseph, J., “Redefining Public Health Dentistry in India: Bicycle model- The way forward”, Dental Poster journal , vol. 5, 5 vol., no. 2, 2016.

2016

Journal Article

N. Varghese, Chandrashekar Janakiram, and Joseph, J., “Healthier choice symbol for cariogenic foods”, Dental Poster journal, vol. 1, no. 1, 2016.

2016

Journal Article

Chandrashekar Janakiram, Joseph, J., and Varaghese, N., “Healthier Choice Symbols in Cariogenic Foods”, Oral Health and Dentistry, vol. 1, pp. 4-7, 2016.[Abstract]


The main objective of the commentary is highlighting the importance of incorporating healthier choice symbols in cariogenic foods in India. By providing healthier choices or symbols to the food, consumers could be aware of the consequences of consuming such foods and they have the right to know about it. The Healthier Choice Symbols (HCS) on packaged food products indicates that there are healthier options, and this helps consumers to make informed food choices. Since dental caries are almost omnipresent among children and they are most vulnerable to Candy Culture, warnings, symbols, index should be provided in front of packs of cariogenic foods to prevent caries. Health claims and nutritional claims can also be provided on the cariogenic foods. Cariogenic food causes dental caries but no information is available to the consumer, and cannot make a choice, like in Gluten free foods, symbols warning are provided. Thus nutrition labelling provides point-of-sale information to help consumers make informed food choices. The warnings can be Cariogenic Potential of the foods and there should be cariogenicity testing of the products using a appropriate index to scale like those used in xylitilol based chewing gums using the Stephens Curve. This commentary discuss about need of the health choice symbols in the food which may cause the dental caries and an important public health measure for health promotion.

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2016

Journal Article

Chandrashekar Janakiram, J., J., S., V., F., T., C.V., D. Kumar, Dr. R. Venkitachalam, B., A., V., S., and J., V. N., “Prevalence and Dependency of Tobacco Use in an Indigenous Population of Kerala, India”, Journal of Oral Hygiene & Health, vol. 4, pp. 1-4, 2016.[Abstract]


Background: Kerala has a large number of tribal communities where the prevalence of tobacco related oral mucosal lesions is alarmingly high. This coupled with ignorance regarding harmful effects of tobacco use is an emerging public health problem. Purpose: To find out dependency of tobacco use in an indigenous population of Wayanad, India.
Methods: A cross- sectional study was designed in the tribal colonies of Kalpetta, Kerala. A multi-stage cluster sampling design was adopted to select the indigenous people living in colonies. A structured close-ended interview was conducted using a 27-item questionnaire, modified and adapted from the National Institute for Mental Health and Neurosciences, India (NIMHANS). The questionnaire consisted of five domains. To assess the dependency of tobacco habit, Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependency Scale for both smoking and smokeless forms of tobacco were used.
Results: Of the 103 responses obtained, 41.7% were males. Participants were in the age group of 14-70 years with a mean age of 43 years. Almost half of the respondents cleaned their teeth twice daily. About 53% of people cleaned their teeth using fingers. Toothpowder and rice husks were the commonly used materials for cleaning teeth (64%) followed by toothpaste (35.9%). It was observed that the prevalence of tobacco use in this population was 73.8%. Majority of the respondents (92%) used smokeless forms of tobacco. The mean scores of nicotine dependency for smoked tobacco was 3.85 (± 2.7) and that for smokeless form was 4.61 (± 2.17). Both these scores denote moderate dependency of tobacco use. The average age of onset of tobacco use was 16.41 years for smoked and 17.53 years for smokeless forms.
Conclusions: The prevalence of tobacco consumption was found to be high among both males and females in the tribal population. Majority of them consumed different forms of smokeless tobacco

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2016

Conference Paper

Chandrashekar Janakiram, “Assessment of Common risk factors between the oral diseases and NCDs”, in 21st National IAPHD conference Bhubaneshwar, Bhubaneshwar, 2016.

2016

Journal Article

Aravind M. S., A, M., B, V., and NJ, V., “Entrapped Foreign Body: A diagnostic Muddle for the Radiologis”, . Indian J Dent , vol. 7, pp. 158-161, 2016.

2016

Journal Article

M. A, K, N., VB, M., B, V., S, M., NJ, V., and Aravind M. S., “Location of Mental Foramen using Digital Panoramic Radiography”, J Forensic Dent Science, vol. 8, pp. 79-82, 2016.

2016

Journal Article

Mridula Mohan, Suresh, R., Janardhanan, M., Savithri, V., and TharaAravind, “Oral Soft Tissue Chondroma: A Case Report with Discussion”, Journal of Cochin Periodontists Society , pp. 127-29, 2016.

2016

Journal Article

R. Zarina, Dr. Jaini J. L., and Khosla, E., “Phytomedicine - A Holistic Approach in Dentistry”, IRA-International Journal of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2455-4499), vol. 4, 2016.[Abstract]


Herbal products have been used since ancient times in folk medicine, involving both eastern and western medicinal traditions. Many plants with biological and anti-microbiological properties have been studied since there has been a relevant increase in the incidence of antibiotic overuse and misuse. In dentistry Phytomedicines has been used as anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, analgesic and sedative agents. This paper highlights certain medicinal plant which is used in dentistry as alternative and in holistic way.

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2015

Journal Article

Fa Mohammed, Manohar, Vb, Jose, Mc, Thapasum, AdFairozekha, Mohamed, Se, Shamaz, BfHalima, and D'Souza, Ng, “Estimation of copper in saliva and areca nut products and its correlation with histological grades of oral submucous fibrosis”, Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, vol. 44, pp. 208-213, 2015.[Abstract]


Background: The purpose of this study was to estimate the copper levels in saliva of patients with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and different areca nut products and its correlation with different histological grades of OSF. Methods: The study comprised 60 individuals, 30 OSF patients and 30 non-OSF individuals. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected, and copper analysis was performed using colorimetric method. The commercial areca nut products used by the patients were acquired and subjected to copper analysis through the atomic absorption spectrophotometer method. Oral biopsies were performed for OSF patients for histopathological correlation. Results: The mean salivary copper level was 27.023 μg/dl in OSF patients when compared with 8.393 μg/dl in non-OSF individuals (P < 0.005). The mean copper content in different areca nut products was 13.313 ppm (P < 0.005). Comparison of copper content in different areca nut products with salivary copper levels of OSF patients showed negative correlation (P < 0.853). Comparison of salivary copper levels between different histological grades of OSF yielded a statistically significant association between grades I and III (P < 0.005) and grades II and III OSF (P < 0.019). Comparison of copper content in areca nut products and different histological grades of OSF yielded weak negative statistical correlation (r = -0.116). Conclusion: Despite high copper content in areca nut products, the observations yielded a negative correlation with different histological grades of OSF. This further raises a doubt about the copper content in areca nut as an etiological factor for this crippling disease. © 2014 John Wiley and Sons A/S.

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2015

Journal Article

J. P., Menon, K. Sa, Kurup, Sb, Thomas, A. Eb, Angel Fenol, Vyloppillil, R., Bhaskar, A., and Megha, Sa, “Influence of Vitamin D & calcium supplementation in the management of periodontitis”, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 9, pp. ZC35-ZC38, 2015.[Abstract]


Introduction: It has long been recognized that vitamin D is a hormone and were many studies reporting that patients in periodontal maintenance programs taking vitamin D and calcium supplementation had a trend for better periodontal health compared to patients not taking supplementation. Aims: To evaluate the effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation in reducing gingival inflammation, using clinical parameters like gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-simplified (OHIS), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and bone density (BD). Also, to assess whether calcium and vitamin D oral supplementation influences alveolar Bone Density (BD). Design and Settings: A nonrandomised clinical trial done in Amrita School of dentistry, Kochi, India. Materials and Methods: Group A taking vitamin D (250IU/day) and calcium (500 mg/day) supplementation, and Group B were not taking oral supplementation. All subjects had at least one or more teeth with chronic moderate periodontitis. Digital Orthopantomogram images were taken to assess bone density. Data were collected at baseline and three months. Statistical Analysis used: OHI-S, GI, PPD, CAL, and Bone Densities (BD) were calculated per group. Karl Pearson Coefficient of correlation was used to test correlation of bone density with GI and OHI -S. Intergroup comparison of parameters were done using Independent two Sample t-test. Intragroup comparison of parameters at recall interval was done using Paired sample t-test. The results were considered statistically significant when p-value was <0.05. Results: Both Groups showed significant change in the periodontal parameters and bone density after three months and intragroup comparison showed highly significant results for vitamin D group in relation to GI, OHI S and bone density. Conclusions: Calcium and vitamin D supplementation has got a positive effect on periodontal health and it can be used as an adjunct to non surgical periodontal therapy. © 2015, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All Rights Reserved.

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2015

Journal Article

S. A., P, L., D., B., D.B., M., K.V., S., and G.A., B., “Platelet concentration in platelet concentrates and periodontal regeneration-unscrambling the ambiguity”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 6, pp. 510-516, 2015.[Abstract]


Context: Platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) and Platelet-rich-fibrin (PRF) are extensively used autologous platelet concentrates in periodontal regeneration, and PRF has a better efficacy as compared to PRP. The rationale for this difference has often been attributed to the difference in the structure of the fibrin matrix. However, the effect of concentration of platelets on the regenerative potential of these concentrates is obscure. Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate and compare, clinically and radiographically, the efficacy of PRF and PRP in the treatment of periodontal endosseous defects and to assess the effect of platelet concentration on periodontal regeneration. Materials and Methods: Twenty intrabony defects were selected and divided into two groups randomly by the coin toss method. Group I received PRP and Group II subjects were treated with PRF. The platelet counts in PRP and PRF were analyzed. Clinical and radiological parameters were assessed at baseline and 3, 6, and 9 months postoperatively. Statistical Analysis: Kruskal-Wallis Chi-square test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, t-test, and Spearman's rank correlation were used for statistical analysis of data. Results: There was statistically significant improvement in all the parameters in the two groups except in relation to gingival recession. There was a statistically significant difference between the platelet count in Group I and Group II (P = 0.002). Conclusion: PRP and PRF appear to have nearly comparable effects in terms of periodontal regeneration. The concentration of platelets appears to play a paradoxical role in regeneration. The regenerative potential of platelets appears to be optimal within a limited range. © 2015 Contemporary Clinical Dentistry | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

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2015

Journal Article

S. Ra Sreeram, P., P. Singh V., Thomas, Pa, K. Unni, N., and Tharani, Sb, “Management of 35 % hydrogen peroxide exposure to naked eyes: A case report and review”, International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, vol. 6, pp. B417-B420, 2015.[Abstract]


Exposure of strong acids to eyes is a rare uneventful situation. This case reports one such case where accidental exposure of dental bleaching agent which contain 35 percent of hydrogen peroxide to patients naked eyes in a dental office which was successfully managed without any corneal damage.

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2015

Journal Article

A. E. Thomas, Kurup, S., Dr. Sreeja P. Kumar, Dr. Marina Lazar Chandy, and Jose, R., “Diagnostic efficiency of high-resolution ultrasonography in patients with chronic temporomandibular disorders”, Oral Radiology, 2015.[Abstract]


Purpose: Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) affect 8–12 % of the adolescent and adult population, resulting in patient discomfort and affecting quality of life. Despite the growing incidence of these disorders, an effective screening modality to detect TMDs is still lacking. Although magnetic resonance imaging is the gold standard for imaging of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), it has a few drawbacks such as cost and its time-consuming nature. High-resolution ultrasonography is a non-invasive and cost-effective imaging modality that enables simultaneous visualization of the hard and soft tissue components of the TMJ. This study aimed to evaluate the correlations between the clinical signs and symptoms of patients with chronic TMJ disorders and their ultrasonographic findings, thereby enabling the use of ultrasonography as an imaging modality for screening of TMDs. Methods: Twenty patients with chronic TMDs were selected according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMDs. Ultrasonographic imaging of individual TMJs was performed to assess the destructive changes, effusion, and disc dislocation. Fisher’s exact test was used to examine the correlations between the findings obtained from the ultrasonographic investigation and the clinical signs and symptoms. Results: There was a significant correlation between pain and joint effusion as well as between clicking and surface erosion. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that ultrasonography can be used as a screening modality to assess the hard and soft tissue changes in patients presenting with signs and symptoms of TMDs. © 2015 Japanese Society for Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Springer Japan

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2015

Journal Article

N. Renahan, Raj, R., Dr. Balagopal Varma R., and S. J., K., “Christ Siemens Touraine syndrome: Two case reports and felicitous approaches to prosthetic management”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 6, pp. 274-276, 2015.[Abstract]


Ectodermal dysplasia is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders, which exhibit a classic triad of hypohydrosis, hypotrichosis, and hypodontia. Hypohidrotic or anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia or Christ Siemens Touraine syndrome is the most common condition among ectodermal dysplasia patients. This is a case report on two Christ Siemens Touraine syndrome cases and two different approaches to prosthetic management.

