Publications

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2019

Journal Article

D. Mary Sam, Kumar, S. P., Varma, B., David, A. P., and Suresh, R., “Benign osteoblastoma of the palate: a rare clinical presentation.”, Oral Radiol, 2019.[Abstract]


Osteoblastoma is a rare, benign type of osteoblastic tumor. It constitutes approximately 1% of all primary bone tumors. Osteoblastoma most commonly affects the long bones; it very rarely affects the jaw bones. Because of its clinical and histological similarity with other bony tumors, such as osteoid osteoma and fibro-osseous lesions, osteoblastoma is a diagnostic challenge. Very few cases of osteoblastoma involving the maxillofacial region have been reported to date. We herein describe a 15-year-old female patient with osteoblastoma that presented as a palatal swelling of 6 months' duration.

More »»

2019

Journal Article

R. D. Prabha, Nair, B. P., Ditzel, N., Kjems, J., Nair, P. D., and Kassem, M., “Strontium functionalized scaffold for bone tissue engineering.”, Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, vol. 94, pp. 509-515, 2019.[Abstract]


Drug functionalized scaffolds are currently being employed to improve local delivery of osteoprotective drugs with the aim of reducing their loading dose as well as unwanted systemic complications. In this study we tested a poly-(ε) caprolactone (PCL)-laponite-strontium ranelate (SRA) composite scaffold (PLS3) for its abilities to support growth and osteogenic differentiation of human marrow derived stromal stem cells (hMSC). The in vitro experiments showed the PLS3 scaffold supported cell growth and osteogenic differentiation. The in vivo implantation of hMSC seeded PLS3 scaffold in immunocompromised mice revealed vascularized ectopic bone formation. PLS3 scaffolds can be useful in bone regenerative applications in the fields of orthopaedics and dentistry.

More »»

2019

Journal Article

A. Aiswarya, Suresh, R., Janardhanan, M., Savithri, V., Aravind, T., and Mathew, L., “An Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Podoplanin Expression in Oral Leukoplakia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma to Explore its Potential to be used as a Predictor for Malignant Transformation.”, J Oral Maxillofac Pathol, vol. 23, no. 1, p. 159, 2019.[Abstract]


<p><b>Background: </b>Oral leukoplakia (OL) is a potentially malignant disorder with increased risk for the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Many cases of OSCC arise from the malignant transformation of preexisting OL. However, the risk of progression into OSCC and the possible prediction of malignant potential of OL remain inconclusive. Recent studies have shown that podoplanin, a mucin-like transmembrane glycoprotein specifically expressed in lymphatic endothelial cells, is expressed in various neoplasms including OSCC, indicating its possible biologic role in tumor cells. In this study, an evaluation of podoplanin expression in OL and OSCC has been carried out to assess its potential role as a biomarker to predict the possibility of malignant transformation in OL cases.</p>

<p><b>Aims and Objectives: </b>To assess the usefulness of podoplanin as a potential biomarker for predicting the risk of malignant transformation in OL, by comparing its immunohistochemical expression in OL and OSCC.</p>

<p><b>Materials and Methods: </b>Archival paraffin-embedded blocks of 25 OL cases with varying grades of dysplasia and 30 OSCC cases showing its varying grades were selected. Sections were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for podoplanin and compared with the control group for evaluation of results in the three groups.</p>

<p><b>Results: </b>A statistically significant increase in podoplanin expression was observed from normal mucosa through OL to OSCC. In the OL cases, the podoplanin staining score progressively increased from mild dysplasia to carcinoma , whereas in OSCC, well-differentiated group showed the maximum expression of podoplanin.</p>

<p><b>Conclusion: </b>The progressive increase in podoplanin expression through the increasing grades of dysplasia in OL is suggestive of an increased risk for malignant transformation with increased expression of podoplanin in OL cases. A high podoplanin expression in the well-differentiated OSCC may indicate a vital role for podoplanin in the early stages of tumorigenesis.</p>

More »»

2019

Journal Article

V. Sanjeevan, Chandrashekar Janakiram, and Joseph, J., “Effectiveness of School-based Dental Screening in Increasing Dental Care Utilization: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis”, Indian J Dent Res, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 117-124, 2019.[Abstract]


Background: School based dental screening has been a popular public health intervention. However, literature provides contrasting evidence regarding effectiveness of such programs on the utilization of dental services.

Objectives: We designed this review to understand the differences in dental attendance rates of children below 15 years of age, receiving a school based dental screening versus those not receiving it.

Material and Methods: The standard methodological procedures prescribed by The Cochrane Collaboration for Systematic review and meta-analysis was employed. An electronic (MEDLINE via PUBMED, Cochrane trial registry, and Google scholar) and a manual search (2016) were made to identify studies.

Results: Five studies met the inclusion criteria, covering a population of 28208 school children of which 21447 were included in the meta-analysis. The review concludes that school based dental screening marginally increases the dental attendance by 16 percent as opposed to a non-screening group (RR 1.16 (95% CI 1.11, 1.21). The quality of evidence was found to be low.

Conclusions: There is evidence of marginally increased dental attendance rate of 16 % following screening. As the quality of evidence was found to be low, the results of this review may be used with caution.

More »»

2019

Journal Article

M. Janardhanan, Suresh, R., Savithri, V., and Veeraraghavan, R., “Extranodal Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma of Maxillary Sinus Presenting as a Palatal Ulcer”, BMJ Case Rep, vol. 12, no. 2, 2019.[Abstract]


A multitude of disease processes ranging from periodontitis to malignancies can lead to formation of solitary ulcer on the palate. Hence solitary ulcers of palate can often be a challenging one to diagnose. We report an interesting case of a diffuse large B cell lymphoma of the maxillary sinus which perforated the palatal bone and presented clinically as a palatal ulcer. Initially the lesion manifested as a small ill-defined swelling in the posterior palatal slope in relation to 24and25 which were mobile and hence was erroneously diagnosed as chronic periodontal abscess. This paper is intended to stress the relevance of including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in the differential diagnosis of solitary palatal ulcers as it may be often misdiagnosed as more common reactive or inflammatory lesions.

More »»

2019

Journal Article

Sreekumar P., Kumaran P., Arun Mamachan Xavier, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., and Kumar S. J., “Qualitative and quantitative comparison of the remineralization potential of three suitable materials – An in-vitro SMH & SEM study”, J ClinDiag Res , vol. 13, no. 1, pp. ZC01-ZC04, 2019.

2019

Journal Article

Sathish A. M., Arun Mamachan Xavier, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Kumaran P., and Menon M. M., “Dental age assessment in 8-16 year old girls in a tertiary care hospital in Cochin – a comparative study”, Drug Inv Today , vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 996-999, 2019.[Abstract]


Introduction: Age determination plays a great role in forensic medicine, pediatric endocrinology, and pedodontic treatment planning. It helps in the management of different types of malocclusion in relation to maxillofacial growth. The aim of the study was to determine the dental developmental stages in female population and to test the applicability of Demirjian’s and Nolla’s criteria for maturity scoring in dental age assessment. Materials and Methods: Orthopantomographs of 200 females of 8–16 years were taken and the dental age was calculated using the Demirjian’s and Nolla’s dental age estimation method. Chronological age was also recorded and correlated to the dental ages obtained. Results: A strong correlation was found between chronological and dental ages (P < 0.005). The intraclass correlation coefficient between the two methods showed excellent agreement between the two (P < 0.005). Conclusion: A positive high degree correlation noticed between chronological age, dental age, and both age estimation methods may thus be applicable to the female population in Cochin.

More »»

2019

Journal Article

Resmy Nair, Parvathy Kumaran, Arun Mamachan Xavier, and Dr. Balagopal Varma R., “Knowledge, attitude, and awareness of mothers toward emergency management of dental trauma in high literacy population”, J Int Oral Health, no. 11, pp. 287-292, 2019.

2019

Journal Article

Abraham B., Kumaran P., Arun Mamachan Xavier, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., and Kumar S. J., “Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of Aloe Vera gel with milk and HBSS in maintaining the viability of PDL cells in avulsed teeth”, Drug Inv Today , vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 996-999, 2019.

2018

Journal Article

S. Vellappally, Kheraif, A. A. Al, Anil, S., Assery, M. K., K Kumar, A., and Divakar, D. Devang, “Analyzing Relationship between Patient and Doctor in Public Dental Health using Particle Memetic Multivariable Logistic Regression Analysis Approach (MLRA2).”, J Med Syst, vol. 42, no. 10, p. 183, 2018.[Abstract]


In the developing technology managing patient and doctor relationship and communication process is one of the critical factors because the patient may take high risk surgery, treatment and diagnosis. Due to the importance of the patient-doctor relationship, in this paper investigate the various aspects of relation between the doctor and dental problem related patients. During the analyzing process, data has been collected from adults who are facing dental problems and other dental injuries in which data has been gathered from 423 individuals by conducting interviews. The gathered data is investigated with the help of particle-memetic multivariable logistic regression analysis method which examines the patient income, dental surgical details, injuries and other factors relationship has been investigated. From the analyzed data, how the patients are treated by doctors examined for improving the relationship between patient and doctor in public dental health aspects.

More »»

2018

Journal Article

Manju V., Anitha A., Dr. Deepthy Menon, Dr. Subramania Iyer K., Shantikumar V Nair, and Dr. Manitha B. Nair, “Nanofibrous yarn reinforced HA-gelatin composite scaffolds promote bone formation in critical sized alveolar defects in rabbit model”, Biomedical Materials, vol. 13, no. 6, p. 065011, 2018.[Abstract]


Alveolar ridge resorption and crestal bone loss necessitate the use of bone graft substitutes for dental rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to compare the bone regenerative property of nanofibre incorporated two composite matrices (nanofibrous sheet layered matrix (CS-S) and nanofibrous yarn reinforced matrix (CS-Y)) in critical sized mandibular defect in a rabbit model (under load bearing scenario). Histological evaluation revealed continuous bone formation in the defect implanted with fibre reinforced scaffolds than those without fibres as well as commercial nanoHA-collagen graft. Interestingly, the mineralisation and the mineral density were significantly higher with nanoyarn reinforced scaffolds. Moreover, the compressive strength of new bone formed from CS-Y scaffolds was almost similar to that of native rabbit mandible. It can be concluded that the mechanical strength provided by three-dimensionally reinforced nanoyarns in the matrix could promote bone formation in load bearing mandibular region, and these can be proposed as a scaffold of choice for alveolar bone augmentation and dental rehabilitation.

More »»

2018

Journal Article

V. Savithri, Dr. Rakesh S., Janardhanan, M., and Thara Aravind, “Metastatic Adenocarcinoma of Mandible: in Search of the Primary”, BMJ Case Rep, vol. 11, no. 1, 2018.[Abstract]


We present here a case of a 64-year-old female patient who reported with a complaint of pain in the chin region of 3-month duration. The radiographs revealed an irregular radiolucent lesion in the anterior part of the mandible. An incisional biopsy was carried out and the microscopy showed features of adenocarcinoma. Suspecting a metastatic lesion, the patient was then sent for whole body examination which showed a mass in the lungs. A whole body scan also showed metastasis to other organs such as kidney, gallbladder and vertebrae. This case is unusual in that the patient complained only of a vague jaw pain with no other systemic symptoms even in the presence of widespread disease.

More »»

2018

Journal Article

A. K. Krishnan, Menon, P., Kumar, K. P. Gireesh, Sreekrishnan, T. P., Garg, M., and Kumar, V. S., “Electrocardiogram-guided technique: An alternative method for confirming central venous catheter tip placement”, Journal of Emergencies, Trauma and Shock, vol. 11, pp. 276-281, 2018.[Abstract]


Background: The current standard followed for assessing central venous catheter (CVC) tip placement location is through radiological confirmation using chest X-ray (CXR). Placement of CVCs under electrocardiogram (ECG) guidance may save cost and time compared to CXR. Objective: The objective of this study is to compare the accurate placement of the CVC tip using anatomical landmark technique with ECG-guided technique. Another objective is to compare CVC placement time and postprocedural complications between the two techniques. Methods and Materials: A total of 144 adult individuals, who were critically ill and required CVC placement in the Emergency Department, were included for the study. Study duration was 6 months. Anatomical landmark and ECG-guided groups were assigned 72 participants each. Analyses were performed using t and Chi square-tests. Results: It was observed that 13 (18%) in the landmark technique were malpositioned as compared to none in the ECG-guided technique (P = 0.000). The landmark group had 22 (30.6%) participants with arrhythmias during the procedure, compared to none in the ECG-guided group (P = 0.000). The landmark group revealed that 30 (41.7%) of the CVC were overinserted and required immediate repositioning, compared to none in the ECG-guided group (P = 0.000). Conclusion: ECG-guided technique was found to be more accurate for CVC tip placement than the anatomical landmark technique. Furthermore, the ECG-guided technique was more time-effective and had less complications than the anatomical landmark technique. Hence, ECG-guided CVC placement is relatively accurate, efficient, and safe and can be considered as an alternative method to conventional radiography for confirmation of CVC tip placement. © 2018 Medknow Publications.All rights reserved.

More »»

2018

Journal Article

M. John, Oommen, S., Jagan, O. Anilkumar, George, S., and Pillai, S., “A study on the circulating genotypes of hepatitis C virus in a tertiary care hospital in Central Kerala.”, Indian J Med Microbiol, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 532-536, 2018.[Abstract]


<p><b>Background: </b>Hepatitis C is an emerging infection in India, which is known to progresses to liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The persistence of chronic HCV infection is due to the existence of various genotypes and its various subtypes. There are seven different genotypes of HCV. These genotypes vary in their severity to cause infections as well as their response to treatment.</p>

<p><b>Aim: </b>This study aims at identifying the predominant genotypes of HCV in a population of patients presenting in a tertiary care center in Central Kerala.</p>

<p><b>Settings and Design: </b>This study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital and medical college, located in Central Kerala in the Department of Microbiology from January 2014 to June 2015.The sample size was 600 and a high risk group of patients attending the gastroenterology department, deaddiction centre and health care workers were screened.</p>

<p><b>Materials and Methods: </b>Serum samples were subjected to EIA, either rapid card or ELISA. Serum samples that were positive for HCV antibodies were confirmed by PCR. Twenty seven samples were positive for HCV antibodies by ELISA/rapid card, out of which 16 were confirmed by PCR. These 16 samples were subjected to gene sequencing to identify the genotype.</p>

<p><b>Results: </b>The prevalent genotypes isolated in this study was genotype 1, 3 and 4. Genotype 1 and 3 was predominantly seen transmitted by blood transfusions and multiple hemodialysis. The variability in laboratory parameters like SGOT and SGPT and its ratio with each genotype was also evaluated.</p>

<p><b>Conclusion: </b>To conclude, the occurrence of genotype 4 at a similar level to genotype 1 shows diffusion of new genotype in Kerala.</p>

More »»

2018

Journal Article

M. Janardhanan, Dr. Rakesh S., Savithri, V., and Thara Aravind, “Peripheral Ameloblastoma with Neoplastic Osseous Invasion Versus Peripheral Intraosseous Ameloblastoma: A Challenging Diagnosis”, J Oral Maxillofac Pathol, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 396-400, 2018.[Abstract]


Peripheral ameloblastoma, a soft-tissue analogue of intraosseous ameloblastoma, is a rare odontogenic tumor with histologic characteristics of ameloblastoma. In contrast to conventional ameloblastoma, peripheral ameloblastomas are considered as innocuous lesions which usually do not show invasion of the underlying structures. Rarely, intraosseous ameloblastoma which penetrates the alveolar bone can fuse with the overlying oral epithelium and eventually manifest as an exophytic peripheral lesion. Such lesions which mimic peripheral ameloblastoma both clinically and microscopically are termed as peripheral intraosseous ameloblastoma. As per the existing criteria, soft-tissue ameloblastomas showing bone invasion are strictly excluded from the category of peripheral ameloblastoma and are considered as peripheral intraosseous ameloblastoma. We report a rare case of extraosseous ameloblastoma with clear origin from the superficial epithelium showing the presence of a few odontogenic islands in the underlying bone suggestive of a neoplastic osseous invasion. This paper discusses the diagnostic challenges associated with peripherally occurring ameloblastomas and stresses the need for accurate diagnosis in deciding the treatment modalities

More »»

2018

Journal Article

M. N. S., “Hollow Bulb Obturator with Cast Retainers: a Case Report”, J Indian Prosthodont Soc, vol. 18, no. Suppl 2, p. S100, 2018.

2018

Journal Article

B. A. S., V., M., and K., G. V., “Effect of chemical disinfectants and accelerated aging on maxillofacial silicone elastomers: An In vitro Study”, Indian Journal of Dental Research , vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 67-73, 2018.[Abstract]


CONTEXT:
Maxillofacial prostheses need frequent refabrication due to degradation of color and deterioration of physical properties of the elastomer.

AIMS:
This study attempted to evaluate the change in color stability, Shore A hardness, and surface roughness of two maxillofacial silicones, A-2186 and Cosmesil M511, when submitted to chemical disinfection and accelerated aging.

SETTINGS AND DESIGN:
This was a comparative in vitro study.

SUBJECTS AND METHODS:
The materials included two silicone elastomers - A-2186 and Cosmesil M511 (Factor II Incorporated) - functional intrinsic red pigment and three disinfectants - Fittydent tablet, chlorhexidine gluconate 4%, and neutral soap. The specimens in each group of elastomer were evaluated initially for color, hardness, and surface roughness, which were further divided into subgroups and subjected to disinfection and accelerated aging. The evaluation of color was performed with the help of an ultraviolet reflectance spectrophotometer. Shore A hardness was evaluated using a durometer and surface roughness, with a digital roughness tester followed by scanning electron microscopy analysis.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: :
Analysis of variance and Tukey's multiple comparison test were used for statistical analysis.

RESULTS:
Accelerated aging caused a significant decrease in color, increase in Shore A hardness, and variation in surface roughness in both silicone elastomer groups. Chemical disinfection presented significant changes in color and surface roughness whereas no significant effect on Shore hardness, irrespective of the disinfectant used.

CONCLUSIONS:
The maxillofacial silicone elastomers presented deterioration in color, hardening, and significant variations in surface roughness when subjected to chemical disinfection and accelerated aging, which provides a valid baseline for future research.

More »»

2018

Journal Article

Leena Unnikrishn Menon, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Parvathy Kumaran, Arun Mamachan Xavier, Bhat Sangeetha Govinda, and J. Suresh Kumar, “Efficacy of a Calcium Sucrose Phosphate Based Toothpaste in Elevating the Level of Calcium, Phosphate Ions in Saliva and Reducing Plaque: A Clinical Trial.”, Contemp Clin Dent, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 151-157, 2018.[Abstract]


Aim: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of "calcium sucrose phosphate" (CaSP) toothpaste (Enafix 5%) with ordinarily used calcium, phosphate-containing toothpaste in elevating the level of calcium, phosphate ions in saliva. Secondary aims were to evaluate substantivity and plaque-reducing ability of CaSP toothpaste.

Materials and Methods: Thirty study participants of age group 6-13 years were divided into two groups: Group X (Control group) was made to continue brushing with their regularly used calcium, phosphate-containing toothpaste and Group Y (Test group) was allotted CaSP toothpaste. 1 ml of unstimulated saliva was periodically collected from both groups to determine any alteration in the salivary calcium, phosphate level. Parameters such as substantivity and plaque-reducing ability of CaSP toothpaste were also evaluated. Salivary mineral's intergroup comparison was evaluated by Student's -test while its intragroup comparison along with the plaque amount variation in Group Y was evaluated by ANOVA and Tukey's test.

Results: Group Y showed an increase in the salivary calcium level though not statistically significant. The increase was pronounced in samples collected on day 1. Group Y showed a consistent level of calcium, phosphate in samples collected immediately and 6 h postbrushing, indicating its substantivity. In addition, Group Y had an impact in reducing the plaque level when the 1-month plaque score was compared with the 12-month score.

Conclusion: CaSP leads to an increase in the salivary calcium level though it was not statistically significant. Supervised brushing and dietary habits showed a positive effect on both the groups. CaSP toothpaste also showed substantivity and plaque-reducing ability.

More »»

2018

Journal Article

George T., Parvathy Kumaran, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Arun Mamachan Xavier, Janardhanan S. K., and S., G. B., “Salivary Interleukin-6 levels of children with Early Childhood Caries and Ventricular Septal defect – A randomized clinical trial”, J IndSocPedodPrev Dent , vol. 36, pp. 130-134, 2018.

2017

Journal Article

Dr. Chandrashekar Janakiram, Joseph, J., and Antony, B., “Career satisfaction among dental public health specialists in India – A cross-sectional survey”, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 11, pp. ZC97-ZC101, 2017.[Abstract]


Introduction: The satisfaction in career is an important indicator for the growth of the discipline and the profession. An empirical investigation of satisfaction in career and amendments needed in course and profession may help in growth of discipline. Aim: To assess career satisfaction among Dental Public Health (DPH) specialists working in India and analyze their perspective on changes required in the profession. Materials and Methods: Questionnaire for this cross-sectional survey was adapted from Minnesota Job Satisfaction Survey which included 40 enquiries to understand the reasons for choosing public health dentistry as career, competencies of public health dentists, satisfaction as a public health dentist and changes required in the profession. The questions were both open and closed end type. Updated electronic mail details of all registered public health dentists were collected from the head office of Indian Association of Public Health Dentistry. Each participant was contacted by electronic mail and consent to participate were sought. Reminders were e-mailed thrice during three months. A total of 580 participants were contacted. A total of 183 responses were received, among which 179 consented. Results: Nearly half of the respondents felt they are yet to achieve the accomplishment from the present career as public health dentist. Only 46.9% felt that there is advancement in the profession as career. Nearly three-fourth of respondents could not attain recognition as a public health dentist. A 45.8% of respondents were of the opinion that career in public health dentistry would provide them a steady employment and 53.1% of public health dentists would envision as satisfied in their career in next 10 years. Nearly 85% felt public health dentistry training needs a major course correction. Conclusion: There has been some reservation or skepticism about the future of the specialty as the jobs are in declining stage. This information provides insight about success and failures of public health dentistry as profession which would be needed for planning the dental manpower. © 2017, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

Dr. Chandrashekar Janakiram, Kumar, C. V. Deepan, and Joseph, J., “Xylitol in preventing dental caries: A systematic review and meta-analyses”, Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine, vol. 8, pp. 16-21, 2017.[Abstract]


Xylitol is a sugar alcohol having the properties that reduce levels of mutans streptococci (MS) in the plaque and saliva. To assess the role of xylitol in preventing dental caries. Systematic review and meta-analysis developed by Cochrane cooperation were adapted. Electronic search was carried out in PubMed through the period up to 2014. Included clinical studies were done on (1) humans (2) participants include both individuals and as pairs (mother-child) (3) participants using orthodontic appliances (4) xylitol dispensed in any form (5) compare the effect of xylitol on dental caries and on other phenotype that determines the preventive effect on dental caries, such as decayed, missing, and filled (DMF/dmf) and salivary or plaque MS level. Twenty articles of the 477 articles initially identified. Among 20 studies indexed, 16 articles were accessed, systematically reviewed, and the meta-analysis was carried out. The evaluation of quality of the studies was done using risk of bias assessment tool. The quality of the studies was high risk and unclear risk for six and five trials. The meta-analysis shows a reduction in DMF/dmf with the standard mean (SM) of -1.09 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], -1.34, -0.83) comparing xylitol to all controls. The effect of DMF/dmf reduction by xylitol to fluoride varnish was with the SM of -1.87 (95% CI, -2.89, -0.84). The subgroup analysis, there was a reduction in MS count with SM of 0.30 (95% CI, 0.05, 0.56) when compared with all other caries preventive strategies; however, it was insignificant. Xylitol was found to be an effective strategy as self-applied caries preventive agent. © 2017 Journal of Natural Science, Biology and Medicine.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

V. Sanjeevan, Dr. Chandrashekar Janakiram, Joseph, J., Yeturu, S. K., and Ramanarayanan, V., “Letter to the editor: ‘Long-term effectiveness of school-based children oral hygiene program on oral health after 10-year follow-up’ by Lai et al. (2016)”, Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, vol. 45, pp. 189-190, 2017.[Abstract]


‘Long-term effectiveness of school-based children oral hygiene program on oral health after 10-year follow-up

More »»

2017

Journal Article

T. Aravind, Janardhanan, M., Dr. Rakesh S., Savithri, V., and Unnikrishnan, U. G., “Immunolocalization of osteopontin in dysplasias and squamous cell carcinomas arising from oral epithelium”, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, vol. 21, pp. 18-23, 2017.[Abstract]


Background: Early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remains one of the most efficient ways to ensure patient survival and improved quality of life. Although specific biomarkers related to OSCC have been investigated, a useful biomarker that assesses the transition potential of potentially malignant lesion to OSCC remains to be found. Osteopontin (OPN) has been recognized as an important factor in tumorigenesis and their expression in OSCC have been investigated earlier. In the present study, evaluation of OPN expression in premalignant and malignant lesions has been carried out to assess their possible role as a biomarker in the early diagnosis and prognosis of OSCC. Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the role of OPN as a biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis of OSCC. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of archival paraffin-embedded blocks of ten cases each of varying grades of OSCC, oral epithelial dysplasias and epithelial hyperplasias. Sections were subjected to immunohistochemical staining for the biomarker OPN. Results: A positive OPN expression was noticed in epithelial dysplasias and SCC arising from the oral epithelium. A progressive increase in the intensity of staining was seen with increasing grades of dysplasias and a decrease in OPN expression with an increase in grades was observed in OSCC. Conclusion: The expression of OPN in full thickness of epithelium in severe dysplasias, carcinoma in situ, and in the superficial epithelium of OSCC suggest the possibility of considering OPN expression in full epithelial thickness in dysplasias as an indicator for malignant transformation. © 2017 Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

Dr. Jaeson Mohanan, Veeraraghavan, R., and Puthalath, U., “Temporomandibular joint dislocation in an 18-month-old child”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 155-157, 2017.[Abstract]


Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dislocation in children is extremely rare. In our case, an 18-month-old child presented with a history of inability to close her mouth. To confirm the clinical diagnosis, a computed tomogram was taken. Clinical examination and X-ray of the TMJ revealed bilateral TMJ dislocation. Bilateral TMJ reduction was achieved manually after giving analgesia and procedural sedation. This is one of the few case reports of an acute dislocation in a toddler.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

Dr. Jaeson Mohanan, Veeraraghavan, R., Puthalath, U., and Subash, P., “Zygomatic implants in traumatic loss of maxilla”, International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeryInternational Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 46, no. 1, p. 271, 2017.[Abstract]


Maxillary defects that occur after trauma are highly challenging for the maxillofacial surgeon to reconstruct and rehabilitate. The aim of rehabilitation is not only to provide a cosmetically acceptable appearance, but also to restore oral functions. Zygomatic implants are not only an alternative to complex free or vascularised bone grafting but are also used when these techniques have failed. However, implant placement in the zygoma is difficult due to the variable anatomy following trauma in the maxillofacial region.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

Dr. Jaeson Mohanan, Veeraraghavan, R., Puthalath, U., Peter, S., Rao, L. P., and Kuriakose, M., “Profile Changes and Stability following Distraction Osteogenesis with Rigid External Distraction in Adult Cleft Lip and Palate Deformities”, Contemporary clinical dentistry, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 236 - 243, 2017.[Abstract]


OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to analyze the hard and soft-tissue profile changes as well as the upper airway changes after distraction osteogenesis (DO) using rigid external distraction device in adult cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients. The study also evaluates the stability of the surgical result. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken: Predistraction (T1), postdistraction (T2), and 1 year after distractor removal (T3). The treatment changes (T1 vs. T2) and the stability (T2 vs. T3) were analyzed. The overall treatment changes after 1 year were also evaluated (T1 vs. T3). The lateral cephalograms were digitally analyzed with the help of software named Dolphin. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks test was used, and the probability value (P value) of 0.05 was considered as statistically significant level. RESULTS: Eleven adult patients with CLP were retrospectively analyzed. After distraction, there was a significant mean maxillary advancement of 14 mm (P < 0.01) from a T1 value of 73.54 ± 10.38 to a T2 value of 88.2 ± 10.49. The lower facial height and the incisor exposure were significantly increased. The nasolabial angle had a significant improvement of 24.5° (P < 0.01) from a T1 value of 56.6 ± 21.03 to a T2 value of 81.18 ± 14.4.The upper airway was significantly improved by 3.7 mm (P < 0.01) with a T1 value of 13.5 ± 3.8 to a T2 value of 17.2 ± 3.66. After 1-year follow-up, there was a significant maxillary relapse of 3.20 mm (P < 0.05) from a T2 value of 8.29 ± 6.84 to a T3 value of 5.09 ± 5.59. However, the soft-tissue profile and upper airway remained stable. CONCLUSION: The clinician should have an understanding of the related hard and soft tissues as well as airway changes which may assist him when planning for maxillary advancement for CLP patients with DO. There were significant improvements immediately after distraction, but during the 1-year follow-up, some relapse was seen. This stressed on the need for overcorrection of about 35%-40% for adult CLP patients.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

Dr. Jaeson Mohanan, “A rare subcutaneous benign tumor ”, Kerala Dental Journal (KDJ), vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 243-245, 2017.

2017

Journal Article

A. V., Balakrishnan, B., Dr. Jaeson Mohanan, and P., J., “A Rare Case Report of Squamous Odontogenic Tumor”, IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences (IOSR-JDMS), vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 85-87, 2017.[Abstract]


The squamous odontogenic tumor (SOT) is a rare, benign, locally infiltrative neoplasm of the jaws thatappears to originate from the rests of Malassez, gingival surface epithelium or from remnants of the dental lamina. The clinical presentation of the lesion is often asymptomatic, yet it can present with symptoms of pain and mobility of adjacent teeth... CBCT images show hypodense expansive lesions in between the left premolars .Excision of the lesion was performed and sent for microscopicanalysis , which is distinguished by multiple islands of squamous epithelial cells surrounded by mature connective tissue stroma , consistent with the diagnosis of SOT.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

N. Raakesh, Ravi, V., Ushass, P., Dr. Jaeson Mohanan, V Kumar, M., Sasikumar, P., Subhash, A. K., and Navya, P., “Role of Corticosteroids in reducing Postoperative Swelling, Pain, and Trismus following Surgical Extraction of Impacted Mandibular Third Molars”, International Journal of Oral Care & Research, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 265-269, 2017.[Abstract]


Surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molar is a common procedure in routine maxillofacial practice. This procedure is generally followed by pain, trismus, and swell-ing. Various methods have been attempted to reduce these unfavorable postoperative sequelae and to improve patient comfort in postoperative period. Use of steroids is one of the commonly followed practices. In our study, we compare the ef-ciency of steroids given preoperatively in reducing postoperative sequelae, when given in equivalent steroid doses.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

R. Sreeraj, Krishnan, V., V., M., and Thankappan, K., “Comparison of Masticatory and Swallowing Functional Outcomes in Surgically and Prosthetically Rehabilitated Maxillectomy Patients.”, The International Journal of Prosthodontics, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 573–576, 2017.[Abstract]


PURPOSE:
This study compared masticatory and swallowing functional outcomes in maxillectomy patients who underwent surgical and prosthetic rehabilitation or prosthetic rehabilitation only following surgical resection.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:
This comparative cross-sectional study involved 20 maxillectomy patients and compared their masticatory and swallowing functions following combined surgical and prosthodontic management vs an exclusively prosthodontic approach. Masticatory performance was measured by an originally modified sieve method using hydrocolloid material, and video fluoroscopic examination was employed for swallowing assessments.

RESULTS:
Masticatory performance was significantly better in the patient group treated with flaps and removable denture prostheses compared to patients treated with obturator prosthesis alone. Swallowing outcomes were comparable in both groups.

CONCLUSION:
Flap reconstruction followed by an obturator prosthesis seems to be a preferable option when planning for functional rehabilitation in maxillectomy patients. Further research is needed to substantiate the functional outcomes noted in this study.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

N. Renahan, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Parvathy Kumaran, and Arun Mamachan Xavier, “Unique Approach to Dental Management of Children with Hearing Impairment.”, Int J Clin Pediatr Dent, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 107-110, 2017.[Abstract]


The number of deaf children has dramatically increased in the past few decades. These children present to the pediatric dentist a unique set of challenges mostly pertaining to the establishment of communication with them. There have been very few attempts in the past to break down these challenges and formulate a strategy on how to manage them effectively. This is a case report of a child who was successfully managed using two different modes of communication. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages are mentioned, and a common strategy incorporating the positives of both the methods has been devised.

More »»

2016

Journal Article

Dr. Chandrashekar Janakiram, Venkitachalam, R., and Joseph, J., “Profile of Institutional Ethics Committees in Dental Teaching Institutions in Kerala, India”, Accountability in Research, vol. 23, pp. 219-229, 2016.[Abstract]


<p>Objectives: To assess the existence, structure, and functioning of Institutional Ethics Committees (IECs) in dental teaching institutions in Kerala. Methodology: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey was conducted by personally approaching Heads of Institutions/Ethics Committee (EC) in-charge of all dental colleges (23) in Kerala. The validated questionnaire consisted of two parts. The first part pertained to details of institutions, and the second part assessed the structure and functioning of the IEC. The data obtained was tabulated and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Of the participating 17 colleges, 13 colleges had a functioning IEC. Only four of these IECs were accredited to a central agency. Only one among the 12 colleges completely adhered to recommended structure. Regarding the functioning of IECs, 69% of the IECs had neither a separate application form for ethical review of proposals nor a proforma for its evaluation. On average, more than ten proposals were reviewed in a single EC meeting in 54% of the colleges. Nearly 40% of the IECs had no representation of a lay person. Conclusion: The absence of IEC in four colleges and non-accreditation to a central agency was a matter of concern. Enforced accreditation is the need of the hour to ensure ethical protection to human participants. © 2016 Taylor &amp; Francis.</p>

More »»

2016

Journal Article

Dr. Chandrashekar Janakiram and Porteri, Cb, “Ethical Process Reporting in Indian Dental Journals”, Accountability in Research, vol. 23, pp. 163-177, 2016.[Abstract]


Aim: To study the proportion of articles reporting ethical review board (ERB) approval and informed consent process (ICP) in articles published in dental journals in India. Methods: A descriptive study was designed, and ten Indian dental journals published by different dental specialty professional associations were selected. Among 702 retrieved articles, from 40 issues of the 10 selected journals published in 2008 and 2011, 428 meet the inclusion criteria, and they were analyzed. The entire text of the articles was manually searched for statements for ICP and ERB approval. The data was retrieved independently by two observers using an ad hoc developed template. Results: 10.3% (44) of authors stated ICP, while 9.8 % (42) reported ERB approval in their articles; 6.1% (26) articles reported both the ICP and ERB. There are 21 times more chances that authors who report the ERB will also report ICP in their articles when compared to authors who report either ICP or ERB only (OR 21.3, 95% CI 8.5–52.8). Seven journals stated the ethical process reporting in the instructions for authors. Overall, 15.7% articles declared the conflicts of interests. Conclusions: The low compliance of reporting ethical protection measures in dental research among Indian dental journals is of high concern. © 2016 Taylor & Francis.