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2015

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier, Kavita Rai, Amitha M. Hegde, and Suchetha Shetty, “A spectroscopic and surface microhardness study on enamel exposed to beverages supplemented with lower iron concentrations”, The Journal of clinical pediatric dentistry, vol. 39, pp. 161-167, 2015.[Abstract]


OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the in vitro mineral loss and surface microhardness (SMH) changes in human enamel specimens following supplementation of acidic carbonated beverages with low iron concentrations than when treated without. STUDY DESIGN: 180 enamel blocks each from primary and permanent teeth were prepared and equally subdivided (n=10) for their respective treatments in Group 1 (Coca Cola and Sprite without iron supplementation) and Group 2 (beverages supplemented with 2/5 mmol/L FeSO₄.7H₂O). Following initial SMH estimation, the blocks were subjected to 3 treatment cycles of 5/20 minute incubation periods, equally interspaced by a 5-min treatment in artificial saliva. The calcium and phosphate released after each cycle were analyzed spectrophotometrically and the final SMH was recorded. The results were tested using student's T test, One-way ANOVA and Kruskal Walli's test (p&lt;0.05). RESULTS: Two and five mmol/L FeSO₄.7H₂O supplementation produced a highly significant SMH change and calcium and phosphate reduction than when treated without (p&lt;.0005). Both the enamel specimens showed similar patterns of mineral loss and SMH reduction, with pronounced effects in the twenty minute incubation cycles. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that 2 mmol/L FeSO₄.7H₂O supplementation to acidic beverages is beneficial in reducing mineral loss and preserving surface microhardness of human enamel.

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2015

Journal Article

D. Paul, K., S. Varma N., and V., A. V., “Airway in Class i and Class II skeletal pattern: A computed tomography study”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 6, pp. 293-298, 2015.[Abstract]


Background and Objectives: A normal airway is required for the normal growth of the craniofacial structures. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the airway in Class I and Class II skeletal pattern and to see if there is any association between the airway and maxillomandibular relationship. Materials and Methods: Peripheral nervous system computed tomography scans of 30 patients were divided into two groups as Class I (ANB ≤ 4.5°), Class II (ANB ≥ 4.5°). The Dolphin three-dimensional version 11 was used to assess the airway. Statistical Analysis: Correlations between the variables were tested with the Pearson correlation coefficient. Independent sample t-test was performed to compare the averages between the two groups. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The ANB angle was negatively correlated with all the airway parameters. The airway area and volume was significantly reduced in Class II subjects compared to Class I. Conclusion: The results suggest a strong association between the airway and skeletal pattern showing a reduced airway in Class II patients with a high ANB angle.

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2015

Journal Article

A. E. Thomas, Kurup, S., Jose, R., and Soman, C., “Facial Swelling as a Primary Manifestation of Multiple Myeloma”, Case Reports in Dentistry, vol. 2015, 2015.[Abstract]


Facial swellings are commonly encountered in the dental office, the cause of which could range from a congenital etiology to an acquired one or it may even be a manifestation of an underlying systemic disease. The clinician must have a thorough knowledge of the various clinical and imaging manifestations and the sites of occurrence of the various conditions to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis. Facial swellings can be classified into different groups which include acute swellings with inflammation, nonprogressive swellings, and slowly or rapidly progressive swellings. The various imaging modalities like CT and MRI are useful for assessing the extent of the swelling as well as evaluating the soft tissue and osseous involvement of the swelling. Multiple myeloma represents clonal proliferation of plasma cells and is a condition in which a facial swelling might be present, though not common. This paper reports a case of a patient with a unilateral facial swelling, which on investigation led to a diagnosis of multiple myeloma. © 2015 Anju E. Thomas et al.

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2015

Journal Article

Niloofar Fathima, Parvathy Kumaran, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., and Arun Mamachan Xavier, “Management of congenital choanal atresia: A pedodontist′s role”, Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, vol. 33, pp. 259-261, 2015.[Abstract]


Choanal atresia is a rare cryptic congenital anomaly with developmental failure of the nasal cavity to communicate with the nasophaynx, resulting in a significant physiological and anatomical alteration of the dento-facial complex. It is considered as a life-threatening or lethal congenital malformation in an obligatory nasal breathing neonate. Elective transnasal endoscopic repair is the most preferred and minimally invasive procedure to correct this anomaly. This case report describes the multi-disciplinary team approach that included pedodontists to manage the case of a 6-month-old infant with choanal atresia suffering from breathlessness, feeding difficulty, and disturbed sleep.

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2015

Journal Article

Va Cilil, K., S. Varma N., Gopinath, S., and V., A. V., “Efficacy of custom made oral appliance for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 6, pp. 341-347, 2015.[Abstract]


Introduction: oral appliance for the treatment of OSA is considered as an effective, low-risk alternative to CPAP. Demand for oral appliance increases as an alternative for those who cannot tolerate CPAP and refuse surgery. Oral appliances uses the traditional methods to advance the mandible thus modify the posture and their by enlarge the airway or otherwise reduce the collapsibility. Aims and Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of custom made oral appliance on sleep characteristics of OSA patients. Materials and Methods: Polysomnography was done on 15 patients of 24-60 years of age before (T1), and after the delivery of the custom made oral appliance (T2). Statistical Analysis: Paired t tests were performed to determine the significance of change in the polysomnographic and cephalometric variables. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: All patients with oral appliance showed an improvement in sleep parameters with an increase in sleep efficiency, and desaturation index with the use of oral appliance. ESS and cephalometric findings showed improvement in the sleep apnea in concordance with the sleep parameters. Conclusions: Custom made oral appliance is a useful treatment option for improving quality of sleep and can be considered as an alternative treatment modality.

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2015

Journal Article

B. Sangeetha Govinda and Sivaram, Rb, “Psychometric properties of the Malayalam version of ECOHIS”, Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, vol. 33, pp. 234-238, 2015.[Abstract]


{Background: The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) has been developed in English for determining oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in the preschool children. It has been translated and validated in different languages to suit different cultures. The ECOHIS is, till date, the only tool available for research in this field on preschool age children. A similar version of this tool is not available for use in the local language Malayalam. Aim: This study aimed to develop and validate a Malayalam version of the ECOHIS (M-ECOHIS). Design: The study was conducted with a cross-sectional design. The ECOHIS was translated into Malayalam by forward-backward translation and tested for face and content validity. The parents of 300 children were administered the M-ECOHIS and an additional global oral health (GOH) question. The children were examined for the presence of early childhood caries (ECC) which was recorded using the defs index. The internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, interobserver reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity were assessed. Results: The tool possessed good internal consistency (Cronbach′s alpha = 0.879; item total correlation 0.2832-0.7617); the test-retest reliability and interobserver reliability assessed using ICC (ICC = 0.9457 and 0.9460, respectively) was acceptable. The Spearman′s correlation coefficient of the ECOHIS and the GOH scores

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2015

Journal Article

P. Pa Sanara, Shereef, Mb, Hegde, Sc, Rajesh, K. Sc, Kumar, M. S. Ac, and Mohamed, Sa, “Comparative analysis of gingival crevicular fluid β-glucuronidase levels in health, chronic gingivitis and chronic periodontitis”, Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, vol. 7, pp. S660-S665, 2015.[Abstract]


Background and Objectives: Current methods available for periodontal disease diagnosis are seriously deficient in terms of accuracy, in the ability to predict ongoing or future disease activity and indeed in determining whether previously diseased sites are in an arrested phase or still active. One area that is receiving a great deal of attention is the biochemical investigation of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). β-glucuronidase (βG) is one of the enzymes found in GCF that is involved in degradation of the ground substance and fibrillar components of host connective tissue. GCF βG activity might be a good indicator or predictor of periodontal disease activity. This study was conducted to estimate and compare the GCF βG levels in patients with healthy periodontium, chronic gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis. Methodology: Subjects were classified into three groups of 20 patients each; healthy individuals, chronic gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis. After recording the plaque index, gingival index and probing pocket depth, 1 μL GCF was collected by placing a calibrated microcapillary pipette extracrevicularly and transferred to sterile plastic vials containing 350 μL of normal saline with 1% bovine serum albumin. Analysis of βG was done by spectrophotometry Results: βG levels in GCF were significantly higher in chronic periodontitis group (mean value - 2.04743), followed by chronic gingivitis group (mean - 1.11510) and healthy group (0.53643). Conclusion: Increased βG levels were observed in patients with increased periodontal destruction, hence GCF βG levels can be used as biochemical marker for periodontal disease activity. © 2015 Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

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2015

Journal Article

Pa Anuradha, K., S. Varma N., and Balakrishnan, Ac, “Reliability performance of titanium sputter coated Ni-Ti arch wires: Mechanical performance and nickel release evaluation”, Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering, vol. 26, pp. 67-77, 2015.[Abstract]


The present research was aimed at developing surface coatings on NiTi archwires capable of protection against nickel release and to investigate the stability, mechanical performance and prevention of nickel release of titanium sputter coated NiTi arch wires. Coated and uncoated specimens immersed in artificial saliva were subjected to critical evaluation of parameters such as surface analysis, mechanical testing, element release, friction coefficient and adhesion of the coating. Titanium coatings exhibited high reliability on exposure even for a prolonged period of 30 days in artificial saliva. The coatings were found to be relatively stable on linear scratch test with reduced frictional coefficient compared to uncoated samples. Titanium sputtering adhered well with the Ni-Ti substrates at the molecular level, this was further confirmed by Inductive coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICPE) analysis which showed no dissolution of nickel in the artificial saliva. Titanium sputter coatings seem to be promising for nickel sensitive patients. The study confirmed the superior nature of the coating, evident as reduced surface roughness, friction coefficient, good adhesion and minimal hardness and elastic modulus variations in artificial saliva over a given time period. © 2015 - IOS Press and the authors.

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2015

Journal Article

Ra Prasad, Suchetha, Ab, Lakshmi, Pd, Darshan, Mb, Apoorva, Sb, and Ashit, Gc, “Interleukin-11 - Its role in the vicious cycle of inflammation, periodontitis and diabetes: A clinicobiochemical cross-sectional study”, Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology, vol. 19, pp. 159-163, 2015.[Abstract]


Context: Interleukin-11 (IL-11) is a multifunctional cytokine with a probable regulatory role in the inflamed periodontal tissue. It has also been shown to inhibit the production of potent proinflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1β in vitro. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, which demonstrates an increase in proinflammatory cytokines, might hypothetically, display a decrease in the levels of IL-11, which down-regulates synthesis of the proinflammatory cytokines. Aims: This clinicobiochemical cross-sectional study was undertaken to try to interpret the link between IL-11, diabetes and periodontitis and to explore the probable protective role of IL-11. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 patients were included in the study and were divided into five groups based on community periodontal index scores and diabetes status. Probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level were measured in all the subjects. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was collected from all the participants using micropipettes and blood samples were collected from subjects in Groups III, IV and V, for analysis of glycated hemoglobin. IL-11 levels were measured in GCF samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical Analysis: The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The GCF IL-11 levels decreased from periodontal health to disease and in periodontitis patients with type 2 diabetes with decreasing glycemic control. Conclusions: Interleukin-11 may play an important role in the modulation of immune response via the reduction of proinflammatory cytokine production and periodontal tissue damage. It was seen in this study that IL-11 could be detected in GCF and the levels of IL-11 in GCF decreased progressively from healthy to periodontitis sites. IL-11 levels were significantly lower in chronic periodontitis group when compared to gingivitis group. The decrease in the levels of IL-11 probably indicates that both diabetes and periodontitis may play a synergistic role in the suppression of protective host responses. The potential of IL-11 as a probable biomarker of inflammation in both periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus is indicated by the changeability of IL-11 levels with the change in periodontal disease status and glycemic control. Further longitudinal studies are needed to validate IL-11 as a »biomarker of inflammation» in periodontal disease and diabetes progression and to prove its role in the connecting link between periodontal disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2015, Medknow Publications. All rights reserved. More »»

2015

Journal Article

C. V. Deepan Kumar, Mohamed, S., Chandrashekar Janakiram, and Joseph, J., “Validation of dental impact on daily living questionnaire among tribal population of India”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 6, pp. S235-S241, 2015.[Abstract]


Background: Oral conditions are known to affect various aspects of quality of life. Similarly, the social consequence of the quality of life in the day to day living is also equally important. Several studies have quantified the social consequences of diseases through activity limitations in people's daily living. The instruments which cover a broad spectrum of life are proposed to be compared with the clinical oral hygiene status of people from different social classes. Aim: To assess the validity of dental impact on daily living (DIDL) questionnaire measuring subjective dental problems and their impact in the day to day life among tribes of Wayanad. Study Design: Cross-sectional. Materials and Methods: DIDL questionnaire developed by Leao and Sheiham was used. We recorded the clinical oral health status using decayed, missing, filled, simplified oral hygiene index, and community periodontal index indices, to correlate the subjective findings of dental impact tribe to obtain construct validity of the questionnaire. Analysis: Descriptive statistics and Spearman's correlation using IBM SPSS software version 20. Results: In the study population of 250 participants, the majority of the participants were from the age group between 36 and 50 years (40%) and females were in the majority (64%). The clinical status of the participants was poor in the majority while their perceived impact in their day to day living was found to be relatively satisfied. The study results show the DIDL tool had weak validity in relation to the clinical status with relevance to the social status of Indian tribal population. Conclusion: The study result shows that there was insignificant and weak validity between the DIDL tool and the oral health status among these tribes who were from a low social class. This might be because their priority in life which is different from what a person from high social class. So the dental problem is ignored at the level of individual depending on his/her priority and at the community level by the policy makers.

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2015

Journal Article

Ma Shereef, Sanara, P. Pb, Karuppanan, Sc, Noorudeen, Ad, and Joseph, Ke, “The effect of cigarette smoking on the severity of periodontal diseases among adults of Kothamangalam Town, Kerala”, Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, vol. 7, pp. S648-S651, 2015.[Abstract]


Aims and Objectives: Smoking is one of the major risk factors for periodontal disease. This study aims at examining the difference in the periodontal status of current smokers, former smokers, and nonsmokers among the adults of Kothamangalam, Kerala. It investigates the association between the level of cigarette consumption and periodontal attachment loss taking into account the effect of age, gender, and oral hygiene. Methodology: The study population consisted of 30 subjects and divided into three groups as current, former, and nonsmokers with periodontal disease. All clinical parameters were recorded. Smoking assessment was done using a self-reported questionnaire, and statistical analysis was carried out. Results: Current smokers had a higher percentage of sites with mean probing depth, and greater mean clinical attachment level than former smokers and nonsmoker. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was found in clinical attachment loss (CAL) between Group I (current smokers) and III (nonsmokers), that shows the increased risk of current smokers for future periodontal destruction. The CAL for current smokers was 5.20 ± 2.440 and for the nonsmokers was 1.50 ± 1.265. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was found in CAL between Group I and III. Summary and Conclusion: The study revealed a marked association between cigarette smoking and the risk of periodontitis. The increased destruction among current smokers showed a dose-dependent relationship with the amount of cigarette consumption. For former smokers, the duration since quitting smoking was associated with a lower risk for severe periodontitis. © 2015 Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

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2015

Journal Article

K. Va Suresh, Shenai, Pb, Chatra, Lc, Ronad, Y. - A. Ad, Bilahari, Ne, Pramod, R. Cf, and Dr. Sreeja P. Kumar, “Oral mucosal diseases in anxiety and depression patients: Hospital based observational study from south India”, Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry, vol. 7, pp. e95-e99, 2015.[Abstract]


Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of different Oral Mucosal diseases in Anxiety and Depression patients. Material and Methods: A hospital based observational Study was conducted in the department of Psychiatry and department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Patients who were diagnosed with Anxiety or Depression by the psychiatrists using Hamilton Anxiety and Depression scale were subjected to complete oral examination to check for oral diseases like Oral Lichen Planus (OLP), Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS), and Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS). Equal number of control group subjects were also included. Results: In this study statistically significant increase in the oral diseases in patients with anxiety and depression than the control group was recorded. Oral diseases were significantly higher in anxiety patients (20.86%) than in depression (9.04%) and control group patients (5.17%). In anxiety patients, the prevalence of RAS was 12%, OLP was 5.7%, and BMS was 2.87%. In depression patients, the prevalence of RAS was 4.02%, OLP was 2.01% and BMS was 3.01%. In control group the prevalence was 2.2%, 1.33% and 1.62% in RAS, OLP and BMS respectively. RAS and OLP were significantly higher in the younger age group (18-49) and BMS was seen between the age group of 50-77 years in both study and control groups. participaConclusions: The results of the present study showed a positive association between psychological alterations and changes in the oral mucosa, particularly conditions like OLP, RAS and BMS. Thus psychogenic factors like anxiety and depression may act as a risk factor that could influence the initiation and development of oral mucosal diseases. Hence psychological management should be taken into consideration when treating patients with these oral diseases.

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2015

Journal Article

A. Kumar, Bhatt, Vb, Balakrishnan, Mc, Hashem, Mde, Vellappally, Sd, Kheraif, A. AfAl, Halawany, H. Sgh, Abraham, N. Bg, Jacob, Vg, and Anil, Sh, “Bioactivity and surface characteristics of titanium implants following various surface treatments: An in vitro study”, Journal of Oral Implantology, vol. 41, pp. e183-e188, 2015.[Abstract]


This study compared the surface topography, hydrophilicity, and bioactivity of titanium implants after 3 different surface treatments (sandblasting and acid etching, modified sandblasting and acid etching, and thermal oxidation) with those of machined implants. One hundred indigenously manufactured threaded titanium implants were subjected to 3 methods of surface treatment. The surface roughness of the nontreated (Group A) and treated samples (Groups B through D) was evaluated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and profilometer. The wettability was visually examined using a colored dye solution. The calcium ions attached to the implant surface after immersing in simulated body fluid (SBF) were assessed on days 1, 2, and 7 with an atomic electron spectroscope. The data were analyzed statistically. The SBF test allowed the precipitation of a calcium phosphate layer on all surface-treated samples, as evidenced in the SEM analysis. A significantly higher amount of calcium ions and increased wettability were achieved in the thermally oxidized samples. The mean roughness was significantly lower in Group A (0.85 ± 0.07) compared to Group B (1.35 ± 0.17), Group C (1.40 ± 0.14), and Group D (1.36 ± 0.18). The observations from this in vitro study indicated that surface treatment of titanium improved the bioactivity. Moreover, results identified the implants that were sandblasted, acid etched, and then oxidized attracted more calcium ions.

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2015

Journal Article

R. Renju, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Kumar, S. J., and Parvathy Kumaran, “Mandibulofacial dysostosis (Treacher Collins syndrome): A case report and review of literature”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 5, pp. 532-534, 2015.[Abstract]


Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) or Franceschetti syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development with variable phenotypic expression. It presents with characteristic facial appearance enabling it to be easily recognizable. A case of a 10-year-old girl having TCS is briefly described in this article. A review of the etiology, clinical features, differential diagnosis, and treatment options are also discussed. More »»

2015

Journal Article

Na Ashok, K., S. Varma N., V., A. V., and Gqpinath, Sb, “Effect of rapid maxillary expansion on sleep characteristics in children”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 5, pp. 489-494, 2015.[Abstract]


Introduction: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is an orthopedic treatment procedure routinely used to treat constricted maxillary arches and also a potential additional treatment in children presenting with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Aims and Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of RME on sleep characteristics in children. Materials and Methods: Polysomnography was done on children of 8-13 years of age before expansion (TO), after expansion (T1) and after a period of 3 months after retention (T2). Bonded rapid maxillary expander was cemented in all children. Inter-molar distance was also measured at TO and T2. Statistical Analysis: Nonparametric Friedman test was used for comparing the averages of sleep parameters at different time period (TO, T1, T2). Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used for comparing the averages of inter-molar width (T0-T2). P < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: All children showed an improvement in sleep parameters with an increase in sleep efficiency, decreased in arousal and desaturation index after expansion. Total sleep time showed a statistically significant increase after expansion. A statistically significant increase in inter-molar distance was obtained after expansion. Conclusions: Rapid maxillary expansion is a useful treatment option for improving quality of sleep even in normal children without SDB. It also induces widening of the maxilla, corrects posterior crossbites and improves maxillary and mandibular dental arch coordination.

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2015

Journal Article

Vimi George, Suresh Kumar Janardhanan, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Parvathy Kumaran, and Arun Mamachan Xavier, “Clinical and radiographic evaluation of indirect pulp treatment with MTA and calcium hydroxide in primary teeth (in-vivo study)”, Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, vol. 33, pp. 104-110, 2015.[Abstract]


Objectives: Clinical and radiographic effects of mineral trioxide aggregate (white MTA) and calcium hydroxide (Dycal) in indirect pulp treatment (IPT) of primary teeth over a period of 6 months. Materials and Methods: A clinical trial with sample size of 40 primary molars between the age group of 5-9 years, of which, 20 teeth were considered, each for MTA and Dycal. Measurements on the digitized radiographs were performed at baseline, third and sixth month, increase in dentin was then measured using Corel Draw software. Result: Independent t-test had indicated that at the end of 3 months and 6 months, a statistically significant increase in dentin thickness with both MTA and Dycal (P-value ≤ 0.001) was found. Within the MTA group, the thickness of dentin formed was 0.089 mm ± 0.031 mm at first 3 months and 0.055 ± 0.022 mm at the second 3 months, (P ≤ 0.001) evaluated using paired t-test. In the Dycal group, increment in dentin deposited was 0.068 mm at the first 3 months and second 3 months, it was 0.030 mm (P-value ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: Clinically and radiographically, MTA is superior to Dycal as a good IPT medicament in primary teeth.

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2015

Journal Article

B. Halima Shamaz, Anitha, A., Manju V., Kuttappan, S., Shantikumar V Nair, and Dr. Manitha B. Nair, “Relevance of fiber integrated gelatin-nanohydroxyapatite composite scaffold for bone tissue regeneration”, Nanotechnology, vol. 26, no. 40, p. 405101, 2015.[Abstract]


Porous nanohydroxyapatite (nanoHA) is a promising bone substitute, but it is brittle, which limits its utility for load bearing applications. To address this issue, herein, biodegradable electrospun microfibrous sheets of poly(L-lactic acid)-(PLLA)–polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were incorporated into a gelatin–nanoHA matrix which was investigated for its mechanical properties, the physical integration of the fibers with the matrix, cell infiltration, osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration. The inclusion of sacrificial fibers like PVA along with PLLA and leaching resulted in improved cellular infiltration towards the center of the scaffold. Furthermore, the treatment of PLLA fibers with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide enhanced their hydrophilicity, ensuring firm anchorage between the fibers and the gelatin–HA matrix. The incorporation of PLLA microfibers within the gelatin–nanoHA matrix reduced the brittleness of the scaffolds, the effect being proportional to the number of layers of fibrous sheets in the matrix. The proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells was augmented on the fibrous scaffolds in comparison to those scaffolds devoid of fibers. Finally, the scaffold could promote cell infiltration, together with bone regeneration, upon implantation in a rabbit femoral cortical defect within 4 weeks. The bone regeneration potential was significantly higher when compared to commercially available HA (Surgiwear™). Thus, this biomimetic, porous, 3D composite scaffold could be offered as a promising candidate for bone regeneration in orthopedics.

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2015

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier, Steffy M. Sunny, and Amitha M. Hegde, “Effect of carbonated beverages on aesthetic restorative materials – An in-vitro surface micro hardness study”, Int J Ped Dent, vol. 25 (Suppl. 1), p. 95, 2015.

2015

Journal Article

F. Taha and Chandrashekar Janakiram, “Ethics of dental health screening in communities in India”, Journal of Medical Ethics, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 171-6, 2015.

2015

Journal Article

F. Taha, Chandrashekar Janakiram, and Joseph, J., “Dental infection control practices and public perception–a cross-sectional study”, International of Oral Health, vol. 7, pp. 20-26, 2015.[Abstract]


Background: The aims of this study was to determine the practice of infection control among the dental professionals practicing in private dental clinics in Ernakulam city, and public’s perception of infection control measures. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted with a sample of 84 private dental clinics and 152 respondents from the general public in Ernakulam city. A 24 item self-administered close-ended questionnaire was used for the dentists and a 13 item semi-structured questionnaire with both open and closed ended questions administered to the general public. Data obtained from both populations were tabulated and analyzed using descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses using Chi-square test (α = 0.05). Results: The final sample consisted of 66 dental clinics. Most of the dentists complied with the use of barrier techniques (gloves and mouth mask) during patient care. Almost half of the dentists had no knowledge of their auxiliaries being vaccinated against hepatitis B. With regard to the general public, 58% of the people had concerns regarding the methods used by the dentists to sterilize dental instruments, yet most of them (77%) did not avoid the dental treatment due to perceived cross infection risk. Conclusion: Results of this study revealed that the level of infection control practices adopted by the private dental clinics in the city was inadequate in a few areas. It was found necessary to educate, raise awareness, and promote continuing dental education aimed at improving dental safety.

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2015

Journal Article

Chandrashekar Janakiram, “Perceived barriers in accessing dental care among the residents of Modinagar, India with application of DEMATEL method”, Journal of Indian association of Public Health Dentistry, vol. 13, pp. 152-157, 2015.

2015

Journal Article

S. Sinha Sham Mohammed and Chandrashekar Janakiram, “User’s perception of pictorial warning on tobacco products in Ernakulum”, India Journal of Indian Dental Association , vol. 1, no. 9, pp. 25-32 , 2015.

2015

Conference Paper

Chandrashekar Janakiram, “Ethical Process reporting in Indian dental journals”, in Clinical Society Meeting at Amrita School of Dentistry, Kochi, 2015.

2015

Conference Paper

Chandrashekar Janakiram, “Career Satisfaction among Dental Public Health Specialist”, in 20th National Conference of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry Manipal , Manipal , 2015.

2015

Journal Article

Aravind M. S., “Painless Management of Speckled Leukoplakia using Cryosurgery”, IJSS Case Reports &Reviews, vol. 2, no. 2, 2015.

2015

Journal Article

M. A, RB, V., AM, S., NJ, V., and Aravind M. S., “An Ulcer in the Palate - A Diagnostic Dilemma”, Int J Sci Stud , vol. 2, no. 11, pp. 230-231, 2015.

2015

Journal Article

Aravind M. S., “Bisphosphonate-Associated Osteonecrosis of the Jaw Posing as a Diagnostic Tight Spot”, IJSS Case Reports &Reviews , vol. 2, no. 2, 2015.

2015

Journal Article

Aravind M. S., Valappila, N. J., R Varma, B., and Saddu, S. Channavir, “De Novos Presentation of Cannon’s Disease ”, IJSS Case Reports & Reviews, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 32-33, 2015.