More »»

2016

Journal Article

Medhini Menon, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Dr. Sajitha Krishnan, Parvathy Kumaran, Sangeetha G. Bhat, Arun Mamachan Xavier, and Suresh Kumar J., “Evaluation of salivary interleukin-6 in children with early childhood caries after treatment”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 7, pp. 198-202, 2016.[Abstract]


Background: The role of cytokines as a marker in the oral inflammatory process in ECC has not been fully explored before and after full mouth rehabilitation. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the level of salivary interleukin-6 (IL-6) in children with ECC and to compare its levels before and after comprehensive full mouth rehabilitation. Methods and Materials: Saliva samples were collected from children with ECC prior to dental treatment and 3-month post treatment. The salivary IL-6 levels were analyzed using the ELISA method. The gingival index was also timely recorded. Oral health awareness sessions were conducted for children and their parents at regular intervals during the 3-month study period. Statistical analysis used: Wilcoxon Signed Rank test compared the levels of salivary IL-6 while, the paired t test compared the values of gingival index before and after treatment. Results: The mean level of salivary IL-6 before and 3 months after treatment had reduced and this reduction was statistically significant (P&lt; 0.000). The gingival index scores had also reduced significantly 3-months post treatment (P&lt; 0.002). Conclusions: Children with ECC when completely rehabilitated and kept under frequent follow up, which includes reinforcement of oral hygiene measures and maintaining a low caries activity state, the level of inflammation (IL-6) can definitely be minimized and thereby improving the quality of life of affected children. © 2016 Contemporary Clinical Dentistry. Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

More »»

2016

Journal Article

Dr. Sravan Kumar, Acharya, Sb, Urala, A. Sc, and Pentapati, K. Cd, “Effect of Aloe vera, chlorine dioxide, and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque and gingivitis: A randomized controlled trial”, Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research, vol. 6, pp. 55-59, 2016.[Abstract]


Objective: To evaluate the effect of Aloe vera, chlorine dioxide, and chlorhexidine mouth rinses on plaque and gingivitis in orthodontic treatment. Materials and methods: A randomized single-center, single-blind, parallel group, controlled trial was conducted among 90 subjects undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment. The subjects were randomly divided into one of the three study groups (Aloe vera, chlorhexidine, chlorine dioxide). Plaque and gingivitis were assessed using modified Silness and Loe Plaque Index and Gingival Index at baseline and at follow-up after 15 days. Paired t-test and ANOVA with post hoc Dunnett test were used. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 85 participants completed the study; among them, 40 were male and 45 were female. There was significant reduction in mean plaque and gingival scores in all the 3 groups at follow-up when compared to baseline. A significantly higher reduction (plaque and gingival scores) was found in chlorhexidine when compared with the Aloe vera group. However, no significant difference was seen between chlorhexidine and chlorine dioxide with respect to mean reduction in plaque and gingival scores. Conclusion: Chlorine dioxide can be a suitable and economical alternative for chlorhexidine. Further long-term studies are recommended for evaluating their effectiveness. © 2015 Craniofacial Research Foundation. More »»

2016

Journal Article

Dr. Sreeja P. Kumar, Dr. Marina Lazar Chandy, Shanavas, Mb, Khan, Sc, and Suresh, K. Vd, “Pathogenesis and life cycle of herpes simplex virus infection-stages of primary, latency and recurrence”, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology, 2016.[Abstract]


Aims and objectives: (1) To understand the molecular level mechanism involved in immune evasion leading to primary HSV infection. (2) To explain the neuronal latency of herpes simplex virus. (3) To explain the reason for the specificity in the sites of primary and recurrent HSV lesions. Methods: A systematic review was done to understand the molecular level mechanism involved in primary, latency and recurrent herpes simplex infections. We prepared this article by compiling the data from various textbooks, literatures and PubMed, Embase, and EBSCOhost databases. Results and conclusion: Herpes simplex virus is a highly contagious human pathogen that has widespread infections in the oro-facial region which is associated with HSV-1. This single review article can provide the entire knowledge about the pathogenesis, its interesting property of latency and clinical features of HSV infection under one tree. Thus, this article enlightens the dental professionals with an adequate knowledge about the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and specific sites of primary and recurrent lesions which will highly help them in timely diagnosis, management and also for controlling the spread of infection. © 2016 Asian AOMS, ASOMP, JSOP, JSOMS, JSOM, and JAMI.

More »»

2016

Journal Article

Dr. Marina Lazar Chandy, Soman, C., Dr. Sreeja P. Kumar, Kurup, S., and Jose, R., “Understanding molecular mechanisms in multivariant actions of levamisole as an anti-helminthic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-neoplastic and immunomodulatory drug”, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine, and Pathology, 2016.[Abstract]


Levamisole is an imidothiazole derivative with a wide variety of applications in medical field. It has long been used as an anti-helminthic where its primary action is through the opening of acetyl choline receptor channels. It is widely used as an immunomodulatory drug through its action on dentritic cells and by enhancing the release of cytokines like interleukins 12 and 10. The antioxidant action of levamisole is by the enhancing effect on the major cellular redox systems like glutathione, enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase and also possible effects on glutathione related enzymes. On the other hand, the anti-inflammatory action is by the inhibition of TNF-alpha (tumor necrosis factor) and interleukin 6. Anti-neoplastic action of levamisole is by two ways that is, through its apoptotic action causing cell cycle inhibition and increased endothelial cell adhesion and the second action is through its anti-angiogenic property. This article enlightens upon the various mechanisms of action of levamisole at molecular level describing its diverse uses as an anti-helminthic, immunomodulatory, anti-neoplastic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant drug. © 2016 Asian AOMS, ASOMP, JSOP, JSOMS, JSOM, and JAMI.

More »»

2016

Journal Article

A. S. Babu, V., M., Nair, V. P., and Thomas, T., “Prosthetic rehabilitation of surgically treated orbital defects - Evisceration, enucleation, and exenteration: A case series”, Journal of Indian Prosthodontist Society, vol. 16, pp. 216-220, 2016.[Abstract]


The rehabilitation of a patient who has suffered the psychological trauma due to loss of an eye requires a prosthesis that will provide the optimum cosmetic and functional result. The mode of rehabilitation varies based on the type of defect and surgical approach being adopted. A case series of prosthetic rehabilitation of three types of orbital defects - evisceration, enucleation and exenteration have been reported in this article. The clinical relevance of surgical approaches highlights the preservation of remaining anatomic structures creating a negative space or concavity to aid in future prosthetic rehabilitation. A multidisciplinary management and team approach is essential in providing esthetics and to regain the confidence. Follow-up care for the patient is mandatory. © 2016 The Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society. More »»

2016

Journal Article

A. Aruna Ramadas, Jose, R., Arathy, S. L., Kurup, S., Chandy, M. Lazar, and Kumar, S. P., “Systemic absorption of 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide as topical application in management of oral lichen planus.”, Indian J Dent Res, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 230-5, 2016.[Abstract]


<p><b>CONTEXT: </b>Topical corticosteroids are the treatment of choice for oral lichen planus (OLP) due to its potential anti-inflammatory effect. However, chronic nature of OLP often requires long-term and frequent applications, exposing patients to local and systemic side effects.</p><p><b>AIM: </b>To detect the systemic absorption of 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) through the oral mucosa of patients with OLP.</p><p><b>SUBJECTS AND METHODS: </b>This was a pilot pharmacokinetic study carried out in the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology in collaboration with the Department of Toxicology, over 10 months. A total of twenty patients with OLP were included and advised to apply 0.1% TAC 3 times/day for 2 weeks and 2 times/day for next 2 weeks. Blood samples were obtained on the first and second visits and analyzed for triamcinolone using High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC).</p><p><b>STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: </b>Paired t-test was done to compare visual analog scale (VAS) score for burning sensation at the first and second visits, statistically significant if P < 0.05. The baseline demographic data were analyzed using descriptive statistics.</p><p><b>RESULTS: </b>Paired t-test was done to compare VAS score for burning sensation at the first and second visits, which turned to being statistically significant (P = 0.001). Although HPLC is an established method for the detection of TAC, none of the study populations showed evidence of steroid (TAC) in the blood sample during 4 weeks of treatment duration.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS: </b>0.1% triamcinolone is a relatively safe drug to be used with no systemic absorption in the standard dose regimen for oral lichen palnus.</p>

More »»

2016

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier, Steffy M. Sunny, Kavita Rai, and Amitha M. Hegde, “Repeated exposure of acidic beverages on esthetic restorative materials: An in-vitro surface microhardness study.”, J Clin Exp Dent, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. e312-7, 2016.[Abstract]


BACKGROUND: A manifold increase in the consumption of aerated beverages has witnessed a twin increase in tooth wear and raised demand for esthetic restorative materials. This study aimed to evaluate the surface microhardness changes of esthetic restorative materials following treatment with aerated beverages in an in-vitro situation.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The initial surface microhardness of the restorative materials GC Fuji II LC, GC Fuji IX, Nano Glass ionomer, Resin and Nano composite was recorded. These materials were studied under 3 groups that included those exposed to the acidic beverages daily, weekly once in a month and those that had no exposures at all. The final surface microhardness of the materials was recorded following experimentation and was subjected to statistical comparisons.

RESULTS: The restorative materials were compared for their surface microhardness changes following respective treatments using the T-test and One-way ANOVA analysis. Inter-comparisons between the groups showed statistical significance (p<.05), when treated with both the beverages. The five restorative materials revealed surface microhardness loss; the maximum reduction noticed with the Nano glass ionomer cement tested (p<.0005).

CONCLUSIONS: The surface microhardness of restorative materials markedly reduced upon repeated exposures with acidic beverages; the product with phosphoric acid producing the maximum surface microhardness loss.

KEY WORDS: Restorative materials, acidic beverages, surface microhardness, resin composites, glass ionomers.

More »»

2016

Journal Article

Ra Gupta, Malhi, Ra, Patthi, Ba, Singla, Aa, Dr. Chandrashekar Janakiram, Pandita, Va, Prasad, Ma, and Kumar, J. Ka, “Experience from classroom teaching to clinical practice regarding shortened dental arch (SDA) concept among dentists – a questionnaire study”, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 10, pp. ZC27-ZC32, 2016.[Abstract]


Introduction: Periodontal disease and dental caries are the common oral conditions which cause loss of teeth, mostly molars. This further leads to Shortening of Dental Arch and Shortened Dental Arch (SDA) concept provides the overall requirements of functional dentition at reduced cost without compromising the health. Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the Knowledge, Attitude and Practices (KAP) towards SDA concept among dentists of Ghaziabad city (Uttar Pradesh, India). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 514 dentists working as academicians or clinicians or both. KAP questionnaire consisting of questions related to SDA concept was distributed to them. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 18.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and descriptive and analytical tests, including mean, standard deviation, and Chi square test were used. Results: Of the 514 dentists, only 493 dentists responded to the questionnaire, generating the response rate of 95.5%. Only 113 (22.9%) had knowledge about this concept. Clinicians were found to have more knowledge regarding the SDA concept (p<0.05). Also years of experience and level of knowledge among dentists regarding SDA was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: The study showed lack of knowledge regarding SDA concept among dentists and also only few dentists practice the SDA concept on their patients. If used judiciously the SDA concept can serve as a cost effective and functionally oriented approach in clinical management of patients. © 2016, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved. More »»

2016

Journal Article

A. Ga Joseph, Dr. Chandrashekar Janakiram, and A., M., “Prosthetic status, needs and oral health related quality of life (OHRQOL) in the elderly population of Aluva, India”, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 10, pp. ZC05-ZC09, 2016.[Abstract]


Introduction: Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQOL), being a patient-centred outcome has profound association with the existing prosthetic status and needs. Aim: To assess the association between the prosthetic status and needs with OHRQOL in the elderly population of Aluva, Kochi, Kerala, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the elderly residing in the municipal wards of Aluva municipality, Kochi, Kerala, India. A total of 539 subjects whose age was 60 years or above were considered for the study. Proforma utilizing a validated structured questionnaire of two sections; the first section noted with demographic details with WHO assessment of prosthetic needs and details regarding loss of teeth and denture wear and the second section consisted of Oral Health Impact Proflie (OHIP)-14 questions to measure the OHRQOL which was prepared in the local language. Type III oral examination (WHO Basic Oral Health Assessment 2013) was carried out on selected elderly subjects from house hold survey at municipal wards and recordings were done by the trained local health worker. ANOVA was used to find out the association between different domains of the OHIP and prosthetic status and need. Results: The prosthetic status was 18.2% and 14.7% and the prosthetic needs 62.7% and 60.3% of the upper and lower jaws respectively for the population. The prosthetic status was found to have no impact on the OHRQOL. However, the prosthetic need was significantly related to various components of OHRQOL of the study population. Of all the domains in OHRQOL, physical pain was the most affected in this population. Conclusion: There is high unmet prosthetic care for non-institutionalised elderly population in Aluva. © 2016, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved. More »»

2016

Journal Article

Navya P. Menon, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Janardhanan, S., Parvathy Kumaran, Arun Mamachan Xavier, and Bhat Sangeetha Govinda, “Clinical and radiographic comparison of indirect pulp treatment using light-cured calcium silicate and mineral trioxide aggregate in primary molars: A randomized clinical trial”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 7, pp. 475-480, 2016.[Abstract]


Aim: To clinically and radiographically evaluate the reparative dentin formation in indirect pulp treatment (IPT) using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and light cured calcium silicate (TheraCal) in primary molars over a period of 6 months. Materials and Methods: A clinical trial on IPT on 43 primary molars in 21 patients between the age of 4-7 years, divided into two groups: 22 teeth in MTA group and 21 in TheraCal group. Measurement of the variation in dentin thickness was done on the digitalized radiograph at baseline, 3 months and 6 months using CorelDRAW X3 software. Results: Statistical analysis using an independent t-test for intragroup and intergroup comparison showed a significant increase in dentin thickness in both the MTA and TheraCal group (intragroup comparison [P < 0.05]). However, intergroup comparison between MTA and TheraCal showed no statistical difference in reparative dentin formation (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Clinically and radiographically, both MTA and TheraCal are good IPT materials. The better handling characteristics and comparable reparative dentin-forming ability of TheraCal make this material an alternative to MTA in pediatric restorative procedures. © 2016 Contemporary Clinical Dentistry | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. More »»

2016

Journal Article

P. Ca Dathan, Kumar, T. Ma, Ravindran, Sa, Nair, KbChandrasek, and Kumar, A., “Prosthetic rehabilitation of lower limb with RTV siliconee using prosthodontic clinical and laboratory techniques – A case report”, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 10, pp. ZD35-ZD37, 2016.[Abstract]


variety of unique clinical and prosthetic challenges, because of distinctly different amputation levels of the lower limb. A female patient with history of Partial Foot Amputation (PFA) surgery at metatarsophalangeal joint level, due to crush injury reported for prosthetic rehabilitation. This case was successfully rehabilitated using room temperature vulcanizing (RTV) medical grade silicone for fabrication of foot prosthesis. Though limited in its function, it amply proves that the clinical and laboratory techniques used in fabrication of maxillofacial prosthesis can be effectively adapted for the fabrication of body prosthesis like toes and feet to enhance the quality of life of the patients. The patient was reviewed every year for three years. © 2016, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved. More »»

2016

Journal Article

S. K. Yeturu, Annapurani, R., Dr. Chandrashekar Janakiram, Joseph, J., and Pentapati, K. C., “Assessment of knowledge and attitudes of fire safety – An institution based study”, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, vol. 8, pp. 1281-1284, 2016.[Abstract]


Introduction: Fire safety is essential component and requirement in building infrastructure plans and provision of fire safety systems is mandatory even in dental care settings. Knowledge regarding the use of these systems in various instances is essential to all health care workers including dentists, dental students and auxiliaries. Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitudes of fire safety among undergraduate, postgraduate dental students and staff in Amrita School of Dentistry and to find any association between education level and knowledge regarding fire safety. Material and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted by distributing a 20 itemed self-administered questionnaire which consisted of 4 dichotomous responses, 6 rating scale responses, 3 multiple responses and 7 open ended questions. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results: A total of 270 participated in the study. Nearly half of the participants have a positive attitude towards fire safety and very few participants knew the way to use fire control measures in case of fire accident. Conclusion: There was an appreciably good knowledge about fire safety among dentists and dental students with a positive attitude towards safe practice.

More »»

2016

Journal Article

Dr. Jaeson Mohanan, “Residual Cyst: An Unusual Presentation of a Usual Scenario”, 12, no. 2, pp. 1-44, 2016.

2016

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier, “Give good care to your teeth”, Manorama Arogyam, vol. 3, pp. 20-24, 2016.

2016

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier, Steffy M. Sunny, and Radhamany K., “Prenatal and Perinatal Oral Health Awareness and Promotion among Pregnant Women - A Dental Home Initiative”, Jpn J Ped Dent , vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 248 (P1-014), 2016.

2016

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier, Kavita Rai, Amitha M. Hegde, and Suchetha Shetty, “A spectroscopic and surface microhardness study of enamel exposed to beverages supplemented with ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate. A randomized in vitro trial.”, Am J Dent, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 132-136, 2016.[Abstract]


PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy between supplementing ferrous fumarate and ferrous sulfate to carbonated beverages by recording the in vitro mineral loss and surface microhardness (SMH) changes in human enamel.

METHODS: 120 enamel blocks each (from primary and permanent teeth) were uniformly prepared and the initial SMH was recorded. These enamel specimens were equally divided (n = 60) for their respective beverage treatment in Group 1 (2 mmol/L ferrous sulfate) and Group 2 (2 mmol/L ferrous fumarate). Each group was further divided into three subgroups as Coca-Cola, Sprite and mineral water (n= 10). The specimens were subjected to three repetitive cycles of respective treatment for a 5-minute incubation period, equally interspaced by 5-minute storage in artificial saliva. The calcium and phosphate released after each cycle were analyzed spectrophotometrically and the final SMH recorded.

RESULTS: The results were tested using student's t-test, one-way ANOVA and Wilcoxon signed rank test (P < 0.05). The spectrophotometric assessment of calcium and phosphate withdrawal found more loss with the supplementation of 2 mmol/L ferrous sulfate than ferrous fumarate (P < 0.005). Similarly, the mean surface microhardness reduction was less with the supplementation of 2 mmol/L ferrous fumarate than with ferrous sulfate (P < 0.005). Statistical comparisons revealed the maximum surface microhardness and mineral loss with primary enamel and the maximum loss produced in all groups by Coca-Cola (P < 0.005).

More »»

2015

Journal Article

Fa Mohammed, Manohar, Vb, Jose, Mc, Thapasum, AdFairozekha, Mohamed, Se, Shamaz, BfHalima, and D'Souza, Ng, “Estimation of copper in saliva and areca nut products and its correlation with histological grades of oral submucous fibrosis”, Journal of Oral Pathology and Medicine, vol. 44, pp. 208-213, 2015.[Abstract]


Background: The purpose of this study was to estimate the copper levels in saliva of patients with oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) and different areca nut products and its correlation with different histological grades of OSF. Methods: The study comprised 60 individuals, 30 OSF patients and 30 non-OSF individuals. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected, and copper analysis was performed using colorimetric method. The commercial areca nut products used by the patients were acquired and subjected to copper analysis through the atomic absorption spectrophotometer method. Oral biopsies were performed for OSF patients for histopathological correlation. Results: The mean salivary copper level was 27.023 μg/dl in OSF patients when compared with 8.393 μg/dl in non-OSF individuals (P < 0.005). The mean copper content in different areca nut products was 13.313 ppm (P < 0.005). Comparison of copper content in different areca nut products with salivary copper levels of OSF patients showed negative correlation (P < 0.853). Comparison of salivary copper levels between different histological grades of OSF yielded a statistically significant association between grades I and III (P < 0.005) and grades II and III OSF (P < 0.019). Comparison of copper content in areca nut products and different histological grades of OSF yielded weak negative statistical correlation (r = -0.116). Conclusion: Despite high copper content in areca nut products, the observations yielded a negative correlation with different histological grades of OSF. This further raises a doubt about the copper content in areca nut as an etiological factor for this crippling disease. © 2014 John Wiley and Sons A/S.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

J. P., Menon, K. Sa, Kurup, Sb, Thomas, A. Eb, Angel Fenol, Vyloppillil, R., Bhaskar, A., and Megha, Sa, “Influence of Vitamin D & calcium supplementation in the management of periodontitis”, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 9, pp. ZC35-ZC38, 2015.[Abstract]


Introduction: It has long been recognized that vitamin D is a hormone and were many studies reporting that patients in periodontal maintenance programs taking vitamin D and calcium supplementation had a trend for better periodontal health compared to patients not taking supplementation. Aims: To evaluate the effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation in reducing gingival inflammation, using clinical parameters like gingival index (GI), oral hygiene index-simplified (OHIS), probing pocket depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and bone density (BD). Also, to assess whether calcium and vitamin D oral supplementation influences alveolar Bone Density (BD). Design and Settings: A nonrandomised clinical trial done in Amrita School of dentistry, Kochi, India. Materials and Methods: Group A taking vitamin D (250IU/day) and calcium (500 mg/day) supplementation, and Group B were not taking oral supplementation. All subjects had at least one or more teeth with chronic moderate periodontitis. Digital Orthopantomogram images were taken to assess bone density. Data were collected at baseline and three months. Statistical Analysis used: OHI-S, GI, PPD, CAL, and Bone Densities (BD) were calculated per group. Karl Pearson Coefficient of correlation was used to test correlation of bone density with GI and OHI -S. Intergroup comparison of parameters were done using Independent two Sample t-test. Intragroup comparison of parameters at recall interval was done using Paired sample t-test. The results were considered statistically significant when p-value was <0.05. Results: Both Groups showed significant change in the periodontal parameters and bone density after three months and intragroup comparison showed highly significant results for vitamin D group in relation to GI, OHI S and bone density. Conclusions: Calcium and vitamin D supplementation has got a positive effect on periodontal health and it can be used as an adjunct to non surgical periodontal therapy. © 2015, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All Rights Reserved.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

S. A., P, L., D., B., D.B., M., K.V., S., and G.A., B., “Platelet concentration in platelet concentrates and periodontal regeneration-unscrambling the ambiguity”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 6, pp. 510-516, 2015.[Abstract]


Context: Platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) and Platelet-rich-fibrin (PRF) are extensively used autologous platelet concentrates in periodontal regeneration, and PRF has a better efficacy as compared to PRP. The rationale for this difference has often been attributed to the difference in the structure of the fibrin matrix. However, the effect of concentration of platelets on the regenerative potential of these concentrates is obscure. Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate and compare, clinically and radiographically, the efficacy of PRF and PRP in the treatment of periodontal endosseous defects and to assess the effect of platelet concentration on periodontal regeneration. Materials and Methods: Twenty intrabony defects were selected and divided into two groups randomly by the coin toss method. Group I received PRP and Group II subjects were treated with PRF. The platelet counts in PRP and PRF were analyzed. Clinical and radiological parameters were assessed at baseline and 3, 6, and 9 months postoperatively. Statistical Analysis: Kruskal-Wallis Chi-square test, Wilcoxon signed rank test, t-test, and Spearman's rank correlation were used for statistical analysis of data. Results: There was statistically significant improvement in all the parameters in the two groups except in relation to gingival recession. There was a statistically significant difference between the platelet count in Group I and Group II (P = 0.002). Conclusion: PRP and PRF appear to have nearly comparable effects in terms of periodontal regeneration. The concentration of platelets appears to play a paradoxical role in regeneration. The regenerative potential of platelets appears to be optimal within a limited range. © 2015 Contemporary Clinical Dentistry | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

S. Ra Sreeram, P., P. Singh V., Thomas, Pa, K. Unni, N., and Tharani, Sb, “Management of 35 % hydrogen peroxide exposure to naked eyes: A case report and review”, International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, vol. 6, pp. B417-B420, 2015.[Abstract]


Exposure of strong acids to eyes is a rare uneventful situation. This case reports one such case where accidental exposure of dental bleaching agent which contain 35 percent of hydrogen peroxide to patients naked eyes in a dental office which was successfully managed without any corneal damage.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

A. E. Thomas, Kurup, S., Dr. Sreeja P. Kumar, Dr. Marina Lazar Chandy, and Jose, R., “Diagnostic efficiency of high-resolution ultrasonography in patients with chronic temporomandibular disorders”, Oral Radiology, 2015.[Abstract]


Purpose: Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) affect 8–12 % of the adolescent and adult population, resulting in patient discomfort and affecting quality of life. Despite the growing incidence of these disorders, an effective screening modality to detect TMDs is still lacking. Although magnetic resonance imaging is the gold standard for imaging of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), it has a few drawbacks such as cost and its time-consuming nature. High-resolution ultrasonography is a non-invasive and cost-effective imaging modality that enables simultaneous visualization of the hard and soft tissue components of the TMJ. This study aimed to evaluate the correlations between the clinical signs and symptoms of patients with chronic TMJ disorders and their ultrasonographic findings, thereby enabling the use of ultrasonography as an imaging modality for screening of TMDs. Methods: Twenty patients with chronic TMDs were selected according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMDs. Ultrasonographic imaging of individual TMJs was performed to assess the destructive changes, effusion, and disc dislocation. Fisher’s exact test was used to examine the correlations between the findings obtained from the ultrasonographic investigation and the clinical signs and symptoms. Results: There was a significant correlation between pain and joint effusion as well as between clicking and surface erosion. Conclusions: The present findings suggest that ultrasonography can be used as a screening modality to assess the hard and soft tissue changes in patients presenting with signs and symptoms of TMDs. © 2015 Japanese Society for Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Springer Japan

More »»

2015

Journal Article

N. Renahan, Raj, R., Dr. Balagopal Varma R., and S. J., K., “Christ Siemens Touraine syndrome: Two case reports and felicitous approaches to prosthetic management”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 6, pp. 274-276, 2015.[Abstract]


Ectodermal dysplasia is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders, which exhibit a classic triad of hypohydrosis, hypotrichosis, and hypodontia. Hypohidrotic or anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia or Christ Siemens Touraine syndrome is the most common condition among ectodermal dysplasia patients. This is a case report on two Christ Siemens Touraine syndrome cases and two different approaches to prosthetic management.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier, Kavita Rai, Amitha M. Hegde, and Suchetha Shetty, “A spectroscopic and surface microhardness study on enamel exposed to beverages supplemented with lower iron concentrations”, The Journal of clinical pediatric dentistry, vol. 39, pp. 161-167, 2015.[Abstract]


OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the in vitro mineral loss and surface microhardness (SMH) changes in human enamel specimens following supplementation of acidic carbonated beverages with low iron concentrations than when treated without. STUDY DESIGN: 180 enamel blocks each from primary and permanent teeth were prepared and equally subdivided (n=10) for their respective treatments in Group 1 (Coca Cola and Sprite without iron supplementation) and Group 2 (beverages supplemented with 2/5 mmol/L FeSO₄.7H₂O). Following initial SMH estimation, the blocks were subjected to 3 treatment cycles of 5/20 minute incubation periods, equally interspaced by a 5-min treatment in artificial saliva. The calcium and phosphate released after each cycle were analyzed spectrophotometrically and the final SMH was recorded. The results were tested using student's T test, One-way ANOVA and Kruskal Walli's test (p&lt;0.05). RESULTS: Two and five mmol/L FeSO₄.7H₂O supplementation produced a highly significant SMH change and calcium and phosphate reduction than when treated without (p&lt;.0005). Both the enamel specimens showed similar patterns of mineral loss and SMH reduction, with pronounced effects in the twenty minute incubation cycles. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that 2 mmol/L FeSO₄.7H₂O supplementation to acidic beverages is beneficial in reducing mineral loss and preserving surface microhardness of human enamel.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

D. Paul, K., S. Varma N., and V., A. V., “Airway in Class i and Class II skeletal pattern: A computed tomography study”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 6, pp. 293-298, 2015.[Abstract]


Background and Objectives: A normal airway is required for the normal growth of the craniofacial structures. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the airway in Class I and Class II skeletal pattern and to see if there is any association between the airway and maxillomandibular relationship. Materials and Methods: Peripheral nervous system computed tomography scans of 30 patients were divided into two groups as Class I (ANB ≤ 4.5°), Class II (ANB ≥ 4.5°). The Dolphin three-dimensional version 11 was used to assess the airway. Statistical Analysis: Correlations between the variables were tested with the Pearson correlation coefficient. Independent sample t-test was performed to compare the averages between the two groups. P < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The ANB angle was negatively correlated with all the airway parameters. The airway area and volume was significantly reduced in Class II subjects compared to Class I. Conclusion: The results suggest a strong association between the airway and skeletal pattern showing a reduced airway in Class II patients with a high ANB angle.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

A. E. Thomas, Kurup, S., Jose, R., and Soman, C., “Facial Swelling as a Primary Manifestation of Multiple Myeloma”, Case Reports in Dentistry, vol. 2015, 2015.[Abstract]


Facial swellings are commonly encountered in the dental office, the cause of which could range from a congenital etiology to an acquired one or it may even be a manifestation of an underlying systemic disease. The clinician must have a thorough knowledge of the various clinical and imaging manifestations and the sites of occurrence of the various conditions to arrive at the appropriate diagnosis. Facial swellings can be classified into different groups which include acute swellings with inflammation, nonprogressive swellings, and slowly or rapidly progressive swellings. The various imaging modalities like CT and MRI are useful for assessing the extent of the swelling as well as evaluating the soft tissue and osseous involvement of the swelling. Multiple myeloma represents clonal proliferation of plasma cells and is a condition in which a facial swelling might be present, though not common. This paper reports a case of a patient with a unilateral facial swelling, which on investigation led to a diagnosis of multiple myeloma. © 2015 Anju E. Thomas et al.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

Niloofar Fathima, Parvathy Kumaran, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., and Arun Mamachan Xavier, “Management of congenital choanal atresia: A pedodontist′s role”, Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, vol. 33, pp. 259-261, 2015.[Abstract]


Choanal atresia is a rare cryptic congenital anomaly with developmental failure of the nasal cavity to communicate with the nasophaynx, resulting in a significant physiological and anatomical alteration of the dento-facial complex. It is considered as a life-threatening or lethal congenital malformation in an obligatory nasal breathing neonate. Elective transnasal endoscopic repair is the most preferred and minimally invasive procedure to correct this anomaly. This case report describes the multi-disciplinary team approach that included pedodontists to manage the case of a 6-month-old infant with choanal atresia suffering from breathlessness, feeding difficulty, and disturbed sleep.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

C. V. Deepan Kumar, Mohamed, S., Dr. Chandrashekar Janakiram, and Joseph, J., “Validation of dental impact on daily living questionnaire among tribal population of India”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 6, pp. S235-S241, 2015.[Abstract]


Background: Oral conditions are known to affect various aspects of quality of life. Similarly, the social consequence of the quality of life in the day to day living is also equally important. Several studies have quantified the social consequences of diseases through activity limitations in people's daily living. The instruments which cover a broad spectrum of life are proposed to be compared with the clinical oral hygiene status of people from different social classes. Aim: To assess the validity of dental impact on daily living (DIDL) questionnaire measuring subjective dental problems and their impact in the day to day life among tribes of Wayanad. Study Design: Cross-sectional. Materials and Methods: DIDL questionnaire developed by Leao and Sheiham was used. We recorded the clinical oral health status using decayed, missing, filled, simplified oral hygiene index, and community periodontal index indices, to correlate the subjective findings of dental impact tribe to obtain construct validity of the questionnaire. Analysis: Descriptive statistics and Spearman's correlation using IBM SPSS software version 20. Results: In the study population of 250 participants, the majority of the participants were from the age group between 36 and 50 years (40%) and females were in the majority (64%). The clinical status of the participants was poor in the majority while their perceived impact in their day to day living was found to be relatively satisfied. The study results show the DIDL tool had weak validity in relation to the clinical status with relevance to the social status of Indian tribal population. Conclusion: The study result shows that there was insignificant and weak validity between the DIDL tool and the oral health status among these tribes who were from a low social class. This might be because their priority in life which is different from what a person from high social class. So the dental problem is ignored at the level of individual depending on his/her priority and at the community level by the policy makers.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

Va Cilil, K., S. Varma N., Gopinath, S., and V., A. V., “Efficacy of custom made oral appliance for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 6, pp. 341-347, 2015.[Abstract]


Introduction: oral appliance for the treatment of OSA is considered as an effective, low-risk alternative to CPAP. Demand for oral appliance increases as an alternative for those who cannot tolerate CPAP and refuse surgery. Oral appliances uses the traditional methods to advance the mandible thus modify the posture and their by enlarge the airway or otherwise reduce the collapsibility. Aims and Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of custom made oral appliance on sleep characteristics of OSA patients. Materials and Methods: Polysomnography was done on 15 patients of 24-60 years of age before (T1), and after the delivery of the custom made oral appliance (T2). Statistical Analysis: Paired t tests were performed to determine the significance of change in the polysomnographic and cephalometric variables. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: All patients with oral appliance showed an improvement in sleep parameters with an increase in sleep efficiency, and desaturation index with the use of oral appliance. ESS and cephalometric findings showed improvement in the sleep apnea in concordance with the sleep parameters. Conclusions: Custom made oral appliance is a useful treatment option for improving quality of sleep and can be considered as an alternative treatment modality.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