2015

Journal Article

V. BR, NJ, V., A, M., and Aravind M. S., “Tip of the Iceburg:The Dental Radiograph”, IJSS Case reports& reviews, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 24-29, 2015.

2014

Journal Article

J. S.T., K., T., Mathew, J., Manju V., Sharma, M., and Iyer, S., “Defect components and reconstructive options in composite orbitomaxillary defects with orbital exenteration”, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 72, pp. 1869.e1-1869.e9, 2014.[Abstract]


Purpose The conventional way of reconstructing an orbital exenteration defect associated with a maxillectomy is to cover it with a soft tissue free flap and camouflage it with a spectacle-mounted orbital prosthesis. Also, there are some reports on the use of bone flaps. The objective of this study was to review the reconstructive options for a defect resulting after orbital exenteration and maxillectomy. Materials and Methods This study concerns a retrospective case series of 20 patients. Electronic medical records, including clinical details, operative notes, and follow-up data, were analyzed. Defects were analyzed for their reconstructive components. The reconstructive methods used were studied by the types of flap used, bony versus soft tissue types of reconstruction, and the prosthetic method used to rehabilitate the eye. Outcomes were analyzed for flap success rate. Descriptive methods for data analysis were used. Results Fourteen patients underwent a soft tissue reconstruction alone and 6 underwent bony reconstruction. The free rectus abdominis was the commonest soft tissue flap used. This article presents the outcome of reconstruction in such patients and the utility of individual flaps for their ability to replace different components of the defect. Conclusions Ideal reconstruction should address all individual defect components of facial contour, orbital, palatal, skull base, and skin defects. The free rectus abdominis flap remains the common choice. When a composite socket reconstruction is to be achieved, the innovative free tensor fascia lata flap with the iliac crest bone and internal oblique muscle is an option. © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

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2014

Journal Article

B. Kalarickal, “Group distal movement of teeth using micro-screw-implant anchorage-a case report”, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 8, pp. 26-29, 2014.[Abstract]


This case report describes a case of orthodontic tooth movement of a 29-year-old female patient utilizing maxillary posterior edentulous area. Micro-implants were placed at buccal edentulous spaces and inter-radicular space for retraction of entire maxillary dentition. An overjet reduction of 8mm and good posterior occlusion were achieved.

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2014

Journal Article

C. Janakiram and Gardens, S. J., “Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to healthcare ethics among medical and dental postgraduate students in south India.”, Indian J Med Ethics, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 99-104, 2014.[Abstract]


<p><b>BACKGROUND: </b>Conventional medical training offers students little help in resolving the ethical dilemmas they will encounter as healthcare professionals.</p><p><b>OBJECTIVE: </b>This article aims to assess the knowledge of, practices in and attitudes to healthcare ethics among postgraduate medical and dental students.</p><p><b>METHODOLOGY: </b>A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study was carried out at two medical and dental schools in south India. A total of 209 medical and dental students were contacted and at least three were selected from each subspecialty of medicine and dentistry.One hundred and ninety-nine consented to participate and 7 72 returned the questionnaire (response rate 83%). The questionnaire,which was a 35-item pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire,included both closed and open-ended questions. The proposal for the study was approved by the institutional review board (IRB)and the permission of the respective heads of department was obtained. Written consent was obtained from each participant.The returned questionnaires were analysed using SPSS version 7 7 .5. Descriptive analysis was carried out for all the data. The attitudes of the postgraduates of different courses towards practical ethical problems were compared using a Chi square test.</p><p><b>RESULTS: </b>Medical and dental postgraduates had obtained their knowledge of bioethics from "other sources such as the Internet,newspapers, etc~ followed by their "undergraduate training" and"experience at work': Nearly 68% of the postgraduates had not undergone any bioethics training. Nearly 98% of the medical postgraduates, as compared to 79% of the dental postgraduates,knew that their institution had an ethics committee. There was a difference between the medical and dental students in terms of their attitude to and knowledge of healthcare ethics, with the former having a superior knowledge of the subject and a better attitude.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS: </b>The medical and dental postgraduates come across ethical issues during their training, but are not equipped to resolve the ethical dilemmas they encounter. The dental postgraduates have less of an appreciation of healthcare ethics than their medical counterparts. The incorporation of a bioethics curriculum in the initial period of the postgraduate programme would be beneficial.</p>

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2014

Journal Article

K. Ra Biniraj and Janardhanan, M., “Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of maxilla showing sarcomatous change in an edentulous site with a history of tooth extraction following periodontitis: A case report with discussion”, Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology, vol. 18, pp. 375-378, 2014.[Abstract]


Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare tumor of uncertain origin with variable biological behavior ranging from reactive lesions to highly aggressive malignancy. Oral IMTs are extremely rare and only 25 cases had been reported so far. A case of IMT with sarcomatous transformation in an extraction site with a history of tooth extraction following tooth mobility of an upper left molar tooth is presented here. The tooth was extracted following a complaint of gingival swelling and mobility of tooth. Though malignant transformation in IMTs had been documented in the extra oral sites, wide search of associated literature suggests, this is the first case of oral IMT showing malignant change associated with gingiva. The case report attempts to highlight the variant possibilities of tooth mobility other than periodontitis and the importance of assessing the primary cause of such conditions.

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2014

Journal Article

N. Ramesh, Palukunnu, B., Ravindran, N., and Nair, P. P., “Maxillary molar distalization with first class appliance”, BMJ case reports, vol. 2014, 2014.[Abstract]


Non-extraction treatment has gained popularity for corrections of mild-to-moderate class II malocclusion over the past few decades. The distalization of maxillary molars is of significant value for treatment of cases with minimal arch discrepancy and mild class II molar relation associated with a normal mandibular arch and acceptable profile. This paper describes our experience with a 16-year-old female patient who reported with irregularly placed upper front teeth and unpleasant smile. The patient was diagnosed to have angles class II malocclusion with moderate maxillary anterior crowding, deep bite of 4 mm on a skeletal class II base with an orthognathic maxilla and retrognathic mandible and normal growth pattern. She presented an ideal profile and so molar distalization was planned with the first-class appliance. Molars were distalised by 8 mm on the right and left quadrants and class I molar relation achieved within 4 months. The space gained was utilised effectively to align the arch and establish a class I molar and canine relation.

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2014

Journal Article

Aad Gopalakrishnan, Veeraraghavan, R., and Panicker, Pc, “Hematological and surgical management in Glanzmann′s thrombasthenia: A case report”, Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, vol. 32, pp. 181-184, 2014.[Abstract]


Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT) is a rare, congenital, and moderate to severe platelet disorder. The bleeding time is increased, due to lack of platelet aggregation, since the patients with GT have deficient or dysfunctional integrin membrane glycoproteins IIb and IIIa essential for platelet aggregation. Children with GT are mostly diagnosed very early in life due to the spontaneous and unexplained mucocutaneous bleeding. It is quite a challenging task when any surgery is indicated for children with GT. This case report is about the medical and surgical management of an 11-year-old girl diagnosed with Glannzmann's thrombasthenia who had to undergo a maxillary cyst enucleation.

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2014

Journal Article

J. P., Suresh, N., Angel Fenol, Vyloppillil, R., Bhaskar, A., and Menon, S. Megha, “Comparison of glycated hemoglobin levels in individuals without diabetes and with and without periodontitis before and after non-surgical periodontal therapy”, Journal of Periodontology, vol. 85, pp. 1658-1666, 2014.[Abstract]


Background: Only a few studies have examined the association between periodontitis and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in individuals without diabetes. The aim of this study is to compare HbA1c levels in individuals without diabetes and with and without periodontitis before and after non-surgical periodontal therapy. Methods: This comparative study was done on individuals without diabetes who were 35 to 65 years old. Group A consisted of 30 individuals without periodontitis, and group B consisted of 30 individuals with periodontitis. Body mass indices and clinical parameters, including oral hygiene indexsimplified (OHI-S) score, gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and HbA1c level, of all participants were recorded. All participants received non-surgical periodontal therapy (scaling and root planing). After 3 months, all participants were reexamined, and clinical parameters and HbA1c levels were evaluated and compared to baseline values. Results: There were significant differences between group A and group B in regard to baseline OHI-S, GI, PD, and HbA1c (P <0.05). There was no clinical attachment loss in group A, either at baseline or after 3 months. At the end of 3 months, group B showed improvement in all clinical parameters (P <0.05) and their HbA1c levels also significantly decreased (P <0.05), although the values never reached those of group A. Conclusion: The HbA1c levels of individuals without diabetes and with periodontitis (group B) were significantly reduced 3 months after non-surgical periodontal therapy, although they never reached the same levels as those of the individuals without diabetes or periodontitis (group A). © 2014 American Academy of Periodontology.

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2014

Journal Article

La Mathew, Unni, K. Nb, and Kumar, Vc, “A mathematical derivation to prove reduced denture retention in V shaped palate”, Journal of Indian Prosthodontist Society, vol. 14, pp. 169-171, 2014.[Abstract]


The impact of oral health on the quality of life of older individuals have significantly increased over the last few decades. Edentulism substantially affect oral and general health and overall quality of life. Complete denture retention is the resistance to displacement of the denture base away from the ridge which is the main source of psychological comfort for the patient. Special retention problems are seen in patients exhibiting highly tapered steep palatal vault. In these cases a metal base or subsequent bench cure reline procedure would be incorporated into the initial treatment plan. In this article, we have derived a mathematical proof for the clinical experience that reduction in the palatal angle, results in lesser denture retention. © Indian Prosthodontic Society 2014.

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2014

Journal Article

Aab Keepanasseril, “PubMed alternatives to search MEDLINE: An environmental scan”, Indian Journal of Dental Research, vol. 25, pp. 527-534, 2014.[Abstract]


The prime objective of this article is to introduce the newer methods to access, search and process MEDLINE citations. It also aims to provide a brief overview of each service's salient features. A targeted search was conducted in MEDLINE through the OVID gateway. This was followed with a search in Google Scholar as well as Google and Bing. Ninety-two web-based services that can be used to search MEDLINE were identified. The list was shortened to 24 by applying a set of relevancy criteria to select those services more relevant to general medical and dental users. Salient features of the selected services are outlined and a use case based classification of the system has been proposed to help dental practitioners and researchers select the appropriate service for a given purpose.

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2014

Journal Article

Na Ramesh, Reddy, MbSathi Rami, Palukunnu, Bc, Shetty, Bd, and P., U., “Mixed dentition space analysis in kodava population: A comparison of two methods”, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 8, pp. ZC01-ZC06, 2014.[Abstract]


Aims: To evaluate the reliability of Tanaka and Johnston and Moyer’s (75th percentile) mixed dentition prediction methods in Kodava population sample, to formulate regression equations for predicting the mesiodistal widths of unerupted canines and premolars and to construct probability tables for the Kodava population. Settings and Design: Data was obtained from Kodava subjects visiting the clinics for routine dental check up. Methods and Material: Dental models of 30 male and 30 female Kodava subjects (age range is 16 - 23 yr) were used. Teeth measured included mandibular permanent incisors, maxillary and mandibular permanent canines, first and second premolars. Digital caliper calibrated to 0.01mm was used to record mesiodistal dimensions. The actual teeth measurements were then statistically compared with the predicted values derived from the Tanaka and Johnston’s equations and Moyers probability tables at the 75th percentile. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics including means, standard deviations were calculated for the actual and predicted tooth sizes. Student’s t-tests were performed to compare the differences between the measured mesiodistal widths of canine, first and second premolars and the predicted values derived from Moyers. Correlation and regression analysis were performed to formulate standard regression equations. Results: Tanaka and Johnston prediction equations overestimated the mesiodistal widths of permanent canines and premolars in both the arches. Moyers 75th percentile also overestimated the actual measurements except for the maxillary arch in female subjects. The percentage of overestimation was more for Tanaka – Johnston prediction method than that of Moyers (75th percentile). Correlation and regression analysis were performed between the predicted and actual tooth size and standard regression equations were developed for the Kodava population. Probability tables were also constructed from the data obtained. Conclusions: The data from present study illustrates the limitation of Tanaka and Johnston regression equations and Moyer’s (75th percentile) chart when applied to Kodava population. From this data, regression equations and probability tables were derived for tooth size prediction for Kodava population. This would be more accurate when applied to local children of Kodava community. © 2014, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

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2014

Journal Article

M. Janardhanan, Rakesh, S., and Savithri, V., “Oral dirofilariasis”, Indian journal of dental research : official publication of Indian Society for Dental Research, vol. 25, pp. 236-239, 2014.[Abstract]


Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

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2014

Journal Article

Kavita Rai and Arun Mamachan Xavier, “Curing of posterior dental composites - A surface microhardness study”, Mat Sci J , vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 218-221, 2014.[Abstract]


Adequate cure of the photo activated polymer and sufficient light intensity isimportant for optimal mechanical properties, polymerization and strength of the composite material. This study establishes the relationship between the light intensities produced by 2 different light curing systems - a Light emitting diode (LED) and a Halogen light curing system, the distance of the curing tip to the composite and its effect on the surface microhardness changes at various depths of 2 dental composite systems. Methodology: Ten samples each of 2 posterior composite materials were prepared at 2 depths using customized moulds and cured at 0mm and 2mm distance from the light source. The Knoop hardness number of the top and bottom surfaces of the blocks were assessed following their respective treatments and subjected to statistical analysis using the paired and unpaired T test (p<0.01).Conclusions: Proximity oflightsource to the photo-activated material influenced the surface hardness of the light activated restorative material. LED produced superior surface hardness than the halogen light curing system, though significant variations werenít observed

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2014

Journal Article

Manju Gopakumar and Arun Mamachan Xavier, “The diagnostic applications of cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in Pediatric Dentistry”, Res Rev J Dent Sci , vol. 2 (Suppl 1), pp. 59-65, 2014.

2014

Journal Article

S. Mohamed and Chandrashekar Janakiram, “Recurrent Aphthous Ulcers Among Tobacco Users- Hospital Based Study”, Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR, vol. 8, pp. ZC64-LC66, 2014.[Abstract]


Current evidence shows ambiguous relationship between tobacco use and the occurrence of aphthous. We studied the relationship between the occurrence of recurrent aphthous ulcers and various forms of tobacco usage. A hospital based case control study was carried out in a dental teaching hospital in Cochin, India. One hundred and two outpatient subjects (Males 56.9%) were identified having aphthous ulceration using Natha's diagnostic criteria and were classified as cases. One hundred and eight subjects (Males, 70.4%) with no aphthous ulceration were selected randomly as controls. Exposure ascertainment of tobacco usage was done by structured interview. The adjusted odd ratio was found to be 0.41 (95% CI 0.19-0.87) for tobacco usage and occurrence of aphthous ulceration compared to non tobacco users. The odds ratio of 0.41 for tobacco usage infers that subjects using tobacco were 59% less likely to have aphthous ulcerations compared to nontobacco users. The tobacco consumers have less frequency of aphthous ulceration compared non users.

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2014

Conference Paper

Chandrashekar Janakiram, “Ethics of dental health screening in communities in India”, in National Bioethics conference in Bangalore India, Bangalore India, 2014.

2014

Journal Article

K. Heggavadip Yogendraswamy, Shiva, B. K. S. N., Agnel, K. Rajay, Dr. Girisankar M., and Madhushankar, G. S., “Kissing molars and hyperplastic dental follicles: report of a case and literature review.”, Chin J Dent Res, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 57-63, 2014.[Abstract]


"Kissing" molars are impacted permanent molars that have occlusal surfaces contacting each other in a single follicular space, with roots pointing in opposite directions. It is deemed to be appropriate to medically investigate mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) in patients presenting with kissing molars as kissing molars have been linked with MPS. The case of bilateral occurrence of kissing molars in an 18-year-old woman is described. Pathological analysis of the follicular tissue suggested hyperplastic dental follicles. Therefore, this case report analysed the association of impacted permanent teeth with hyperplastic dental follicles, following the review of seven documented reports describing such association.

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2014

Journal Article

Dr. Jaini J. L., Mallan, S. Anantha, Murukan, P. Appan, and Zarina, R., “A comparative study on microgap of premade abutments and abutments cast in base metal alloys.”, J Oral Implantol, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 239-49, 2014.[Abstract]


The study compared the marginal accuracy of premade and cast abutments. Premade titanium, stainless steel, and gold abutments formed the control groups. Plastic abutments were cast in nickel-chromium, cobalt-chromium and grade IV titanium. The abutment/implant interface was analyzed. Analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test revealed no significant difference in mean marginal microgap between premade gold and titanium abutments and between premade stainless steel and cast titanium abutments. Statistically significant differences (P < .001) were found among all other groups.

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2014

Journal Article

V. V. Ajith and Dr. Nihal Jayaprakasan, “Bondable transpalatal arch for custom fit”, Journal of Clinical Dental Updates and Research , vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 11-13, 2014.[Abstract]


Anchorage is very critical in orthodontic therapy, especially in Group A anchorage where the extraction spaces are required for alignment and retraction of the anterior dentition. Headgears, soldered Trans Palatal Arch (TPA) and implants are usually used to reinforce anchorage. In patients were oral prophylaxis is difficult and periodontal disease is present its best to avoid banding of molars. In these patients bonded molar tubes are usually used. But soldered TPA cannot be used in such patients therefore compromising anchorage. Here we describe the construction of a custom made bondable TPA which can be used along with bondable tubes. Advantages are that anchorage can be maintained and temporary anchorage devices (TAD) which are costly can be avoided in fairly simple cases.

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2013

Journal Article

U. P., Veeraraghavan, R., Dr. Jaeson Mohanan Painatt, and Nair, P. Pb, “Pneumosinus dilatans multiplex associated with hormonal imbalance”, BMJ Case Reports, 2013.[Abstract]


Pneumosinus dilatans describes an abnormal dilation of one or more paranasal sinuses without radiological evidence of localised bone destruction, hyperostosis or mucous membrane thickening. Dilation of mastoid air cells also occurs rarely along with involvement of paranasal sinuses. This rare combination of unknown aetiology was reported in two cases in the literature and termed 'Pneumosinus Dilatans Multiplex' (PSDM). It is usually asymptomatic, and is detected incidentally on plain radiography, CT or MRI. If left untreated, it can further erode the bone leading to complications such as facial asymmetry, neurological disorders and pathological fractures. The aetiology of the condition remains obscure. Various hypotheses proposed are the presence of gas-forming microorganisms, spontaneous drainage of a mucocele, the presence of a one-way valve, dysregulation of hormonal levels leading to a disturbance of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity. This paper describes a case of PSDM possibly secondary to hormonal disturbance. Copyright 2013 BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

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2013

Journal Article

La Mathew, K. Unni, N., and , “A Mathematical Derivation to Prove Reduced Denture Retention in V Shaped Palate”, Journal of Indian Prosthodontist Society, pp. 1-3, 2013.[Abstract]


The impact of oral health on the quality of life of older individuals have significantly increased over the last few decades. Edentulism substantially affect oral and general health and overall quality of life. Complete denture retention is the resistance to displacement of the denture base away from the ridge which is the main source of psychological comfort for the patient. Special retention problems are seen in patients exhibiting highly tapered steep palatal vault. In these cases a metal base or subsequent bench cure reline procedure would be incorporated into the initial treatment plan. In this article, we have derived a mathematical proof for the clinical experience that reduction in the palatal angle, results in lesser denture retention. © 2013 Indian Prosthodontic Society.

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2013

Journal Article

Manju V. and Sreelal T., “Mandibular Implant-Supported Overdenture: An In Vitro Comparison of Ball, Bar, and Magnetic Attachments”, Journal of Oral Implantology, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 302-307, 2013.[Abstract]


In an implant-supported overdenture, the optimal stress distribution on the implants and least denture displacement is desirable. This study compares the load transfer characteristics to the implant and the movement of overdenture among 3 different types of attachments (ball-ring, bar-clip, and magnetic). Stress on the implant surface was measured using the strain-gauge technique and denture displacement by dial gauge. The ball/O-ring produces the optimal stress on the implant body and promotes denture stability.

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2013

Journal Article

V. Savithri, Janardhanan, M., Dr. Rakesh S., and Kumar, R., “Desmoplastic ameloblastoma with osteoplasia: Review of literature with a case report”, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, vol. 17, pp. 298-301, 2013.[Abstract]


Desmoplastic ameloblastoma (DA) is a relatively rare histological variant of ameloblastoma with specific clinical, radiological, and histological features. This tumor is more commonly seen in the anterior region of jaws as a mixed radiopaque-radiolucent lesion resembling benign fibro-osseous lesions. Histologically, DA is characterized by small nests and strands of «compressed» odontogenic epithelium supported by pronounced collagenized stroma. Metaplastic bone formation has been reported in few cases. This report describes a lesion in the left anterior maxilla of a young female patient.

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PDF iconDesmoplastic-Ameloblastoma-with-Osteoplasia-Review-of-Literature-With-a-Case-Report.pdf

2013

Journal Article

S. Mohamed and Chandrashekar Janakiram, “Periodontal status among tobacco users in Karnataka, India.”, Indian journal of public health, vol. 57, pp. 105-108, 2013.[Abstract]


A cross-sectional study was designed to assess the prevalence of periodontal diseases among tobacco and non-tobacco users. A total of 2,156 dentate subjects were selected in the age group of 35-44 years through multi-stage sampling method. A total of 350 and 175 subjects were selected from household survey from each district in rural and urban areas. Subjects were interviewed for the tobacco usage status, followed by clinical assessment of periodontal status. Prevalence of calculus, periodontal pockets of 4-5 mm depth and loss of attachment of 0-3 mm and 4-5 mm was significantly more frequent among current tobacco users. The subject with smoking and chewing tobacco has an odds ratio (OR) 1.6 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.14-2.31) and OR 1.7 (95% CI 1.38-2.28) respectively. The findings contribute to the evidence of smoking as a risk factor for periodontal disease.

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2013

Journal Article

A. Kumar, Bhat, Vb, Nandini, V. Vc, and Nair, KdChandrasek, “Preliminary impressions in microstomia patients: An innovative technique”, Journal of Indian Prosthodontist Society, vol. 13, pp. 52-55, 2013.[Abstract]


Microstomia has been defined as an abnormally small oral orifice associated with various etiopathologic factors. Management of these patients poses extreme difficulties in every procedure during prosthesis fabrication. Restricted mouth opening of the patient makes the insertion and the removal of the tray extremely difficult. So sectioning of the existing stock tray is necessary, so that the trays can be inserted and removed in sections. The main problem encountered during this procedure is the reorientation of the tray back in position. This article presents an innovative technique for the easy handling of the sectioned stock impression trays. © 2012 Indian Prosthodontic Society.

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2013

Journal Article

P. Singh V. P., Paul, Jb, Al-Khuraif, A. Ac, Vellappally, Sc, Halawany, H. Sd, Hashim, Mc, Abraham, N. Bd, Jacob, Vd, and Thavarajah, Re, “Sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate, calcium phosphate cement, and glass ionomer cement in the repair of furcation perforations.”, Acta medica (Hradec Králové) / Universitas Carolina, Facultas Medica Hradec Králové, vol. 56, pp. 97-103, 2013.[Abstract]


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro sealing ability of three repair materials. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA; Group A), calcium phosphate cement (CPC; Group B), and light cured glass ionomer cement (GIC; Group C) when used to repair the perforation created in the pulpal floor of fifty extracted human permanent molars. Preparation of access openings and furcation perforations were done, and the teeth divided into five experimental groups (A, B, C) including two controls (D, E) with ten samples in each group randomly. Following the repair procedure, the pulp chambers and access openings were filled with composite resin and immersed in 2% methylene blue solution for 48 hours. The teeth were sectioned longitudinally and the linear dye penetration measured under a stereomicroscope. The comparison of the linear length of micro-leakage (mm) among the experimental groups revealed no significant difference (p = 0.332). On calculating the percentage of depth of leakage to the total length of the perforation, it was observed that the mean leakage was 35.5% in Group A, 53.6% in Group B and the highest, 87.5% in Group C. The mean of leakage percentage was statistically significant by Kruskal-Wallis test (p = 0.003). The results indicated that the dye penetration used as furcation perforation repair material was least with mineral trioxide aggregate. Comparing the depth of penetration of dye, 50% of the Group A samples showed less than 25% of depth penetration. While 40% of Group B cases had more than 50% dye penetration. In our study, all Group C teeth had > or = 50% dye penetration. The present study indicated that GIC had the greatest dye penetration followed by CPC and MTA. Mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium phosphate cement had comparatively better sealing ability than glass ionomer cement.

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2013

Journal Article

R. Jose, Chandra, Sb, Puttabuddi, J. Hc, Vellappally, Sde, Khuraif, A. - A. AeAl, Halawany, H. Sfg, Abraham, N. Bf, Jacob, Vf, and Hashim, Mde, “Prevalence of oral and systemic manifestations in pediatric HIV cohorts with and without drug therapy”, Current HIV Research, vol. 11, pp. 498-505, 2013.[Abstract]


The prevalence of orofacial and systemic manifestations and their association with drug therapy in pediatric HIV patients is scarce in the literature. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of oro-facial and systemic manifestations in HIV sero-positive children with and without highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The study population consisted of 100 pediatric HIV patients (n=47 on HAART and n=53 not on HAART). The majority of the children (n=56) had at least one or more oro-facial manifestation associated with HIV. Oral candidiasis was the most common oral finding present in the HAART (14/33) and non-HAART groups (19/33). Recurrent aphthous ulcers was the only significant oral finding, present more in the HAART group. The percentage of children with upper respiratory tract infection was also more in the HAART group. The other lesions which were found to be significant were seborrheic dermatitis, pulmonary tuberculosis and otitis media. There was no significant difference in the participants' oral findings based on CD4 counts in the HAART and non- HAART groups. The prevalence of oral and systemic manifestations is a persistent feature associated with pediatric HIV, though of moderate intensity in those using HAART and may vary according to individual immune status. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

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2013

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier, Kavita Rai, and Amitha M. Hegde, “The total antioxidant capacity of infant feeds at various handling temperatures – a comparative study”, OxidAntioxid Med Sci, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 107-112, 2013.

2013

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier, “Infant oral care – Marking a healthy approach”, Dentcare , vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 14-18, 2013.