B. Sangeetha Govinda and Sivaram, Rb, “Psychometric properties of the Malayalam version of ECOHIS”, Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, vol. 33, pp. 234-238, 2015.[Abstract]


{Background: The Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) has been developed in English for determining oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in the preschool children. It has been translated and validated in different languages to suit different cultures. The ECOHIS is, till date, the only tool available for research in this field on preschool age children. A similar version of this tool is not available for use in the local language Malayalam. Aim: This study aimed to develop and validate a Malayalam version of the ECOHIS (M-ECOHIS). Design: The study was conducted with a cross-sectional design. The ECOHIS was translated into Malayalam by forward-backward translation and tested for face and content validity. The parents of 300 children were administered the M-ECOHIS and an additional global oral health (GOH) question. The children were examined for the presence of early childhood caries (ECC) which was recorded using the defs index. The internal consistency reliability, test-retest reliability, interobserver reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity were assessed. Results: The tool possessed good internal consistency (Cronbach′s alpha = 0.879; item total correlation 0.2832-0.7617); the test-retest reliability and interobserver reliability assessed using ICC (ICC = 0.9457 and 0.9460, respectively) was acceptable. The Spearman′s correlation coefficient of the ECOHIS and the GOH scores

More »»

2015

Journal Article

P. Pa Sanara, Shereef, Mb, Hegde, Sc, Rajesh, K. Sc, Kumar, M. S. Ac, and Mohamed, Sa, “Comparative analysis of gingival crevicular fluid β-glucuronidase levels in health, chronic gingivitis and chronic periodontitis”, Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, vol. 7, pp. S660-S665, 2015.[Abstract]


Background and Objectives: Current methods available for periodontal disease diagnosis are seriously deficient in terms of accuracy, in the ability to predict ongoing or future disease activity and indeed in determining whether previously diseased sites are in an arrested phase or still active. One area that is receiving a great deal of attention is the biochemical investigation of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF). β-glucuronidase (βG) is one of the enzymes found in GCF that is involved in degradation of the ground substance and fibrillar components of host connective tissue. GCF βG activity might be a good indicator or predictor of periodontal disease activity. This study was conducted to estimate and compare the GCF βG levels in patients with healthy periodontium, chronic gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis. Methodology: Subjects were classified into three groups of 20 patients each; healthy individuals, chronic gingivitis, and chronic periodontitis. After recording the plaque index, gingival index and probing pocket depth, 1 μL GCF was collected by placing a calibrated microcapillary pipette extracrevicularly and transferred to sterile plastic vials containing 350 μL of normal saline with 1% bovine serum albumin. Analysis of βG was done by spectrophotometry Results: βG levels in GCF were significantly higher in chronic periodontitis group (mean value - 2.04743), followed by chronic gingivitis group (mean - 1.11510) and healthy group (0.53643). Conclusion: Increased βG levels were observed in patients with increased periodontal destruction, hence GCF βG levels can be used as biochemical marker for periodontal disease activity. © 2015 Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

Pa Anuradha, K., S. Varma N., and Balakrishnan, Ac, “Reliability performance of titanium sputter coated Ni-Ti arch wires: Mechanical performance and nickel release evaluation”, Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering, vol. 26, pp. 67-77, 2015.[Abstract]


The present research was aimed at developing surface coatings on NiTi archwires capable of protection against nickel release and to investigate the stability, mechanical performance and prevention of nickel release of titanium sputter coated NiTi arch wires. Coated and uncoated specimens immersed in artificial saliva were subjected to critical evaluation of parameters such as surface analysis, mechanical testing, element release, friction coefficient and adhesion of the coating. Titanium coatings exhibited high reliability on exposure even for a prolonged period of 30 days in artificial saliva. The coatings were found to be relatively stable on linear scratch test with reduced frictional coefficient compared to uncoated samples. Titanium sputtering adhered well with the Ni-Ti substrates at the molecular level, this was further confirmed by Inductive coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICPE) analysis which showed no dissolution of nickel in the artificial saliva. Titanium sputter coatings seem to be promising for nickel sensitive patients. The study confirmed the superior nature of the coating, evident as reduced surface roughness, friction coefficient, good adhesion and minimal hardness and elastic modulus variations in artificial saliva over a given time period. © 2015 - IOS Press and the authors.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

Ra Prasad, Suchetha, Ab, Lakshmi, Pd, Darshan, Mb, Apoorva, Sb, and Ashit, Gc, “Interleukin-11 - Its role in the vicious cycle of inflammation, periodontitis and diabetes: A clinicobiochemical cross-sectional study”, Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology, vol. 19, pp. 159-163, 2015.[Abstract]


Context: Interleukin-11 (IL-11) is a multifunctional cytokine with a probable regulatory role in the inflamed periodontal tissue. It has also been shown to inhibit the production of potent proinflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-alpha, IL-6 and IL-1β in vitro. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, which demonstrates an increase in proinflammatory cytokines, might hypothetically, display a decrease in the levels of IL-11, which down-regulates synthesis of the proinflammatory cytokines. Aims: This clinicobiochemical cross-sectional study was undertaken to try to interpret the link between IL-11, diabetes and periodontitis and to explore the probable protective role of IL-11. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 patients were included in the study and were divided into five groups based on community periodontal index scores and diabetes status. Probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level were measured in all the subjects. Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was collected from all the participants using micropipettes and blood samples were collected from subjects in Groups III, IV and V, for analysis of glycated hemoglobin. IL-11 levels were measured in GCF samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Statistical Analysis: The data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The GCF IL-11 levels decreased from periodontal health to disease and in periodontitis patients with type 2 diabetes with decreasing glycemic control. Conclusions: Interleukin-11 may play an important role in the modulation of immune response via the reduction of proinflammatory cytokine production and periodontal tissue damage. It was seen in this study that IL-11 could be detected in GCF and the levels of IL-11 in GCF decreased progressively from healthy to periodontitis sites. IL-11 levels were significantly lower in chronic periodontitis group when compared to gingivitis group. The decrease in the levels of IL-11 probably indicates that both diabetes and periodontitis may play a synergistic role in the suppression of protective host responses. The potential of IL-11 as a probable biomarker of inflammation in both periodontal disease and diabetes mellitus is indicated by the changeability of IL-11 levels with the change in periodontal disease status and glycemic control. Further longitudinal studies are needed to validate IL-11 as a »biomarker of inflammation» in periodontal disease and diabetes progression and to prove its role in the connecting link between periodontal disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. © 2015, Medknow Publications. All rights reserved. More »»

2015

Journal Article

Ma Shereef, Sanara, P. Pb, Karuppanan, Sc, Noorudeen, Ad, and Joseph, Ke, “The effect of cigarette smoking on the severity of periodontal diseases among adults of Kothamangalam Town, Kerala”, Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, vol. 7, pp. S648-S651, 2015.[Abstract]


Aims and Objectives: Smoking is one of the major risk factors for periodontal disease. This study aims at examining the difference in the periodontal status of current smokers, former smokers, and nonsmokers among the adults of Kothamangalam, Kerala. It investigates the association between the level of cigarette consumption and periodontal attachment loss taking into account the effect of age, gender, and oral hygiene. Methodology: The study population consisted of 30 subjects and divided into three groups as current, former, and nonsmokers with periodontal disease. All clinical parameters were recorded. Smoking assessment was done using a self-reported questionnaire, and statistical analysis was carried out. Results: Current smokers had a higher percentage of sites with mean probing depth, and greater mean clinical attachment level than former smokers and nonsmoker. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was found in clinical attachment loss (CAL) between Group I (current smokers) and III (nonsmokers), that shows the increased risk of current smokers for future periodontal destruction. The CAL for current smokers was 5.20 ± 2.440 and for the nonsmokers was 1.50 ± 1.265. A significant difference (P < 0.05) was found in CAL between Group I and III. Summary and Conclusion: The study revealed a marked association between cigarette smoking and the risk of periodontitis. The increased destruction among current smokers showed a dose-dependent relationship with the amount of cigarette consumption. For former smokers, the duration since quitting smoking was associated with a lower risk for severe periodontitis. © 2015 Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

K. Va Suresh, Shenai, Pb, Chatra, Lc, Ronad, Y. - A. Ad, Bilahari, Ne, Pramod, R. Cf, and Dr. Sreeja P. Kumar, “Oral mucosal diseases in anxiety and depression patients: Hospital based observational study from south India”, Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry, vol. 7, pp. e95-e99, 2015.[Abstract]


Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of different Oral Mucosal diseases in Anxiety and Depression patients. Material and Methods: A hospital based observational Study was conducted in the department of Psychiatry and department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Patients who were diagnosed with Anxiety or Depression by the psychiatrists using Hamilton Anxiety and Depression scale were subjected to complete oral examination to check for oral diseases like Oral Lichen Planus (OLP), Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis (RAS), and Burning Mouth Syndrome (BMS). Equal number of control group subjects were also included. Results: In this study statistically significant increase in the oral diseases in patients with anxiety and depression than the control group was recorded. Oral diseases were significantly higher in anxiety patients (20.86%) than in depression (9.04%) and control group patients (5.17%). In anxiety patients, the prevalence of RAS was 12%, OLP was 5.7%, and BMS was 2.87%. In depression patients, the prevalence of RAS was 4.02%, OLP was 2.01% and BMS was 3.01%. In control group the prevalence was 2.2%, 1.33% and 1.62% in RAS, OLP and BMS respectively. RAS and OLP were significantly higher in the younger age group (18-49) and BMS was seen between the age group of 50-77 years in both study and control groups. participaConclusions: The results of the present study showed a positive association between psychological alterations and changes in the oral mucosa, particularly conditions like OLP, RAS and BMS. Thus psychogenic factors like anxiety and depression may act as a risk factor that could influence the initiation and development of oral mucosal diseases. Hence psychological management should be taken into consideration when treating patients with these oral diseases.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

A. Kumar, Bhatt, Vb, Balakrishnan, Mc, Hashem, Mde, Vellappally, Sd, Kheraif, A. AfAl, Halawany, H. Sgh, Abraham, N. Bg, Jacob, Vg, and Anil, Sh, “Bioactivity and surface characteristics of titanium implants following various surface treatments: An in vitro study”, Journal of Oral Implantology, vol. 41, pp. e183-e188, 2015.[Abstract]


This study compared the surface topography, hydrophilicity, and bioactivity of titanium implants after 3 different surface treatments (sandblasting and acid etching, modified sandblasting and acid etching, and thermal oxidation) with those of machined implants. One hundred indigenously manufactured threaded titanium implants were subjected to 3 methods of surface treatment. The surface roughness of the nontreated (Group A) and treated samples (Groups B through D) was evaluated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and profilometer. The wettability was visually examined using a colored dye solution. The calcium ions attached to the implant surface after immersing in simulated body fluid (SBF) were assessed on days 1, 2, and 7 with an atomic electron spectroscope. The data were analyzed statistically. The SBF test allowed the precipitation of a calcium phosphate layer on all surface-treated samples, as evidenced in the SEM analysis. A significantly higher amount of calcium ions and increased wettability were achieved in the thermally oxidized samples. The mean roughness was significantly lower in Group A (0.85 ± 0.07) compared to Group B (1.35 ± 0.17), Group C (1.40 ± 0.14), and Group D (1.36 ± 0.18). The observations from this in vitro study indicated that surface treatment of titanium improved the bioactivity. Moreover, results identified the implants that were sandblasted, acid etched, and then oxidized attracted more calcium ions.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

R. Renju, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Kumar, S. J., and Parvathy Kumaran, “Mandibulofacial dysostosis (Treacher Collins syndrome): A case report and review of literature”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 5, pp. 532-534, 2015.[Abstract]


Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) or Franceschetti syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder of craniofacial development with variable phenotypic expression. It presents with characteristic facial appearance enabling it to be easily recognizable. A case of a 10-year-old girl having TCS is briefly described in this article. A review of the etiology, clinical features, differential diagnosis, and treatment options are also discussed. More »»

2015

Journal Article

Na Ashok, K., S. Varma N., V., A. V., and Gqpinath, Sb, “Effect of rapid maxillary expansion on sleep characteristics in children”, Contemporary Clinical Dentistry, vol. 5, pp. 489-494, 2015.[Abstract]


Introduction: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is an orthopedic treatment procedure routinely used to treat constricted maxillary arches and also a potential additional treatment in children presenting with sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Aims and Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of RME on sleep characteristics in children. Materials and Methods: Polysomnography was done on children of 8-13 years of age before expansion (TO), after expansion (T1) and after a period of 3 months after retention (T2). Bonded rapid maxillary expander was cemented in all children. Inter-molar distance was also measured at TO and T2. Statistical Analysis: Nonparametric Friedman test was used for comparing the averages of sleep parameters at different time period (TO, T1, T2). Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used for comparing the averages of inter-molar width (T0-T2). P < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results: All children showed an improvement in sleep parameters with an increase in sleep efficiency, decreased in arousal and desaturation index after expansion. Total sleep time showed a statistically significant increase after expansion. A statistically significant increase in inter-molar distance was obtained after expansion. Conclusions: Rapid maxillary expansion is a useful treatment option for improving quality of sleep even in normal children without SDB. It also induces widening of the maxilla, corrects posterior crossbites and improves maxillary and mandibular dental arch coordination.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

Vimi George, Suresh Kumar Janardhanan, Dr. Balagopal Varma R., Parvathy Kumaran, and Arun Mamachan Xavier, “Clinical and radiographic evaluation of indirect pulp treatment with MTA and calcium hydroxide in primary teeth (in-vivo study)”, Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, vol. 33, pp. 104-110, 2015.[Abstract]


Objectives: Clinical and radiographic effects of mineral trioxide aggregate (white MTA) and calcium hydroxide (Dycal) in indirect pulp treatment (IPT) of primary teeth over a period of 6 months. Materials and Methods: A clinical trial with sample size of 40 primary molars between the age group of 5-9 years, of which, 20 teeth were considered, each for MTA and Dycal. Measurements on the digitized radiographs were performed at baseline, third and sixth month, increase in dentin was then measured using Corel Draw software. Result: Independent t-test had indicated that at the end of 3 months and 6 months, a statistically significant increase in dentin thickness with both MTA and Dycal (P-value ≤ 0.001) was found. Within the MTA group, the thickness of dentin formed was 0.089 mm ± 0.031 mm at first 3 months and 0.055 ± 0.022 mm at the second 3 months, (P ≤ 0.001) evaluated using paired t-test. In the Dycal group, increment in dentin deposited was 0.068 mm at the first 3 months and second 3 months, it was 0.030 mm (P-value ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: Clinically and radiographically, MTA is superior to Dycal as a good IPT medicament in primary teeth.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

B. Halima Shamaz, Anitha, A., V., M., Kuttappan, S., Shantikumar V Nair, and Dr. Manitha B. Nair, “Relevance of fiber integrated gelatin-nanohydroxyapatite composite scaffold for bone tissue regeneration”, Nanotechnology, vol. 26, no. 40, p. 405101, 2015.[Abstract]


Porous nanohydroxyapatite (nanoHA) is a promising bone substitute, but it is brittle, which limits its utility for load bearing applications. To address this issue, herein, biodegradable electrospun microfibrous sheets of poly(L-lactic acid)-(PLLA)–polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were incorporated into a gelatin–nanoHA matrix which was investigated for its mechanical properties, the physical integration of the fibers with the matrix, cell infiltration, osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration. The inclusion of sacrificial fibers like PVA along with PLLA and leaching resulted in improved cellular infiltration towards the center of the scaffold. Furthermore, the treatment of PLLA fibers with 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide enhanced their hydrophilicity, ensuring firm anchorage between the fibers and the gelatin–HA matrix. The incorporation of PLLA microfibers within the gelatin–nanoHA matrix reduced the brittleness of the scaffolds, the effect being proportional to the number of layers of fibrous sheets in the matrix. The proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells was augmented on the fibrous scaffolds in comparison to those scaffolds devoid of fibers. Finally, the scaffold could promote cell infiltration, together with bone regeneration, upon implantation in a rabbit femoral cortical defect within 4 weeks. The bone regeneration potential was significantly higher when compared to commercially available HA (Surgiwear™). Thus, this biomimetic, porous, 3D composite scaffold could be offered as a promising candidate for bone regeneration in orthopedics.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier, Steffy M. Sunny, and Amitha M. Hegde, “Effect of carbonated beverages on aesthetic restorative materials – An in-vitro surface micro hardness study”, Int J Ped Dent, vol. 25 (Suppl. 1), p. 95, 2015.

2014

Journal Article

J. S.T., K., T., Mathew, J., V., M., Sharma, M., and Iyer, S., “Defect components and reconstructive options in composite orbitomaxillary defects with orbital exenteration”, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 72, pp. 1869.e1-1869.e9, 2014.[Abstract]


Purpose The conventional way of reconstructing an orbital exenteration defect associated with a maxillectomy is to cover it with a soft tissue free flap and camouflage it with a spectacle-mounted orbital prosthesis. Also, there are some reports on the use of bone flaps. The objective of this study was to review the reconstructive options for a defect resulting after orbital exenteration and maxillectomy. Materials and Methods This study concerns a retrospective case series of 20 patients. Electronic medical records, including clinical details, operative notes, and follow-up data, were analyzed. Defects were analyzed for their reconstructive components. The reconstructive methods used were studied by the types of flap used, bony versus soft tissue types of reconstruction, and the prosthetic method used to rehabilitate the eye. Outcomes were analyzed for flap success rate. Descriptive methods for data analysis were used. Results Fourteen patients underwent a soft tissue reconstruction alone and 6 underwent bony reconstruction. The free rectus abdominis was the commonest soft tissue flap used. This article presents the outcome of reconstruction in such patients and the utility of individual flaps for their ability to replace different components of the defect. Conclusions Ideal reconstruction should address all individual defect components of facial contour, orbital, palatal, skull base, and skin defects. The free rectus abdominis flap remains the common choice. When a composite socket reconstruction is to be achieved, the innovative free tensor fascia lata flap with the iliac crest bone and internal oblique muscle is an option. © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.

More »»

2014

Journal Article

B. Kalarickal, “Group distal movement of teeth using micro-screw-implant anchorage-a case report”, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 8, pp. 26-29, 2014.[Abstract]


This case report describes a case of orthodontic tooth movement of a 29-year-old female patient utilizing maxillary posterior edentulous area. Micro-implants were placed at buccal edentulous spaces and inter-radicular space for retraction of entire maxillary dentition. An overjet reduction of 8mm and good posterior occlusion were achieved.

More »»

2014

Journal Article

Dr. Chandrashekar Janakiram and Gardens, S. J., “Knowledge, attitudes and practices related to healthcare ethics among medical and dental postgraduate students in south India.”, Indian journal of medical ethics, vol. 11, pp. 99-104, 2014.[Abstract]


Conventional medical training offers students little help in resolving the ethical dilemmas they will encounter as healthcare professionals. Objective: This article aims to assess the knowledge of, practices in and attitudes to healthcare ethics among postgraduate medical and dental students. A questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study was carried out at two medical and dental schools in south India. A total of 209 medical and dental students were contacted and at least three were selected from each subspecialty of medicine and dentistry.One hundred and ninety-nine consented to participate and 7 72 returned the questionnaire (response rate 83%). The questionnaire,which was a 35-item pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire,included both closed and open-ended questions. The proposal for the study was approved by the institutional review board (IRB)and the permission of the respective heads of department was obtained. Written consent was obtained from each participant.The returned questionnaires were analysed using SPSS version 7 7 .5. Descriptive analysis was carried out for all the data. The attitudes of the postgraduates of different courses towards practical ethical problems were compared using a Chi square test. Medical and dental postgraduates had obtained their knowledge of bioethics from "other sources such as the Internet,newspapers, etc  followed by their "undergraduate training" and"experience at work': Nearly 68% of the postgraduates had not undergone any bioethics training. Nearly 98% of the medical postgraduates, as compared to 79% of the dental postgraduates,knew that their institution had an ethics committee. There was a difference between the medical and dental students in terms of their attitude to and knowledge of healthcare ethics, with the former having a superior knowledge of the subject and a better attitude. Conclusions: The medical and dental postgraduates come across ethical issues during their training, but are not equipped to resolve the ethical dilemmas they encounter. The dental postgraduates have less of an appreciation of healthcare ethics than their medical counterparts. The incorporation of a bioethics curriculum in the initial period of the postgraduate programme would be beneficial.

More »»

2014

Journal Article

K. Ra Biniraj and Janardhanan, M., “Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of maxilla showing sarcomatous change in an edentulous site with a history of tooth extraction following periodontitis: A case report with discussion”, Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology, vol. 18, pp. 375-378, 2014.[Abstract]


Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare tumor of uncertain origin with variable biological behavior ranging from reactive lesions to highly aggressive malignancy. Oral IMTs are extremely rare and only 25 cases had been reported so far. A case of IMT with sarcomatous transformation in an extraction site with a history of tooth extraction following tooth mobility of an upper left molar tooth is presented here. The tooth was extracted following a complaint of gingival swelling and mobility of tooth. Though malignant transformation in IMTs had been documented in the extra oral sites, wide search of associated literature suggests, this is the first case of oral IMT showing malignant change associated with gingiva. The case report attempts to highlight the variant possibilities of tooth mobility other than periodontitis and the importance of assessing the primary cause of such conditions.

More »»

2014

Journal Article

N. Ramesh, Palukunnu, B., Ravindran, N., and Nair, P. P., “Maxillary molar distalization with first class appliance”, BMJ case reports, vol. 2014, 2014.[Abstract]


Non-extraction treatment has gained popularity for corrections of mild-to-moderate class II malocclusion over the past few decades. The distalization of maxillary molars is of significant value for treatment of cases with minimal arch discrepancy and mild class II molar relation associated with a normal mandibular arch and acceptable profile. This paper describes our experience with a 16-year-old female patient who reported with irregularly placed upper front teeth and unpleasant smile. The patient was diagnosed to have angles class II malocclusion with moderate maxillary anterior crowding, deep bite of 4 mm on a skeletal class II base with an orthognathic maxilla and retrognathic mandible and normal growth pattern. She presented an ideal profile and so molar distalization was planned with the first-class appliance. Molars were distalised by 8 mm on the right and left quadrants and class I molar relation achieved within 4 months. The space gained was utilised effectively to align the arch and establish a class I molar and canine relation.

More »»

2014

Journal Article

Aad Gopalakrishnan, Veeraraghavan, R., and Panicker, Pc, “Hematological and surgical management in Glanzmann′s thrombasthenia: A case report”, Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, vol. 32, pp. 181-184, 2014.[Abstract]


Glanzmann's thrombasthenia (GT) is a rare, congenital, and moderate to severe platelet disorder. The bleeding time is increased, due to lack of platelet aggregation, since the patients with GT have deficient or dysfunctional integrin membrane glycoproteins IIb and IIIa essential for platelet aggregation. Children with GT are mostly diagnosed very early in life due to the spontaneous and unexplained mucocutaneous bleeding. It is quite a challenging task when any surgery is indicated for children with GT. This case report is about the medical and surgical management of an 11-year-old girl diagnosed with Glannzmann's thrombasthenia who had to undergo a maxillary cyst enucleation.

More »»

2014

Journal Article

J. P., Suresh, N., Angel Fenol, Vyloppillil, R., Bhaskar, A., and Menon, S. Megha, “Comparison of glycated hemoglobin levels in individuals without diabetes and with and without periodontitis before and after non-surgical periodontal therapy”, Journal of Periodontology, vol. 85, pp. 1658-1666, 2014.[Abstract]


Background: Only a few studies have examined the association between periodontitis and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in individuals without diabetes. The aim of this study is to compare HbA1c levels in individuals without diabetes and with and without periodontitis before and after non-surgical periodontal therapy. Methods: This comparative study was done on individuals without diabetes who were 35 to 65 years old. Group A consisted of 30 individuals without periodontitis, and group B consisted of 30 individuals with periodontitis. Body mass indices and clinical parameters, including oral hygiene indexsimplified (OHI-S) score, gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and HbA1c level, of all participants were recorded. All participants received non-surgical periodontal therapy (scaling and root planing). After 3 months, all participants were reexamined, and clinical parameters and HbA1c levels were evaluated and compared to baseline values. Results: There were significant differences between group A and group B in regard to baseline OHI-S, GI, PD, and HbA1c (P <0.05). There was no clinical attachment loss in group A, either at baseline or after 3 months. At the end of 3 months, group B showed improvement in all clinical parameters (P <0.05) and their HbA1c levels also significantly decreased (P <0.05), although the values never reached those of group A. Conclusion: The HbA1c levels of individuals without diabetes and with periodontitis (group B) were significantly reduced 3 months after non-surgical periodontal therapy, although they never reached the same levels as those of the individuals without diabetes or periodontitis (group A). © 2014 American Academy of Periodontology.

More »»

2014

Journal Article

La Mathew, Unni, K. Nb, and Kumar, Vc, “A mathematical derivation to prove reduced denture retention in V shaped palate”, Journal of Indian Prosthodontist Society, vol. 14, pp. 169-171, 2014.[Abstract]


The impact of oral health on the quality of life of older individuals have significantly increased over the last few decades. Edentulism substantially affect oral and general health and overall quality of life. Complete denture retention is the resistance to displacement of the denture base away from the ridge which is the main source of psychological comfort for the patient. Special retention problems are seen in patients exhibiting highly tapered steep palatal vault. In these cases a metal base or subsequent bench cure reline procedure would be incorporated into the initial treatment plan. In this article, we have derived a mathematical proof for the clinical experience that reduction in the palatal angle, results in lesser denture retention. © Indian Prosthodontic Society 2014.

More »»

2014

Journal Article

Aab Keepanasseril, “PubMed alternatives to search MEDLINE: An environmental scan”, Indian Journal of Dental Research, vol. 25, pp. 527-534, 2014.[Abstract]


The prime objective of this article is to introduce the newer methods to access, search and process MEDLINE citations. It also aims to provide a brief overview of each service's salient features. A targeted search was conducted in MEDLINE through the OVID gateway. This was followed with a search in Google Scholar as well as Google and Bing. Ninety-two web-based services that can be used to search MEDLINE were identified. The list was shortened to 24 by applying a set of relevancy criteria to select those services more relevant to general medical and dental users. Salient features of the selected services are outlined and a use case based classification of the system has been proposed to help dental practitioners and researchers select the appropriate service for a given purpose.

More »»

2014

Journal Article

Na Ramesh, Reddy, MbSathi Rami, Palukunnu, Bc, Shetty, Bd, and P., U., “Mixed dentition space analysis in kodava population: A comparison of two methods”, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 8, pp. ZC01-ZC06, 2014.[Abstract]


Aims: To evaluate the reliability of Tanaka and Johnston and Moyer’s (75th percentile) mixed dentition prediction methods in Kodava population sample, to formulate regression equations for predicting the mesiodistal widths of unerupted canines and premolars and to construct probability tables for the Kodava population. Settings and Design: Data was obtained from Kodava subjects visiting the clinics for routine dental check up. Methods and Material: Dental models of 30 male and 30 female Kodava subjects (age range is 16 - 23 yr) were used. Teeth measured included mandibular permanent incisors, maxillary and mandibular permanent canines, first and second premolars. Digital caliper calibrated to 0.01mm was used to record mesiodistal dimensions. The actual teeth measurements were then statistically compared with the predicted values derived from the Tanaka and Johnston’s equations and Moyers probability tables at the 75th percentile. Statistical Analysis Used: Descriptive statistics including means, standard deviations were calculated for the actual and predicted tooth sizes. Student’s t-tests were performed to compare the differences between the measured mesiodistal widths of canine, first and second premolars and the predicted values derived from Moyers. Correlation and regression analysis were performed to formulate standard regression equations. Results: Tanaka and Johnston prediction equations overestimated the mesiodistal widths of permanent canines and premolars in both the arches. Moyers 75th percentile also overestimated the actual measurements except for the maxillary arch in female subjects. The percentage of overestimation was more for Tanaka – Johnston prediction method than that of Moyers (75th percentile). Correlation and regression analysis were performed between the predicted and actual tooth size and standard regression equations were developed for the Kodava population. Probability tables were also constructed from the data obtained. Conclusions: The data from present study illustrates the limitation of Tanaka and Johnston regression equations and Moyer’s (75th percentile) chart when applied to Kodava population. From this data, regression equations and probability tables were derived for tooth size prediction for Kodava population. This would be more accurate when applied to local children of Kodava community. © 2014, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. All rights reserved.

More »»

2014

Journal Article

M. Janardhanan, Rakesh, S., and Savithri, V., “Oral dirofilariasis”, Indian journal of dental research : official publication of Indian Society for Dental Research, vol. 25, pp. 236-239, 2014.[Abstract]


Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

More »»

2014

Journal Article

Kavita Rai and Arun Mamachan Xavier, “Curing of posterior dental composites - A surface microhardness study”, Mat Sci J , vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 218-221, 2014.[Abstract]


Adequate cure of the photo activated polymer and sufficient light intensity isimportant for optimal mechanical properties, polymerization and strength of the composite material. This study establishes the relationship between the light intensities produced by 2 different light curing systems - a Light emitting diode (LED) and a Halogen light curing system, the distance of the curing tip to the composite and its effect on the surface microhardness changes at various depths of 2 dental composite systems. Methodology: Ten samples each of 2 posterior composite materials were prepared at 2 depths using customized moulds and cured at 0mm and 2mm distance from the light source. The Knoop hardness number of the top and bottom surfaces of the blocks were assessed following their respective treatments and subjected to statistical analysis using the paired and unpaired T test (p<0.01).Conclusions: Proximity oflightsource to the photo-activated material influenced the surface hardness of the light activated restorative material. LED produced superior surface hardness than the halogen light curing system, though significant variations werenít observed

More »»

2014

Journal Article

Manju Gopakumar and Arun Mamachan Xavier, “The diagnostic applications of cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) in Pediatric Dentistry”, Res Rev J Dent Sci , vol. 2 (Suppl 1), pp. 59-65, 2014.

2013

Journal Article

U. P., Veeraraghavan, R., Dr. Jaeson Mohanan, and Nair, P. Pb, “Pneumosinus dilatans multiplex associated with hormonal imbalance”, BMJ Case Reports, 2013.[Abstract]


Pneumosinus dilatans describes an abnormal dilation of one or more paranasal sinuses without radiological evidence of localised bone destruction, hyperostosis or mucous membrane thickening. Dilation of mastoid air cells also occurs rarely along with involvement of paranasal sinuses. This rare combination of unknown aetiology was reported in two cases in the literature and termed 'Pneumosinus Dilatans Multiplex' (PSDM). It is usually asymptomatic, and is detected incidentally on plain radiography, CT or MRI. If left untreated, it can further erode the bone leading to complications such as facial asymmetry, neurological disorders and pathological fractures. The aetiology of the condition remains obscure. Various hypotheses proposed are the presence of gas-forming microorganisms, spontaneous drainage of a mucocele, the presence of a one-way valve, dysregulation of hormonal levels leading to a disturbance of osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity. This paper describes a case of PSDM possibly secondary to hormonal disturbance. Copyright 2013 BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

La Mathew, K. Unni, N., and , “A Mathematical Derivation to Prove Reduced Denture Retention in V Shaped Palate”, Journal of Indian Prosthodontist Society, pp. 1-3, 2013.[Abstract]


The impact of oral health on the quality of life of older individuals have significantly increased over the last few decades. Edentulism substantially affect oral and general health and overall quality of life. Complete denture retention is the resistance to displacement of the denture base away from the ridge which is the main source of psychological comfort for the patient. Special retention problems are seen in patients exhibiting highly tapered steep palatal vault. In these cases a metal base or subsequent bench cure reline procedure would be incorporated into the initial treatment plan. In this article, we have derived a mathematical proof for the clinical experience that reduction in the palatal angle, results in lesser denture retention. © 2013 Indian Prosthodontic Society.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

M. V. and Sreelal T., “Mandibular Implant-Supported Overdenture: An In Vitro Comparison of Ball, Bar, and Magnetic Attachments”, Journal of Oral Implantology, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 302-307, 2013.[Abstract]


In an implant-supported overdenture, the optimal stress distribution on the implants and least denture displacement is desirable. This study compares the load transfer characteristics to the implant and the movement of overdenture among 3 different types of attachments (ball-ring, bar-clip, and magnetic). Stress on the implant surface was measured using the strain-gauge technique and denture displacement by dial gauge. The ball/O-ring produces the optimal stress on the implant body and promotes denture stability.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

V. Savithri, Janardhanan, M., Dr. Rakesh S., and Kumar, R., “Desmoplastic ameloblastoma with osteoplasia: Review of literature with a case report”, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, vol. 17, pp. 298-301, 2013.[Abstract]


Desmoplastic ameloblastoma (DA) is a relatively rare histological variant of ameloblastoma with specific clinical, radiological, and histological features. This tumor is more commonly seen in the anterior region of jaws as a mixed radiopaque-radiolucent lesion resembling benign fibro-osseous lesions. Histologically, DA is characterized by small nests and strands of «compressed» odontogenic epithelium supported by pronounced collagenized stroma. Metaplastic bone formation has been reported in few cases. This report describes a lesion in the left anterior maxilla of a young female patient.