2013

Journal Article

Y. KiranH., Dr. Girisankar M., Ophthalmologist, C., and Bharani, S., “Secondary Glaucoma Following Facial Trauma”, Journal of Public health and Medical Research, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 10-11, 2013.[Abstract]


A healthy, 35-year old, male patient reported with left-sided facial trauma and ipsilateral lower extremity injury following a road traffic accident. Two weeks later, he developed hyperesthesia, pain and loss of vision in the left eye. Ophthalmic evaluation revealed cornea haziness, a dilated and fixed pupil and tonometry revealed an intra-ocular pressure of 60mm Hg. Thus, secondary glaucoma was diagnosed. Without delay anti-edema measures consisting of mannitol, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor (acetazolamide) and β-adrenergic antagonistic eye-drops (timolol) were instituted. Results: Within 24 hours, the intra-ocular pressure reduced to 28mm of Hg and his vision gradually improved. The patient thereafter was put on topical anti-glaucoma medication and topical steroids for two weeks following which the IOP returned to normalcy; no inflammatory signs were noted and his medications were gradually tapered. Conclusion: Health care professionals need to be aware of the possible occurrence of such emergencies in cases of facial trauma, especially those presenting with head injury. Because head injury can similarly present with unilateral head ache, vomiting and photophobia, such symptoms have to be differentiated from those observed in secondary glaucoma, clinically. This consequently would eliminate diagnostic ambiguity. Since glaucoma is a sight-threatening emergency, extreme vigilance for such signs and symptoms is deemed necessary for immediate referral and management.

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2013

Journal Article

Dr. Jaini J. L., “Prosthodontic rehabilitation using chair side CAD/CAM: An insight into applications challenges and future trends.”, Kerala Dental Journal, 2013.

2013

Journal Article

D. Saravanan, Ramkumar, S., and Vineetha Karuveettil, “Effect of oil pulling with sesame oil on plaque-induced gingivitis: a microbiological study”, Journal of Dent Orofacial Res, vol. 3, pp. 175-180, 2013.

2012

Journal Article

Ta Preethee, Kandaswamy, Db, and Hannah, Rb, “Molecular identification of an Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis antigen efaA in root canals of therapy-resistant endodontic infections”, Journal of Conservative Dentistry, vol. 15, pp. 319-322, 2012.[Abstract]


Introduction: Enterococcus faecalis has long been implicated in persistent root canal infections and therapy-resistant endodontic infections. It has also been associated with bacteremia, that is, infective endocarditis arising from certain invasive dental procedures. E. faecalis endocarditis antigen (efaA) has been identified as one of the principal virulence factors associated with infective endocarditis. Aim: To detect the presence of putative E. faecalis virulence factor, efaA in root canals of therapy-resistant endodontic infections using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Materials and Methods: Samples were obtained from 32 patients (20-70 years) undergoing endodontic retreatment, which were incubated in prereduced thioglycollate broth and subcultured onto ethyl violet azide broth (EVA; selective medium for E. faecalis). Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from the samples and analyzed for the endocarditis virulence factor efaA using PCR. Results: Among the positive E. faecalis samples, efaA gene was identified in 11 out of 15 samples. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that efaA, a potent E. faecalis virulence gene can be found in E. faecalis strains detected in root canals of therapy-resistant endodontic infections similar to reports for ′medical′ strains.

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2012

Journal Article

Sa Kurup, Thankappan, Kb, Dr. Nitin A. Krishnan, and Nair, P. Pc, “Intraoral schwannoma - A report of two cases”, BMJ Case Reports, 2012.[Abstract]


Schwannomas, also known as neurilemmomas, are uncommon neoplasms, derived from schwann cells. These neoplasms, although rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of slow growing tumour masses of the oral cavity. The growth of these tumours sometimes causes displacement and compression of the nerve of origin, giving rise to clinical signs and symptoms. It can develop at any age and there is no sex predilection. Intraorally, the tongue is the most common site followed by the palate, floor of the mouth, buccal mucosa, lips and jaws. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for schwannomas, with few reports of recurrence or malignant transformation. In this paper, the authors report two cases of patients with intraoral schwannoma, where the preoperative clinical diagnosis was inconclusive and final diagnosis was established based on radiographic and histopathological examination. Copyright 2012 BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

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2012

Journal Article

K. Ra Biniraj, Sagir, Mb, Sunil, M. Mc, and Janardhanan, M., “Clinical attachment level gain and bone regeneration around a glass ionomer restoration on root surface wall of periodontal pocket”, Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology, vol. 16, pp. 442-445, 2012.[Abstract]


A case describing perio-restorative management of an accidental trauma in the mid portion of root on an upper left canine tooth following an ostectomy surgery is presented here. The traumatized root area was undergoing fast resorption and a chronic periodontal abscess had developed in relation to the lesion. The article illustrates the clinical and radiographic photo series of a periodontal flap surgery done to gain access into a subgingival region for the placement of Glass ionomer restoration on the root and its periodic follow up. The clinical condition of the area suggests 8 mm clinical attachment gain over the restoration and the review radiographs at definite intervals up to 18 months revealed evidence of consistent bone regeneration around the restoration. The article also highlights the various other possibilities, where this restorative material can be effectively used in conjunction with periodontal surgical procedures.

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2012

Journal Article

L. Pa Rao, Shukla, Mc, Sharma, Vb, and Pandey, Mb, “Mandibular conservation in oral cancer”, Surgical Oncology, vol. 21, pp. 109-118, 2012.[Abstract]


Surgery is one of the established modes of initial definitive treatment for a majority of oral cancers. Invasion of bony or cartilaginous structures by advanced upper aero-digestive tract cancer has been considered an indication for primary surgery on the basis of historic experience of poor responsiveness to radiation therapy [1]. The mandible is a key structure both in the pathology of intra-oral tumours and their surgical management. It bars easy surgical access to the oral cavity, yet maintaining its integrity is vital for function and cosmesis. Management of tumours that involve or abut the mandible requires specific understanding of the pattern of spread and routes of tumour invasion into the mandible. This facilitates the employment of mandibular sparing approaches like marginal mandibulectomy and mandibulotomy, as opposed to segmental or hemimandibulectomy which causes severe functional problems, as the mandibular continuity is lost. Accurate preoperative assessment that combines clinical examination and imaging along with the understanding of the pattern of spread and routes of invasion is essential in deciding the appropriate level and extent of mandibular resection in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Studies have shown that local control rates achieved with marginal mandibulectomy are comparable with that of segmental mandibulectomy. In carefully selected patients, marginal mandibulectomy is an oncologically safe procedure to achieve good local control and provides a better quality of life. This article aims to review the mechanism of spread, evaluation and prognosis of mandibular invasion, various techniques and role of mandibular conservation in oral squamous cell carcinoma. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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2012

Journal Article

S. Kurup, Thankappan, K., Krishnan, N., and Nair, P. P., “Intraoral schwannoma–a report of two cases.”, BMJ case reports, vol. 2012, 2012.[Abstract]


Schwannomas, also known as neurilemmomas, are uncommon neoplasms, derived from schwann cells. These neoplasms, although rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of slow growing tumour masses of the oral cavity. The growth of these tumours sometimes causes displacement and compression of the nerve of origin, giving rise to clinical signs and symptoms. It can develop at any age and there is no sex predilection. Intraorally, the tongue is the most common site followed by the palate, floor of the mouth, buccal mucosa, lips and jaws. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for schwannomas, with few reports of recurrence or malignant transformation. In this paper, the authors report two cases of patients with intraoral schwannoma, where the preoperative clinical diagnosis was inconclusive and final diagnosis was established based on radiographic and histopathological examination.

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2012

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier, Kavita Rai, Amitha M. Hegde, and Saurabh Joshi, “Hereditary Oro-facial Digital Syndrome Type 1: Diagnosis and Management-case Report”, European Journal of Dentistry and Medicine, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1-7, 2012.[Abstract]


Oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFD1) is characterized by an X-linked dominant mode of inheritance with lethality in males. It presents with peculiar malformations in the oral cavity and defects in the face and digits of the upper and lower extremities. Accurate diagnosis following clinical investigations by allied health professionals is indispensable to plan out a systematic management protocol in these victims in order to minimize future odontogenic problems. This report presented a unique case of females in a family suffering from manifestations of OFD1 syndrome since three generations. The characteristic clinical features of all the female members were promptly identified, investigated and the inter-disciplinary management protocol that was systematically instituted is depicted in this report.

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2012

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier, Kavita Rai, and Amitha M. Hegde, “Preventative protocols and management of oral pathologies in chronic kidney disease: an update”, Biol Biomed Rep, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1-9, 2012.[Abstract]


The systemic condition of patients with kidney failure has oral manifestations and specific implications for dental treatment. Few segments of the population need dental services as desperately as do patients receiving hemodialysis or kidney transplants. In this ever increasing group of patients, dental disease may have consequences much more serious than the loss of function, esthetics, and comfort. Dental problems may compromise the patient's general health and hinder medical efforts to either maintain or replace vital kidney functions. Specifically, the dentist must consider bleeding tendency, risk of infection and medications before treating the patient. Oral and dental health has served as a valuable indicator in measuring the prognosis of chronic kidney disease, while, its role in diagnosing renal pathosis requires to be explored further. This manuscript reviews pertinent information to help medical and dental professionals systematically treat patients who exhibit oral and systemic manifestations of renal disease, from the onset of renal impairment through hemodialysis.

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2012

Conference Paper

Chandrashekar Janakiram, “Knowledge attitudes and practices of Healthcare ethics among medical and dental postgraduates in Kerala”, in Indian Medical Ethics conference Jaipur India , Jaipur India , 2012.

2012

Conference Paper

Chandrashekar Janakiram, “User perception of Pictorial warnings in tobacco products in Ernakulum in India”, in World conference on tobacco or health, Singapore, 2012.

2012

Journal Article

P. Vijayavel, .M.Praveena, N., Ramani, P., and Aravind M. S., “Parotid Sialolitiasis”, Int J Dent Case Reports, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 47-49, 2012.

2012

Journal Article

D. Kiran Neswi, Shivabharani, D., D., D. Rajay A., Kamath,, and Dr. Girisankar M., “Delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction- a case report”, CODS- Journal of Dentistry, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 15-19, 2012.

2011

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier, Kavita Rai, and Amitha M. Hegde, “Total antioxidant concentrations of breastmilk-an eye-opener to the negligent”, Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, vol. 29, pp. 605-611, 2011.[Abstract]


The balance between free radical production and antioxidant defenses in the body has important systemic and oral health implications. There is convincing evidence that breastmilk containing antioxidants is important in the prevention of diseases in infancy. This study compared the total antioxidant concentration of human breastmilk expressed at different stages of lactation, stored at various temperatures and durations. Expressed breastmilk (EBM) samples of the third, seventh and 30th day were collected from women who had term and preterm deliveries (n=20). Another cohort of women (n=20) was also assessed; these women were more than five months postpartum and lactating. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of EBM was assessed at zero hours at room temperature, at 48 hours, one week post-refrigeration (4 °C), and freezing (-8 °C) respectively using the phosphomolybdenum method. The highest antioxidant levels were found in colostrum. The TAC of EBM reduced with time and at post-refrigeration and after freezing (p<0.0005). No significant difference in the mean TAC was observed between the EBM samples obtained from women with either term or preterm deliveries. The progressive loss of antioxidant content of EBM emphasizes the need of awareness and curtailment of the practice of storing and later use of EBM. © International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.

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2011

Journal Article

Chandrashekar Janakiram, Manjunath, B. C., and Unnikrishnan, M., “Addressing tobacco control in dental practice: a survey of dentists' knowledge, attitudes and behaviours in India.”, Oral health & preventive dentistry, vol. 9, pp. 243-249, 2011.[Abstract]


Dental professionals are strategically placed to be the leaders in tobacco prevention and cessation as they provide preventive and therapeutic services to a basically healthy population on a regular basis. The objective of this study was to assess the tobacco cessation knowledge, attitudes and behaviours of dental practitioners in Kochi (Cochin), Kerala, India. A sampling frame of dentists enrolled in the Indian Dental Association (IDA), Kochi (Cochin) branch, practising in Ernakulam city, was obtained from the IDA. The letter describing the rationale for the study contained a 35-item pre-tested questionnaire and was personally delivered along with a stamped envelope. One hundred fourteen dentists returned a usable questionnaire. Data were entered and analysed using SPSS 12. Frequencies were calculated for all variables. Based on the responding dentists' self-reports, 54.6% were not confident in tobacco cessation counselling, 10.6% never asked, 60.9% asked in 50% of their patients about tobacco use and 17.6% of the dentists surveyed were smokers themselves. Participating dentists perceived that they were interested in using tobacco cessation counselling, but were not sure of quitting rates in their patients. The average time spent counselling patients about tobacco cessation was less than 2 minutes. The dentists perceived that lack of formal training leads to less motivation about tobacco counselling and hence infrequently incorporated tobacco cessation into their dental practices. The cessation of tobacco habits among dentists is essential.

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2011

Journal Article

M. Janardhanan, Dr. Rakesh S., and Kumar, R. B. V., “Intraoral presentation of multiple malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors associated with neurofibromatosis-1”, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, vol. 15, pp. 46-51, 2011.[Abstract]


Neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1) is a relatively common autosomal dominant disease characterized by multiple cutaneous fibromatoses and café au lait spots. It is associated with the mutation of NF-1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 17q11.2. Hence, it can be considered as a familial cancer predisposition syndrome in which the affected individuals are at increased risk of developing malignancies. Intraoral neurofibromas associated with NF-1 are quite common, but the occurrence of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) in the oral cavity is very rare. Oral MPNST can occur either de novo or by malignant transformation of neurofibromas or very rarely can represent a metastatic lesion. Here, we present a case of MPNST involving the maxillary region, in a patient with NF-1. Since MPNST often creates a diagnostic dilemma, histopathologic criteria for the diagnosis of MPNST are also discussed.

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PDF iconIntraoral-Presentation-of-Multiple-Malignant-Peripheral-Nerve-Sheath-Tumors-Associated-with-Neurofibromatosis-1.pdf

2011

Journal Article

Pa Rajendran, Varghese, N. Ob, Varughese, J. Mb, and Murugaian, Ec, “Evaluation, using extracted human teeth, of Ricetral as a storage medium for avulsions - an in vitro study”, Dental Traumatology, vol. 27, pp. 217-220, 2011.[Abstract]


The prognosis of teeth replanted following avulsion is determined by the extra-alveolar time and storage medium used. This study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of an oral rehydration solution 'Ricetral', in retaining the vitality of periodontal ligament cells when used as a storage medium for avulsed teeth prior to replantation. The study consisted of a comparative evaluation between Ricetral and two currently recommended solutions, Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and milk. Thirty extracted teeth were dried for 30min and soaked in the respective storage media for 45min. The periodontal ligament cells were isolated by an enzyme treatment with collagenase and trypsin. The cells were evaluated for vitality by trypan blue staining and number of vital cells counted in a hemocytometer. Statistical analysis revealed that cell vitality was high with Ricetral and HBSS, but poor with milk. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. More »»

2011

Journal Article

Dr. Rakesh S., Janardhanan, M., Joseph, A. Pa, Vinodkumar, R. Ba, and Peter, Sb, “A Rare Case of Dentigerous Cyst in a One Year Old Child: The Earliest Known Reported Occurrence”, Head and Neck Pathology, vol. 5, pp. 171-174, 2011.[Abstract]


Dentigerous cysts are developmental odontogenic jaw cysts, commonly manifesting in the second and third decades of life. Very few of these cysts have been reported in children younger than 10 years of age. This article describes a rare case of dentigerous cyst in a 1-year-old boy, the youngest case to be documented. The clinical, radiographic and histopathologic features are discussed; the increased possibility of occurrence of these cysts at a very young age and the importance of timely diagnosis of such cysts to avoid future complications is emphasized. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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PDF iconA-Rare-Case-of-Dentigerous-Cyst-in-a-One-Year-Old-Child-The-Earliest-Known-Reported-Occurrence.pdf

2011

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier, “Aesthetic restorative materials and aerated beverage consumption – How safe?”, Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, vol. 29 (Suppl 1), no. S11-12, Abstract 38, 2011.

2011

Journal Article

Preeth Shetty and Arun Mamachan Xavier, “Management of a talon cusp using mineral trioxide aggregate.”, Int Endod J, vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 1061-1068, 2011.[Abstract]


AIM: To report on the successful conservative management of three patients having a talon cusp with pulpal involvement using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA).

SUMMARY: Mineral trioxide aggregate was used to induce hard-tissue formation following the direct pulp capping of a resected talon cusp in three cases.

KEY LEARNING POINTS:
• Talon cusp is an odontogenic anomaly which can cause occlusal interferences, displacement of the affected tooth, caries-susceptible developmental grooves and speech difficulties
• Direct pulp capping using MTA following the resection of a talon cusp is a suitable treatment option.

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2011

Journal Article

A. B and Varma, B., “Management of a Dentigerous Cyst: A Two-Year Review”, International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry, 2011.[Abstract]


Dentigerous cyst is reported to be one of the most common odontogenic cysts of the jaws.1,2 The most commonly involved teeth are mandibular third molars, maxillary canines, maxillary third molars and rarely maxillary anteriors.2,3 This case report is about the management of a dentigerous cyst associated with a mandibular second molar (37) in a 9-year-old girl by a conservative treatment plan of marsupialization of the cyst.

A 2-year postsurgical review reveals complete disappearance of the cystic lesion and normal alignment of 37 and 38.

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2011

Journal Article

A. Jacob, “Compliance to Recall Visits by Patients with Periodontics”, Journal of Indian Society of Periodontics, 2011.

2011

Journal Article

M. Janardhanan, Umadethan, B., Biniraj, K. R., Kumar, R. B. Vinod, and Rakesh, S., “Neonatal Line as a Linear Evidence of Live Birth: Estimation of Postnatal Survival of a New born from Primary Tooth Germs”, Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences, vol. 3, pp. 8-13, 2011.

2011

Journal Article

F. H. Hirata, Kurup, S., John, P., and Johny, J., “Oral Health and Quality of Life Assessment within the Indian Population”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 17 - 23, 2011.

2011

Journal Article

M. Janaradhanan, “Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor – Report of a Rare Case”, Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology Journal, 2011.

2011

Journal Article

Chandrashekar Janakiram, Thankappan, K. R., and Sundaram, K. R., “P2-518 Sorghum consumption modifies the effect of fluoride on dental fluorosis in India”, Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, vol. 65, pp. A364-A364, 2011.[Abstract]


Background Dental fluorosis is a major public health problem in 17 states of India. Earlier studies reported that sorghum {a type of millet, (jowar)} consumption interacts with fluoride in the body and enhances fluorosis. Objectives This study was carried out to explore the potential association between sorghum consumption and severity of dental fluorosis. Methods A community based case control study was carried out in villages having different fluoride levels (high, medium and low) in drinking water in Davangere, India. 352 school Children (12?15?years, male 58 %) with severe grades of dental fluorosis classified by Thylstrup & Fejerskov Index (scores 4?9) were selected as cases. 428 school children (12?15?years, male 48.8%) with no dental fluorosis were selected randomly from the same area as controls. Exposure ascertainment of jowar consumption was done by 24-h diet recall and food frequency questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS version 17. Results Children who consumed jowar had 2.67 times more chance of getting severe dental fluorosis compared to those who did not (OR 2.67, CI 1.98 to 3.62). The ORs for jowar consumption and dental fluorosis were 1.59, 3.18 and 3.76 at each stratum, for low, medium and high fluoride villages respectively. The Mantel-Haenszel OR was 2.58 (p value=0.001) which was similar to crude OR. The test of homogeneity (Breslow test) showed p value=0.05. Conclusions Sorghum consumption modifies the effect of fluoride in occurrence of severity of dental fluorosis in this population.

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2011

Journal Article

Dr. Jaini J. L., “Chondroblastic osteosarcoma of maxilla”, Kerala Dental Journal, 2011.

2010

Journal Article

Chandrashekar Janakiram, Thankappan, K. Rb, and Sundaram, K. Rc, “Severe dental fluorosis and jowar consumption in Karnataka, India”, Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, vol. 38, pp. 559-567, 2010.[Abstract]


Chandrashekar J, Thankappan KR, Sundaram KR. Severe dental fluorosis and jowar consumption in Karnataka, India. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2010; 38: 559-567. Ǎ 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract-Introduction: Dental fluorosis is a major public health problem in 17 states of India. Earlier studies have reported that Jowar (a type of millet) consumption interacts with fluoride (F) in the body and enhances fluorosis. We conducted this study to determine the association between jowar consumption and severity of dental fluorosis. Methods: A community based case control study was carried out in villages having different F levels (low, medium, and high) in drinking water in North Karnataka, India. 352 school Children (12-15years, male 58%) with severe dental fluorosis classified by Thylstrup & Fejerskov Index (1988) were selected as cases. 428 school children (12-15years, male 48.8%) with no dental fluorosis were selected randomly from the same area as controls. Exposure ascertainment of jowar consumption was done by 24-h diet recall and food frequency questionnaire. Ion selective electrode method was used to estimate the F level in spot urine samples of subjects and in drinking water. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS V. 11.01 Results: Children who consumed jowar had 2.67 times more chance of getting severe dental fluorosis compared to those who did not [Odds Ratio (OR) 2.67, CI 1.98-3.62]. Children from high F level villages (OR 1.91, CI 1.27-2.85) had higher odds of severe dental fluorosis compared to children from medium and low F level villages. Daily jowar consumers (OR 2.14, CI 1.64-3.09) and weekly consumers (OR 1.68, CI 1.31-3.45) had higher risk for dental fluorosis compared to non jowar consumers. Children who started consuming jowar before 8years of age had significantly higher proportion of severe dental fluorosis compared to their counterparts. Urinary F excretion among jowar consumers was significantly lower than non-jowar consumers. Conclusions: Jowar consumption was positively associated with severity of dental fluorosis in this population. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

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2010

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier and Amitha M. Hegde, “The tell tale of a bite mark – Call for action for Pediatric specialists”, Medico-Legal Update, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-4, 2010.[Abstract]


Child abuse has serious physical and psycho-social consequences which adversely affect the health and overall well-being of a child. Bite mark injuries are one of the several visual expressions of active child abuse and sexual assault. Health professionals ought to be attentive to any and all signs of child maltreatment. This paper highlights the importance of pediatric specialists in recognizing and protecting children inflicted with bite mark injuries.

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2010

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier and Amitha M. Hegde, “Preventive protocols and oral management in childhood leukemia--the pediatric specialist's role”, Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 39-43, 2010.[Abstract]


The leukemias are the most common form of childhood malignancy. The pediatric dental professional plays a major role in the prevention, stabilization and treatment of the oral and dental problems that can compromise the child's health and quality of life before, during and after the cancer treatment. This manuscript highlights the incidence of oral complications in leukemic children receiving oncology treatment and the systematic preventive protocol followed during different phases of medical treatment.

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2010

Journal Article

Amitha M. Hegde, Kavita Rai, and Arun Mamachan Xavier, “Tailoring oral health needs through a dental home: A Necessity”, Indian Dentist Research and Review, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 66-68, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

S. Jayakumar, U.K. Menon, Arun Mamachan Xavier, and Bini Faizal, “Odontogenic Pansinusitis with Orbital Cellulitis in a child”, Amrita J Med., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 39-40, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

R. Vylopillil, “Papillon Lefevre Syndrome- Case Report”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, no. 2, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

N. K. Sapana and Ramesh, N., “A Smile without Braces: Lingual Orthodontics”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 3-6, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

Alexander, “Clinical Drug Trials in Dentistry”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 9-12, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

K. Biju, Janardhanan, K., and Francis, P. G., “Micro-Implants; Pushing the Limits of Traditional Orthodontics”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 13-17, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

T. Thomas, Mathew, A., Gopikrishnan,, and Philipose, N., “Impact of Dentist - Patient Relationships on Clinical Outcomes”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 18-20, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

B. James and Singh, P., “Rhinosinusitis and Endondontic Disease”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, no. 1, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

V. Kumar, “A Localized Gingival Enlargement as Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 25-27, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

P. Jayachandran, “Management of Peri Implantitis”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 28-31, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

A. Mathew, Thomas, T., and V. V. Ajith, “Management of Amelogenesis Imperfecta”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 32-33, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

A. Induchudan, “Platelet rich Plasma for the Treatment of Periodontal Osseous Defects- A Report of Two Cases”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 34-36, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

V. V. Ajith, Biju, K., Peter, S., and Ushass, P., “Management of Skeletal Class III Malocclusion in an Adult Patient- Case Report”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

V. Manju, Anil, M., and Nair, V. P., “Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Exenteration Defects- Case Reports”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 41-42, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

Sowmya, “Lateral Displaced Flap- A Case Series”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 43-44, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

Angel Fenol, Janam, P., and Tennyson, S., “Periodontal Disease A Risk Factor for Coronary Heart Disease”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 29-33, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

S. J. Kumar, “Oral Conscious Sedation in Pediatric Dentistry”, Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 10-12, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

G. Anjana, “Importance of Early Management and Effect of Treatment Delay on Healing of Traumatized Young Permanent Teeth”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 23-26, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

Dr. Jaini J. L., “An immediate denture with unusual bone morphology.”, International Journal of Arab Dentistry Official publication of Society of Arab Dental faculties and Saint- Joseph University of Beirut, 2010.

2009

Journal Article

Manju V. and Anil Mathew, “Case Report - Prosthetic rehabilitation of facial defect with silicone prosthesis”, Kerala Dental Journal , vol. 32, no. 3, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

Manju V. and Nair, V. P., “Fabrication of silicone auricular prosthesis”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, no. 1, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

Anil Mathew, Kepanasseril, A., Gopikrishnan,, and Manju V., “Assessment of the rheological properties of poly methyl methacrylate incorporated with 30% volume of highly drawn linear polyethylene fibres: An invitro study”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 27-34, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

Manju V. and Vinodkrishnan, “Ocular defects Rehabilitation”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, no. 1, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

Amitha M. Hegde and Arun Mamachan Xavier, “Childhood Habits: Ignorance is not Bliss- A Prevalence Study”, International journal of clinical pediatric dentistry, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 26 - 29, 2009.[Abstract]


Underneath the ignorance of adverse oral habits and general health practices in children proved to fetch harm, lies the basis and the motive in carrying out this study. This survey screened a total of 2636 children between the age group 4 and 15 years, residing in areas in South Kanara district and the prevalence of the adverse habits were assessed using a questionnaire and clinical examination. 526 students (19.95%) were found to be victims of adverse oral habits with nail biting being the most prevalent habit and bruxism, the least. Though the overall percentage of knowledge on basic body cleanliness was good, a small fraction weren't aware, thus posing the necessity of educating children right from home and school and thus ensuring that the health of ones child is safe and secure.