More »»
PDF iconDesmoplastic-Ameloblastoma-with-Osteoplasia-Review-of-Literature-With-a-Case-Report.pdf

2013

Journal Article

S. Mohamed and Dr. Chandrashekar Janakiram, “Periodontal status among tobacco users in Karnataka, India.”, Indian journal of public health, vol. 57, pp. 105-108, 2013.[Abstract]


A cross-sectional study was designed to assess the prevalence of periodontal diseases among tobacco and non-tobacco users. A total of 2,156 dentate subjects were selected in the age group of 35-44 years through multi-stage sampling method. A total of 350 and 175 subjects were selected from household survey from each district in rural and urban areas. Subjects were interviewed for the tobacco usage status, followed by clinical assessment of periodontal status. Prevalence of calculus, periodontal pockets of 4-5 mm depth and loss of attachment of 0-3 mm and 4-5 mm was significantly more frequent among current tobacco users. The subject with smoking and chewing tobacco has an odds ratio (OR) 1.6 (95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.14-2.31) and OR 1.7 (95% CI 1.38-2.28) respectively. The findings contribute to the evidence of smoking as a risk factor for periodontal disease.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

A. Kumar, Bhat, Vb, Nandini, V. Vc, and Nair, KdChandrasek, “Preliminary impressions in microstomia patients: An innovative technique”, Journal of Indian Prosthodontist Society, vol. 13, pp. 52-55, 2013.[Abstract]


Microstomia has been defined as an abnormally small oral orifice associated with various etiopathologic factors. Management of these patients poses extreme difficulties in every procedure during prosthesis fabrication. Restricted mouth opening of the patient makes the insertion and the removal of the tray extremely difficult. So sectioning of the existing stock tray is necessary, so that the trays can be inserted and removed in sections. The main problem encountered during this procedure is the reorientation of the tray back in position. This article presents an innovative technique for the easy handling of the sectioned stock impression trays. © 2012 Indian Prosthodontic Society.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

P. Singh V. P., Paul, Jb, Al-Khuraif, A. Ac, Vellappally, Sc, Halawany, H. Sd, Hashim, Mc, Abraham, N. Bd, Jacob, Vd, and Thavarajah, Re, “Sealing ability of mineral trioxide aggregate, calcium phosphate cement, and glass ionomer cement in the repair of furcation perforations.”, Acta medica (Hradec Králové) / Universitas Carolina, Facultas Medica Hradec Králové, vol. 56, pp. 97-103, 2013.[Abstract]


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro sealing ability of three repair materials. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA; Group A), calcium phosphate cement (CPC; Group B), and light cured glass ionomer cement (GIC; Group C) when used to repair the perforation created in the pulpal floor of fifty extracted human permanent molars. Preparation of access openings and furcation perforations were done, and the teeth divided into five experimental groups (A, B, C) including two controls (D, E) with ten samples in each group randomly. Following the repair procedure, the pulp chambers and access openings were filled with composite resin and immersed in 2% methylene blue solution for 48 hours. The teeth were sectioned longitudinally and the linear dye penetration measured under a stereomicroscope. The comparison of the linear length of micro-leakage (mm) among the experimental groups revealed no significant difference (p = 0.332). On calculating the percentage of depth of leakage to the total length of the perforation, it was observed that the mean leakage was 35.5% in Group A, 53.6% in Group B and the highest, 87.5% in Group C. The mean of leakage percentage was statistically significant by Kruskal-Wallis test (p = 0.003). The results indicated that the dye penetration used as furcation perforation repair material was least with mineral trioxide aggregate. Comparing the depth of penetration of dye, 50% of the Group A samples showed less than 25% of depth penetration. While 40% of Group B cases had more than 50% dye penetration. In our study, all Group C teeth had > or = 50% dye penetration. The present study indicated that GIC had the greatest dye penetration followed by CPC and MTA. Mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium phosphate cement had comparatively better sealing ability than glass ionomer cement.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

R. Jose, Chandra, Sb, Puttabuddi, J. Hc, Vellappally, Sde, Khuraif, A. - A. AeAl, Halawany, H. Sfg, Abraham, N. Bf, Jacob, Vf, and Hashim, Mde, “Prevalence of oral and systemic manifestations in pediatric HIV cohorts with and without drug therapy”, Current HIV Research, vol. 11, pp. 498-505, 2013.[Abstract]


The prevalence of orofacial and systemic manifestations and their association with drug therapy in pediatric HIV patients is scarce in the literature. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of oro-facial and systemic manifestations in HIV sero-positive children with and without highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The study population consisted of 100 pediatric HIV patients (n=47 on HAART and n=53 not on HAART). The majority of the children (n=56) had at least one or more oro-facial manifestation associated with HIV. Oral candidiasis was the most common oral finding present in the HAART (14/33) and non-HAART groups (19/33). Recurrent aphthous ulcers was the only significant oral finding, present more in the HAART group. The percentage of children with upper respiratory tract infection was also more in the HAART group. The other lesions which were found to be significant were seborrheic dermatitis, pulmonary tuberculosis and otitis media. There was no significant difference in the participants' oral findings based on CD4 counts in the HAART and non- HAART groups. The prevalence of oral and systemic manifestations is a persistent feature associated with pediatric HIV, though of moderate intensity in those using HAART and may vary according to individual immune status. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier, Kavita Rai, and Amitha M. Hegde, “The total antioxidant capacity of infant feeds at various handling temperatures – a comparative study”, OxidAntioxid Med Sci, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 107-112, 2013.

2013

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier, “Infant oral care – Marking a healthy approach”, Dentcare , vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 14-18, 2013.

2012

Journal Article

Ta Preethee, Kandaswamy, Db, and Hannah, Rb, “Molecular identification of an Enterococcus faecalis endocarditis antigen efaA in root canals of therapy-resistant endodontic infections”, Journal of Conservative Dentistry, vol. 15, pp. 319-322, 2012.[Abstract]


Introduction: Enterococcus faecalis has long been implicated in persistent root canal infections and therapy-resistant endodontic infections. It has also been associated with bacteremia, that is, infective endocarditis arising from certain invasive dental procedures. E. faecalis endocarditis antigen (efaA) has been identified as one of the principal virulence factors associated with infective endocarditis. Aim: To detect the presence of putative E. faecalis virulence factor, efaA in root canals of therapy-resistant endodontic infections using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Materials and Methods: Samples were obtained from 32 patients (20-70 years) undergoing endodontic retreatment, which were incubated in prereduced thioglycollate broth and subcultured onto ethyl violet azide broth (EVA; selective medium for E. faecalis). Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from the samples and analyzed for the endocarditis virulence factor efaA using PCR. Results: Among the positive E. faecalis samples, efaA gene was identified in 11 out of 15 samples. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that efaA, a potent E. faecalis virulence gene can be found in E. faecalis strains detected in root canals of therapy-resistant endodontic infections similar to reports for ′medical′ strains.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

Sa Kurup, Thankappan, Kb, Dr. Nitin A. Krishnan, and Nair, P. Pc, “Intraoral schwannoma - A report of two cases”, BMJ Case Reports, 2012.[Abstract]


Schwannomas, also known as neurilemmomas, are uncommon neoplasms, derived from schwann cells. These neoplasms, although rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of slow growing tumour masses of the oral cavity. The growth of these tumours sometimes causes displacement and compression of the nerve of origin, giving rise to clinical signs and symptoms. It can develop at any age and there is no sex predilection. Intraorally, the tongue is the most common site followed by the palate, floor of the mouth, buccal mucosa, lips and jaws. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for schwannomas, with few reports of recurrence or malignant transformation. In this paper, the authors report two cases of patients with intraoral schwannoma, where the preoperative clinical diagnosis was inconclusive and final diagnosis was established based on radiographic and histopathological examination. Copyright 2012 BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

K. Ra Biniraj, Sagir, Mb, Sunil, M. Mc, and Janardhanan, M., “Clinical attachment level gain and bone regeneration around a glass ionomer restoration on root surface wall of periodontal pocket”, Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology, vol. 16, pp. 442-445, 2012.[Abstract]


A case describing perio-restorative management of an accidental trauma in the mid portion of root on an upper left canine tooth following an ostectomy surgery is presented here. The traumatized root area was undergoing fast resorption and a chronic periodontal abscess had developed in relation to the lesion. The article illustrates the clinical and radiographic photo series of a periodontal flap surgery done to gain access into a subgingival region for the placement of Glass ionomer restoration on the root and its periodic follow up. The clinical condition of the area suggests 8 mm clinical attachment gain over the restoration and the review radiographs at definite intervals up to 18 months revealed evidence of consistent bone regeneration around the restoration. The article also highlights the various other possibilities, where this restorative material can be effectively used in conjunction with periodontal surgical procedures.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

L. Pa Rao, Shukla, Mc, Sharma, Vb, and Pandey, Mb, “Mandibular conservation in oral cancer”, Surgical Oncology, vol. 21, pp. 109-118, 2012.[Abstract]


Surgery is one of the established modes of initial definitive treatment for a majority of oral cancers. Invasion of bony or cartilaginous structures by advanced upper aero-digestive tract cancer has been considered an indication for primary surgery on the basis of historic experience of poor responsiveness to radiation therapy [1]. The mandible is a key structure both in the pathology of intra-oral tumours and their surgical management. It bars easy surgical access to the oral cavity, yet maintaining its integrity is vital for function and cosmesis. Management of tumours that involve or abut the mandible requires specific understanding of the pattern of spread and routes of tumour invasion into the mandible. This facilitates the employment of mandibular sparing approaches like marginal mandibulectomy and mandibulotomy, as opposed to segmental or hemimandibulectomy which causes severe functional problems, as the mandibular continuity is lost. Accurate preoperative assessment that combines clinical examination and imaging along with the understanding of the pattern of spread and routes of invasion is essential in deciding the appropriate level and extent of mandibular resection in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Studies have shown that local control rates achieved with marginal mandibulectomy are comparable with that of segmental mandibulectomy. In carefully selected patients, marginal mandibulectomy is an oncologically safe procedure to achieve good local control and provides a better quality of life. This article aims to review the mechanism of spread, evaluation and prognosis of mandibular invasion, various techniques and role of mandibular conservation in oral squamous cell carcinoma. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

S. Kurup, Thankappan, K., Krishnan, N., and Nair, P. P., “Intraoral schwannoma–a report of two cases.”, BMJ case reports, vol. 2012, 2012.[Abstract]


Schwannomas, also known as neurilemmomas, are uncommon neoplasms, derived from schwann cells. These neoplasms, although rare, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of slow growing tumour masses of the oral cavity. The growth of these tumours sometimes causes displacement and compression of the nerve of origin, giving rise to clinical signs and symptoms. It can develop at any age and there is no sex predilection. Intraorally, the tongue is the most common site followed by the palate, floor of the mouth, buccal mucosa, lips and jaws. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for schwannomas, with few reports of recurrence or malignant transformation. In this paper, the authors report two cases of patients with intraoral schwannoma, where the preoperative clinical diagnosis was inconclusive and final diagnosis was established based on radiographic and histopathological examination.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier, Kavita Rai, Amitha M. Hegde, and Saurabh Joshi, “Hereditary Oro-facial Digital Syndrome Type 1: Diagnosis and Management-case Report”, European Journal of Dentistry and Medicine, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 1-7, 2012.[Abstract]


Oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFD1) is characterized by an X-linked dominant mode of inheritance with lethality in males. It presents with peculiar malformations in the oral cavity and defects in the face and digits of the upper and lower extremities. Accurate diagnosis following clinical investigations by allied health professionals is indispensable to plan out a systematic management protocol in these victims in order to minimize future odontogenic problems. This report presented a unique case of females in a family suffering from manifestations of OFD1 syndrome since three generations. The characteristic clinical features of all the female members were promptly identified, investigated and the inter-disciplinary management protocol that was systematically instituted is depicted in this report.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier, Kavita Rai, and Amitha M. Hegde, “Preventative protocols and management of oral pathologies in chronic kidney disease: an update”, Biol Biomed Rep, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1-9, 2012.[Abstract]


The systemic condition of patients with kidney failure has oral manifestations and specific implications for dental treatment. Few segments of the population need dental services as desperately as do patients receiving hemodialysis or kidney transplants. In this ever increasing group of patients, dental disease may have consequences much more serious than the loss of function, esthetics, and comfort. Dental problems may compromise the patient's general health and hinder medical efforts to either maintain or replace vital kidney functions. Specifically, the dentist must consider bleeding tendency, risk of infection and medications before treating the patient. Oral and dental health has served as a valuable indicator in measuring the prognosis of chronic kidney disease, while, its role in diagnosing renal pathosis requires to be explored further. This manuscript reviews pertinent information to help medical and dental professionals systematically treat patients who exhibit oral and systemic manifestations of renal disease, from the onset of renal impairment through hemodialysis.

More »»

2011

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier, Kavita Rai, and Amitha M. Hegde, “Total antioxidant concentrations of breastmilk-an eye-opener to the negligent”, Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition, vol. 29, pp. 605-611, 2011.[Abstract]


The balance between free radical production and antioxidant defenses in the body has important systemic and oral health implications. There is convincing evidence that breastmilk containing antioxidants is important in the prevention of diseases in infancy. This study compared the total antioxidant concentration of human breastmilk expressed at different stages of lactation, stored at various temperatures and durations. Expressed breastmilk (EBM) samples of the third, seventh and 30th day were collected from women who had term and preterm deliveries (n=20). Another cohort of women (n=20) was also assessed; these women were more than five months postpartum and lactating. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of EBM was assessed at zero hours at room temperature, at 48 hours, one week post-refrigeration (4 °C), and freezing (-8 °C) respectively using the phosphomolybdenum method. The highest antioxidant levels were found in colostrum. The TAC of EBM reduced with time and at post-refrigeration and after freezing (p<0.0005). No significant difference in the mean TAC was observed between the EBM samples obtained from women with either term or preterm deliveries. The progressive loss of antioxidant content of EBM emphasizes the need of awareness and curtailment of the practice of storing and later use of EBM. © International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh.

More »»

2011

Journal Article

M. Janardhanan, Dr. Rakesh S., and Kumar, R. B. V., “Intraoral presentation of multiple malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors associated with neurofibromatosis-1”, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, vol. 15, pp. 46-51, 2011.[Abstract]


Neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1) is a relatively common autosomal dominant disease characterized by multiple cutaneous fibromatoses and café au lait spots. It is associated with the mutation of NF-1 gene, a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 17q11.2. Hence, it can be considered as a familial cancer predisposition syndrome in which the affected individuals are at increased risk of developing malignancies. Intraoral neurofibromas associated with NF-1 are quite common, but the occurrence of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) in the oral cavity is very rare. Oral MPNST can occur either de novo or by malignant transformation of neurofibromas or very rarely can represent a metastatic lesion. Here, we present a case of MPNST involving the maxillary region, in a patient with NF-1. Since MPNST often creates a diagnostic dilemma, histopathologic criteria for the diagnosis of MPNST are also discussed.

More »»
PDF iconIntraoral-Presentation-of-Multiple-Malignant-Peripheral-Nerve-Sheath-Tumors-Associated-with-Neurofibromatosis-1.pdf

2011

Journal Article

Pa Rajendran, Varghese, N. Ob, Varughese, J. Mb, and Murugaian, Ec, “Evaluation, using extracted human teeth, of Ricetral as a storage medium for avulsions - an in vitro study”, Dental Traumatology, vol. 27, pp. 217-220, 2011.[Abstract]


The prognosis of teeth replanted following avulsion is determined by the extra-alveolar time and storage medium used. This study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of an oral rehydration solution 'Ricetral', in retaining the vitality of periodontal ligament cells when used as a storage medium for avulsed teeth prior to replantation. The study consisted of a comparative evaluation between Ricetral and two currently recommended solutions, Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS) and milk. Thirty extracted teeth were dried for 30min and soaked in the respective storage media for 45min. The periodontal ligament cells were isolated by an enzyme treatment with collagenase and trypsin. The cells were evaluated for vitality by trypan blue staining and number of vital cells counted in a hemocytometer. Statistical analysis revealed that cell vitality was high with Ricetral and HBSS, but poor with milk. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S. More »»

2011

Journal Article

Dr. Rakesh S., Janardhanan, M., Joseph, A. Pa, Vinodkumar, R. Ba, and Peter, Sb, “A Rare Case of Dentigerous Cyst in a One Year Old Child: The Earliest Known Reported Occurrence”, Head and Neck Pathology, vol. 5, pp. 171-174, 2011.[Abstract]


Dentigerous cysts are developmental odontogenic jaw cysts, commonly manifesting in the second and third decades of life. Very few of these cysts have been reported in children younger than 10 years of age. This article describes a rare case of dentigerous cyst in a 1-year-old boy, the youngest case to be documented. The clinical, radiographic and histopathologic features are discussed; the increased possibility of occurrence of these cysts at a very young age and the importance of timely diagnosis of such cysts to avoid future complications is emphasized. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

More »»
PDF iconA-Rare-Case-of-Dentigerous-Cyst-in-a-One-Year-Old-Child-The-Earliest-Known-Reported-Occurrence.pdf

2011

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier, “Aesthetic restorative materials and aerated beverage consumption – How safe?”, Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, vol. 29 (Suppl 1), no. S11-12, Abstract 38, 2011.

2011

Journal Article

Preeth Shetty and Arun Mamachan Xavier, “Management of a talon cusp using mineral trioxide aggregate.”, Int Endod J, vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 1061-1068, 2011.[Abstract]


AIM: To report on the successful conservative management of three patients having a talon cusp with pulpal involvement using mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA).

SUMMARY: Mineral trioxide aggregate was used to induce hard-tissue formation following the direct pulp capping of a resected talon cusp in three cases.