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2009

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier, Kavita Rai, and Amitha M. Hegde, “The richest Infant feed – a tested Approach”, International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, vol. 19 (Suppl 1), no. 54, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

M. Pandey, Rao, L. P., and Das, S. R., “Predictors of Mandibular Involvement in Cancers of the Oromandibular Region”, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 67, pp. 1069 - 1073, 2009.[Abstract]


Purpose Invasion of the mandible by oral squamous carcinoma is not only a relative contraindication to mandible conservation but also an indicator of poor prognosis. This study looks at clinical, radiologic, and operative variables that may help in predicting mandibular bone involvement. Patients and Methods A prospective study was carried out to evaluate the mandibular involvement and its predictors in 51 cases of oral squamous carcinoma located in the mandibular region. All patients underwent segmental- or hemimandibulectomy. A detailed clinical examination was followed by radiologic assessment and operative assessment. Statistic analysis was carried out by χ2 test (odds ratio [OR] with a significance level of 5%). Multivariate analysis was carried out by logistic regression analysis. Results Univariate analysis identified location of tumor on lower alveolus (OR = 8.5), sensory disturbances of inferior alveolar nerve (OR = 16.2), location of tumor within 1 cm of mandible (OR = 1.4), presence of findings on periosteal striping (OR = 2.0) like subperiosteal reaction (OR = 3.5), cortical expansion (OR = 8.8) and presence of pathologic fracture (OR = 2.3) as predictor of bone invasion. Grade of tumor (P = .05) and radiologic bone involvement (P = .02) were found to be significant independent predictors of pathologic bone involvement on multivariate analysis. Conclusions It is possible to identify mandibular invasion in almost all cases of oral squamous carcinoma by combining clinical examination, radiologic findings, and findings on periosteal stripping. This helps surgeons to make an informed preoperative and intraoperative decision about mandibular conservation. However, one should be careful when evaluating bone involvement on periosteal stripping as this cannot be recommended as a method of choice due to fear of tumor dissemination and violation of oncologic principles.

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2009

Journal Article

Jayasree, “Importance of Maintaining Records in Dental Practice”, Bulletin of Indian Dental Association, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

Manju V., “Prosthetic Rehabilitation of a Facial Defect with Silicone”, Kerala Dental Journal, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

J. B. and Singh, P., “Visual Enhancement in Endodontics”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 3-6, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

M. Janardhanan and Biniraj, K. R., “Oral Lichen Planus- A Cellular Orchestra”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 7-9, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

V. Ravi, “The Role Of Distraction Osteogenesis in Craniomaxillary Surgery”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 10-17, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

P. Singh and James, B., “Regenerative Endodontics”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 18-21, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

C. M. Sapna and Priya, R., “Normal Versus Aberrant: Variation in Root Canal Morphology”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 22-24, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

R. Mathew, “Odontoma- A Cause for Delayed Eruption”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 25-26, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

M. Anil, Gopikrishnan, K., and Manju, V., “Assessment of the Rheologic Properties of Poly Methylacrylate Incorporated with 30% Volume of highly Drawn Linear Polymethylene Fibres: An Invitro Study”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 27-34, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

V. Krishnan, “Management of Maxillary Anterior Bridge Failure Using Immediately Loaded Dental Implants: A Case Reports”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 35-37, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

S. Peter, Latha, P. R., Ushass, P., and Mahajan, S., “Naso-Alveolar Moulding : A useful Adjunct to Cleft surgery”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 38-40, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

N. K. Sapna and V. V. Ajith, “Treatment Options for Missing Maxillary Lateral Incisors”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 41-44, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

Angel, “A Glimpse of Dental Science”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 2-2, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

P. Jayachandran, “Periodontal Vaccine”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 3-6, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

S. Rakesh and Vidya, M., “Mast cells in Oral Health and Diseases”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

B. James and Singh, P., “Lasers In Endodontics”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

G. Anjana, “Dental Implications of Juvenile Diabetes”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 15-16, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

V. V. Ajith, Sapna, N. K., and Janardhanan, K., “Gnathological Slints for Neuromuscular Deprogramming in TMD Patients”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, no. 2, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

K. Arun, Anil, M., and Sapna, C. M., “Gaming Technology in Medical and Dental Education”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 21-24, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

P. Ushass, “Management of TMJ Ankylosis: An Overview”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 25-31, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

K. Janardhanan, “Ex - vivo Evaluation of a Light Cured Glass Ionomer Orthodontic Bonding Cement”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 32-36, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

M. Anil, Chandrashekhar, J., Arun, K., and Praveen, P. A., “Relevance of H.Pounds Formula to Indian Population”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 35-37, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

N. K. Sapna, Francis, P. G., and Varma, B. R., “Submergence as an Etiologic Factor for First Permanent Molar Impaction”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 39-41, 2009.

2009

Conference Proceedings

A. Keepanasseril, Mathew, A., Chandrashekar Janakiram, and Muddappa, S. C., “Effectiveness of Remote- Interceptive- Preventive Prosthodontic Programme in Rural India”, Journal of Dental Research 2009, vol. 88. Amrita School of Dentistry, Kochi, India, 2009.[Abstract]


Objectives: Rural (71%) India has little access to quality Prosthodontic care. Only treatment available for failing dentition is total extraction and construction of conventional complete dentures. This sets up irreversible residual ridge resorption (RRR) making denture cripples out of many of them. The study aimed at examining the effectiveness of utilizing teledentistry to provide preventive interceptive Prosthodontic treatment (over dentures) by a general dentist at rural sites supervised by prosthodontists at a university hospital.
Methods: A comparative study was carried out in 60 pre-edentulous patients, 30 each at university hospital and a remote rural site. Over dentures were fabricated for all of them by identically pre-trained general dentists. Direct supervision at predetermined intervals was provided to dentist at the hospital. The remote dentists were guided using teledentistry unit of Amrita University. Evaluation was carried out by 3 independent examiners for diagnostic competency, quality of secondary impressions and trial dentures . A post insertion functional assessment by using Functional assessment of Dentures (FAD) criteria also done. Subjective evaluation was determined by completion of Oral Health-Related Impacts on Quality of Life questionnaire before starting treatment and one month post insertion. The data was analyzed using SPSS Version 11.5.

Results: There was no significant difference in scores of evaluating criteria in diagnostic competency, quality of secondary impressions trial dentures and post insertion functional assessment between two groups. Statistically significant improvement in the OHIP domains of functional limitation and physical and psychological disability was seen in both groups.

Conclusion: Preventive and interceptive prosthodontic treatment provided by sufficiently trained general dentist supervised remotely is a viable and cost effective approach .

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2009

Conference Paper

Chandrashekar Janakiram, “Relationship of Dental Fluorosis and Malnutrition in Kolar India”, in 86th General assembly of International Academy of Dental Research, Miami USA , 2009.

2008

Journal Article

Sab Vellappally, Jacob, Vab, Smejkalová, Jab, Shriharsha, Pc, Kumar, Vd, and Fiala, Zae, “Tobacco habits and oral health status in selected Indian population”, Central European Journal of Public Health, vol. 16, pp. 77-84, 2008.[Abstract]


This cross-sectional study was aimed at possible relationships between tobacco habits and selected behavior characteristics in an adult sample from India. Contemporaneous clinical examination comprised an intra-oral examination with specific emphasise to dental caries status in the form of DMFT (Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth) index. The study comprised 805 subjects in the age group from 30 to 69 years (72% of males and 28% of females). The participants were divided into regular smokers, occasional smokers, ex-smokers, tobacco chewers and non-tobacco users. The highest prevalence of oral mucosal lesions were found in tobacco chewers (22.7 %) followed by regular smokers (12.9 %), occasional smokers (8.6%), ex-smokers (5.1%) and non tobacco users (2.8%) (p < 0.001). The mean number of decayed teeth was highest in tobacco chewers (6.96) followed by regular smokers (6.44) and ex-smokers (5.5) (p < 0.001 ). The mean number of missing teeth was highest in the group of regular smokers (1.9) and lowest in non-tobacco users (1.53), but the results were not statistically significant (p = 0.529). The mean number of filled teeth were highest in the group of tobacco chewers (3.67) followed by regular smokers (3.29) (p < 0.001). DMFT value of tobacco chewers, regular smokers and ex-smokers is higher when compared to non-tobacco users (p < 0.001). The study documents that chewing tobacco and smoking can present significant risk factors for dental caries. However, the conclusions are burdened by some limitations. Further studies for investigation of the effect of tobacco using on dental caries are needed.

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2008

Journal Article

S. M and Chandrashekar Janakiram, “Dental Waste Management of Private Dental Practitioners in Bangalore City”, International Dental Journal , vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 51-4, 2008.

2008

Conference Proceedings

Chandrashekar Janakiram, “Jowar consumption predicts the Severity of Dental Fluorosis”, International Academy of Dental Resarch. Toronto, 2008.

2008

Conference Paper

Chandrashekar Janakiram, “Jowar Consumption Predicts the risk of Dental Fluorosis in India ”, in 85th General Assembly of International Academy of Dental Research , Toronto Canada , 2008.

2008

Conference Paper

Chandrashekar Janakiram, “Addressing Tobacco Control: Knowledge Attitudes Practices of Dentist in Cochin India”, in National Emerging Issues in Public Health India, Trivandrum, India, 2008.

2008

Journal Article

Dr. Jaini J. L., “Immediate dentures- An innovative approach with anterior trial.”, Kerala Dental Journal, 2008.

2007

Journal Article

L. P. Rao, “Patterns of Mandibular Invasion in Oral SCC of Mandibular Region”, World Journal of Surgical Oncology, 2007.

2007

Journal Article

L. P. Rao, “Methods Indications and Morbidity Profile of Various Facial Translocation and Approaches”, International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 2007.

2007

Journal Article

P. Ushas, Kuriakose, M. A., Peter, S., Chatni, S., Rao, L. P., and Veeraraghavan, R., “Mandibulotomy for Maxillectomy”, International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 36, no. 11, 2007.

2007

Journal Article

R. Veeraragahavan, M. Kuriakose, A., Iyer, S., Krishnakumar, T., Rao, L. P., and Ushas, P., “3D CT - based Contouring of Free Fibula Bone Graft for Mandibular Reconstruction”, International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 36, 2007.

2007

Journal Article

P. R, “Conservative Options for Root Stumps”, Kerala Dental Journal, 2007.

2007

Journal Article

P. Singh, “Management of Palatogingival Groove”, Kerala Dental Journal, 2007.

2007

Conference Proceedings

Chandrashekar Janakiram and Thankappan, K. R., “Risk of Jowar consumption associated with severity of dental fluorosis in north Karnataka, India”, 39th APACPH conference 22-25, November 2007. Saitama Japan, 2007.

2006

Conference Paper

Chandrashekar Janakiram, “Primary Dental Care or Primary Dental Clinic”, in Second National PG Convention of IAPHD, Bangalore, India, 2006.

2005

Journal Article

Aa Stalin, Varma, Bbc, and Jayanthi, Ja, “Comparative evaluation of tensile-bond strength, fracture mode and microleakage of fifth, and sixth generation adhesive systems in primary dentition”, Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, vol. 23, pp. 83-88, 2005.[Abstract]


Conservative procedures using dentin-bonding agents are one of the important aspects of pediatric dental practice. The objectives of this in vitro study was to comparatively evaluate the tensile-bond strength, fracture mode (under SEM) and microleakage of total etching single bottle system to self-etching adhesive system in primary dentition. The flat buccal/lingual surfaces of 20 teeth were divided into two groups and treated with Single Bond (Group 1) and Adper Prompt (Group 2) to develop a composite resin cone. Then tensile-bond strength was measured using Instron machine. Fracture mode was evaluated in three specimens from each group under SEM. Microleakage of Class V composite restorations (in 20 teeth) with the above-mentioned adhesives was assessed under stereomicroscope after Basic fuschin dye immersion. Results showed no statistically significant difference between two groups. It was concluded that concerning the single step application with similar efficacy, the self-etching adhesive is better for bonding in primary dentition. More »»

2004

Journal Article

Chandrashekar Janakiram and Anuradha, K. Palshikar, “Prevalence of dental fluorosis in rural areas of Davangere, India.”, Int Dent J, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 235-9, 2004.[Abstract]


OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis and its relationship with fluoride levels in drinking water.

DESIGN: Twelve villages with similar climate, diet, socioeconomic conditions and altitudes were selected from rural areas of Davangere district, Karnataka, India. The fluoride concentration in drinking water was estimated by the Ion Selective Electrode Method. Dean's Index was used to assess the dental fluorosis. Karl-Pearson coefficient for correlation and simple regression analysis were used to evaluate the association between the water fluoride levels and the community fluorosis index (CFI).

RESULTS: The study group consisted of 1,131, 12-15-year-old school children. The fluoride levels in drinking water of selected villages were in the range of 0.22-3.41ppm. A stepwise increase in the prevalence of dental fluorosis with corresponding increase in water fluoride content, 13.2% at 0.22ppm F to 100% at 3.41 ppm F, was found. There was a significant positive linear correlation (r=0.99) between CFI and water fluoride level.

CONCLUSION: Dental fluorosis is a major dental public health problem among children in Davangere district and is related to drinking water with 0.74ppm fluoride or above.

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