KEY LEARNING POINTS:
• Talon cusp is an odontogenic anomaly which can cause occlusal interferences, displacement of the affected tooth, caries-susceptible developmental grooves and speech difficulties
• Direct pulp capping using MTA following the resection of a talon cusp is a suitable treatment option.

More »»

2011

Journal Article

A. B and Varma, B., “Management of a Dentigerous Cyst: A Two-Year Review”, International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry, 2011.[Abstract]


Dentigerous cyst is reported to be one of the most common odontogenic cysts of the jaws.1,2 The most commonly involved teeth are mandibular third molars, maxillary canines, maxillary third molars and rarely maxillary anteriors.2,3 This case report is about the management of a dentigerous cyst associated with a mandibular second molar (37) in a 9-year-old girl by a conservative treatment plan of marsupialization of the cyst.

A 2-year postsurgical review reveals complete disappearance of the cystic lesion and normal alignment of 37 and 38.

More »»

2011

Journal Article

A. Jacob, “Compliance to Recall Visits by Patients with Periodontics”, Journal of Indian Society of Periodontics, 2011.

2011

Journal Article

M. Janardhanan, Umadethan, B., Biniraj, K. R., Kumar, R. B. Vinod, and Rakesh, S., “Neonatal Line as a Linear Evidence of Live Birth: Estimation of Postnatal Survival of a New born from Primary Tooth Germs”, Journal of Forensic Dental Sciences, vol. 3, pp. 8-13, 2011.

2011

Journal Article

F. H. Hirata, Kurup, S., John, P., and Johny, J., “Oral Health and Quality of Life Assessment within the Indian Population”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 17 - 23, 2011.

2011

Journal Article

M. Janaradhanan, “Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor – Report of a Rare Case”, Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology Journal, 2011.

2010

Journal Article

Dr. Chandrashekar Janakiram, Thankappan, K. Rb, and Sundaram, K. Rc, “Severe dental fluorosis and jowar consumption in Karnataka, India”, Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, vol. 38, pp. 559-567, 2010.[Abstract]


Chandrashekar J, Thankappan KR, Sundaram KR. Severe dental fluorosis and jowar consumption in Karnataka, India. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2010; 38: 559-567. Ǎ 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S Abstract-Introduction: Dental fluorosis is a major public health problem in 17 states of India. Earlier studies have reported that Jowar (a type of millet) consumption interacts with fluoride (F) in the body and enhances fluorosis. We conducted this study to determine the association between jowar consumption and severity of dental fluorosis. Methods: A community based case control study was carried out in villages having different F levels (low, medium, and high) in drinking water in North Karnataka, India. 352 school Children (12-15years, male 58%) with severe dental fluorosis classified by Thylstrup & Fejerskov Index (1988) were selected as cases. 428 school children (12-15years, male 48.8%) with no dental fluorosis were selected randomly from the same area as controls. Exposure ascertainment of jowar consumption was done by 24-h diet recall and food frequency questionnaire. Ion selective electrode method was used to estimate the F level in spot urine samples of subjects and in drinking water. Multiple logistic regression analysis was done using SPSS V. 11.01 Results: Children who consumed jowar had 2.67 times more chance of getting severe dental fluorosis compared to those who did not [Odds Ratio (OR) 2.67, CI 1.98-3.62]. Children from high F level villages (OR 1.91, CI 1.27-2.85) had higher odds of severe dental fluorosis compared to children from medium and low F level villages. Daily jowar consumers (OR 2.14, CI 1.64-3.09) and weekly consumers (OR 1.68, CI 1.31-3.45) had higher risk for dental fluorosis compared to non jowar consumers. Children who started consuming jowar before 8years of age had significantly higher proportion of severe dental fluorosis compared to their counterparts. Urinary F excretion among jowar consumers was significantly lower than non-jowar consumers. Conclusions: Jowar consumption was positively associated with severity of dental fluorosis in this population. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

More »»

2010

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier and Amitha M. Hegde, “The tell tale of a bite mark – Call for action for Pediatric specialists”, Medico-Legal Update, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-4, 2010.[Abstract]


Child abuse has serious physical and psycho-social consequences which adversely affect the health and overall well-being of a child. Bite mark injuries are one of the several visual expressions of active child abuse and sexual assault. Health professionals ought to be attentive to any and all signs of child maltreatment. This paper highlights the importance of pediatric specialists in recognizing and protecting children inflicted with bite mark injuries.

More »»

2010

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier and Amitha M. Hegde, “Preventive protocols and oral management in childhood leukemia--the pediatric specialist's role”, Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 39-43, 2010.[Abstract]


The leukemias are the most common form of childhood malignancy. The pediatric dental professional plays a major role in the prevention, stabilization and treatment of the oral and dental problems that can compromise the child's health and quality of life before, during and after the cancer treatment. This manuscript highlights the incidence of oral complications in leukemic children receiving oncology treatment and the systematic preventive protocol followed during different phases of medical treatment.

More »»

2010

Journal Article

Amitha M. Hegde, Kavita Rai, and Arun Mamachan Xavier, “Tailoring oral health needs through a dental home: A Necessity”, Indian Dentist Research and Review, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 66-68, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

S. Jayakumar, U.K. Menon, Arun Mamachan Xavier, and Bini Faizal, “Odontogenic Pansinusitis with Orbital Cellulitis in a child”, Amrita J Med., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 39-40, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

R. Vylopillil, “Papillon Lefevre Syndrome- Case Report”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, no. 2, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

N. K. Sapana and Ramesh, N., “A Smile without Braces: Lingual Orthodontics”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 3-6, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

Alexander, “Clinical Drug Trials in Dentistry”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 9-12, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

K. Biju, Janardhanan, K., and Francis, P. G., “Micro-Implants; Pushing the Limits of Traditional Orthodontics”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 13-17, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

T. Thomas, Mathew, A., Gopikrishnan,, and Philipose, N., “Impact of Dentist - Patient Relationships on Clinical Outcomes”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 18-20, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

B. James and Singh, P., “Rhinosinusitis and Endondontic Disease”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, no. 1, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

V. Kumar, “A Localized Gingival Enlargement as Peripheral Ossifying Fibroma”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 25-27, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

P. Jayachandran, “Management of Peri Implantitis”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 28-31, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

A. Mathew, Thomas, T., and Ajith, V. V., “Management of Amelogenesis Imperfecta”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 32-33, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

A. Induchudan, “Platelet rich Plasma for the Treatment of Periodontal Osseous Defects- A Report of Two Cases”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 34-36, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

V. V. Ajith, Biju, K., Peter, S., and Ushass, P., “Management of Skeletal Class III Malocclusion in an Adult Patient- Case Report”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

V. Manju, Anil, M., and Nair, V. P., “Prosthetic Rehabilitation of Exenteration Defects- Case Reports”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 41-42, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

Sowmya, “Lateral Displaced Flap- A Case Series”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 43-44, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

Angel Fenol and Baby, J., “Reconstructive Foot and Ankle Surgeries in Diabetic Patients”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 10-13, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

Angel Fenol, Janam, P., and Tennyson, S., “Periodontal Disease A Risk Factor for Coronary Heart Disease”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 29-33, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

Angel Fenol, “Effects of Professional Oral Care on the Incidence of Pneumonia in the Elderly Living in Nursing Home: A pilot Study”, Kerala Medical Journal (2), 2010.

2010

Journal Article

Angel Fenol, “Compliance to Recall Visit by Patients with Periodontal Disease: Is the Practitioner Responsible”, Journal of the Indian Society of Periodontology, vol. 14, no. 2, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

S. J. Kumar, “Oral Conscious Sedation in Pediatric Dentistry”, Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 10-12, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

G. Anjana, “Importance of Early Management and Effect of Treatment Delay on Healing of Traumatized Young Permanent Teeth”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 23-26, 2010.

2009

Journal Article

M. V. and Anil Mathew, “Case Report - Prosthetic rehabilitation of facial defect with silicone prosthesis”, Kerala Dental Journal , vol. 32, no. 3, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

Manju V. and Nair, V. P., “Fabrication of silicone auricular prosthesis”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, no. 1, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

Anil Mathew, Kepanasseril, A., Gopikrishnan,, and V., M., “Assessment of the rheological properties of poly methyl methacrylate incorporated with 30% volume of highly drawn linear polyethylene fibres: An invitro study”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 27-34, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

M. V. and Vinodkrishnan, “Ocular defects Rehabilitation”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, no. 1, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

Amitha M. Hegde and Arun Mamachan Xavier, “Childhood Habits: Ignorance is not Bliss- A Prevalence Study”, International journal of clinical pediatric dentistry, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 26 - 29, 2009.[Abstract]


Underneath the ignorance of adverse oral habits and general health practices in children proved to fetch harm, lies the basis and the motive in carrying out this study. This survey screened a total of 2636 children between the age group 4 and 15 years, residing in areas in South Kanara district and the prevalence of the adverse habits were assessed using a questionnaire and clinical examination. 526 students (19.95%) were found to be victims of adverse oral habits with nail biting being the most prevalent habit and bruxism, the least. Though the overall percentage of knowledge on basic body cleanliness was good, a small fraction weren't aware, thus posing the necessity of educating children right from home and school and thus ensuring that the health of ones child is safe and secure.

More »»

2009

Journal Article

Arun Mamachan Xavier, Kavita Rai, and Amitha M. Hegde, “The richest Infant feed – a tested Approach”, International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, vol. 19 (Suppl 1), no. 54, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

M. Pandey, Rao, L. P., and Das, S. R., “Predictors of Mandibular Involvement in Cancers of the Oromandibular Region”, Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 67, pp. 1069 - 1073, 2009.[Abstract]


Purpose Invasion of the mandible by oral squamous carcinoma is not only a relative contraindication to mandible conservation but also an indicator of poor prognosis. This study looks at clinical, radiologic, and operative variables that may help in predicting mandibular bone involvement. Patients and Methods A prospective study was carried out to evaluate the mandibular involvement and its predictors in 51 cases of oral squamous carcinoma located in the mandibular region. All patients underwent segmental- or hemimandibulectomy. A detailed clinical examination was followed by radiologic assessment and operative assessment. Statistic analysis was carried out by χ2 test (odds ratio [OR] with a significance level of 5%). Multivariate analysis was carried out by logistic regression analysis. Results Univariate analysis identified location of tumor on lower alveolus (OR = 8.5), sensory disturbances of inferior alveolar nerve (OR = 16.2), location of tumor within 1 cm of mandible (OR = 1.4), presence of findings on periosteal striping (OR = 2.0) like subperiosteal reaction (OR = 3.5), cortical expansion (OR = 8.8) and presence of pathologic fracture (OR = 2.3) as predictor of bone invasion. Grade of tumor (P = .05) and radiologic bone involvement (P = .02) were found to be significant independent predictors of pathologic bone involvement on multivariate analysis. Conclusions It is possible to identify mandibular invasion in almost all cases of oral squamous carcinoma by combining clinical examination, radiologic findings, and findings on periosteal stripping. This helps surgeons to make an informed preoperative and intraoperative decision about mandibular conservation. However, one should be careful when evaluating bone involvement on periosteal stripping as this cannot be recommended as a method of choice due to fear of tumor dissemination and violation of oncologic principles.

More »»

2009

Journal Article

Jayasree, “Importance of Maintaining Records in Dental Practice”, Bulletin of Indian Dental Association, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

M. V., “Prosthetic Rehabilitation of a Facial Defect with Silicone”, Kerala Dental Journal, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

J. B. and Singh, P., “Visual Enhancement in Endodontics”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 3-6, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

M. Janardhanan and Biniraj, K. R., “Oral Lichen Planus- A Cellular Orchestra”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 7-9, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

V. Ravi, “The Role Of Distraction Osteogenesis in Craniomaxillary Surgery”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 10-17, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

P. Singh and James, B., “Regenerative Endodontics”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 18-21, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

C. M. Sapna and Priya, R., “Normal Versus Aberrant: Variation in Root Canal Morphology”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 22-24, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

R. Mathew, “Odontoma- A Cause for Delayed Eruption”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 25-26, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

M. Anil, Gopikrishnan, K., and Manju, V., “Assessment of the Rheologic Properties of Poly Methylacrylate Incorporated with 30% Volume of highly Drawn Linear Polymethylene Fibres: An Invitro Study”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 27-34, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

V. Krishnan, “Management of Maxillary Anterior Bridge Failure Using Immediately Loaded Dental Implants: A Case Reports”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 35-37, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

S. Peter, Latha, P. R., Ushass, P., and Mahajan, S., “Naso-Alveolar Moulding : A useful Adjunct to Cleft surgery”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 38-40, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

N. K. Sapna and Ajith, V. V., “Treatment Options for Missing Maxillary Lateral Incisors”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 41-44, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

Angel, “A Glimpse of Dental Science”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 2-2, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

P. Jayachandran, “Periodontal Vaccine”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 3-6, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

S. Rakesh and Vidya, M., “Mast cells in Oral Health and Diseases”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

B. James and Singh, P., “Lasers In Endodontics”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

G. Anjana, “Dental Implications of Juvenile Diabetes”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 15-16, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

V. V. Ajith, Sapna, N. K., and Janardhanan, K., “Gnathological Slints for Neuromuscular Deprogramming in TMD Patients”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, no. 2, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

K. Arun, Anil, M., and Sapna, C. M., “Gaming Technology in Medical and Dental Education”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 21-24, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

P. Ushass, “Management of TMJ Ankylosis: An Overview”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 25-31, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

K. Janardhanan, “Ex - vivo Evaluation of a Light Cured Glass Ionomer Orthodontic Bonding Cement”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 32-36, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

M. Anil, Chandrashekhar, J., Arun, K., and Praveen, P. A., “Relevance of H.Pounds Formula to Indian Population”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 35-37, 2009.

2009

Journal Article

N. K. Sapna, Francis, P. G., and Varma, B. R., “Submergence as an Etiologic Factor for First Permanent Molar Impaction”, Amrita Journal of Medicine, vol. 5, pp. 39-41, 2009.

2008

Journal Article

Sab Vellappally, Jacob, Vab, Smejkalová, Jab, Shriharsha, Pc, Kumar, Vd, and Fiala, Zae, “Tobacco habits and oral health status in selected Indian population”, Central European Journal of Public Health, vol. 16, pp. 77-84, 2008.[Abstract]


This cross-sectional study was aimed at possible relationships between tobacco habits and selected behavior characteristics in an adult sample from India. Contemporaneous clinical examination comprised an intra-oral examination with specific emphasise to dental caries status in the form of DMFT (Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth) index. The study comprised 805 subjects in the age group from 30 to 69 years (72% of males and 28% of females). The participants were divided into regular smokers, occasional smokers, ex-smokers, tobacco chewers and non-tobacco users. The highest prevalence of oral mucosal lesions were found in tobacco chewers (22.7 %) followed by regular smokers (12.9 %), occasional smokers (8.6%), ex-smokers (5.1%) and non tobacco users (2.8%) (p < 0.001). The mean number of decayed teeth was highest in tobacco chewers (6.96) followed by regular smokers (6.44) and ex-smokers (5.5) (p < 0.001 ). The mean number of missing teeth was highest in the group of regular smokers (1.9) and lowest in non-tobacco users (1.53), but the results were not statistically significant (p = 0.529). The mean number of filled teeth were highest in the group of tobacco chewers (3.67) followed by regular smokers (3.29) (p < 0.001). DMFT value of tobacco chewers, regular smokers and ex-smokers is higher when compared to non-tobacco users (p < 0.001). The study documents that chewing tobacco and smoking can present significant risk factors for dental caries. However, the conclusions are burdened by some limitations. Further studies for investigation of the effect of tobacco using on dental caries are needed.

More »»

2007

Journal Article

L. P. Rao, “Patterns of Mandibular Invasion in Oral SCC of Mandibular Region”, World Journal of Surgical Oncology, 2007.

2007

Journal Article

L. P. Rao, “Methods Indications and Morbidity Profile of Various Facial Translocation and Approaches”, International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 2007.

2007

Journal Article

P. Ushas, Kuriakose, M. A., Peter, S., Chatni, S., Rao, L. P., and Veeraraghavan, R., “Mandibulotomy for Maxillectomy”, International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 36, no. 11, 2007.

2007

Journal Article

R. Veeraragahavan, M. Kuriakose, A., Iyer, S., Krishnakumar, T., Rao, L. P., and Ushas, P., “3D CT - based Contouring of Free Fibula Bone Graft for Mandibular Reconstruction”, International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, vol. 36, 2007.

2007

Journal Article

P. R, “Conservative Options for Root Stumps”, Kerala Dental Journal, 2007.

2007

Journal Article

P. Singh, “Management of Palatogingival Groove”, Kerala Dental Journal, 2007.

2005

Journal Article

Aa Stalin, Varma, Bbc, and Jayanthi, Ja, “Comparative evaluation of tensile-bond strength, fracture mode and microleakage of fifth, and sixth generation adhesive systems in primary dentition”, Journal of Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, vol. 23, pp. 83-88, 2005.[Abstract]


Conservative procedures using dentin-bonding agents are one of the important aspects of pediatric dental practice. The objectives of this in vitro study was to comparatively evaluate the tensile-bond strength, fracture mode (under SEM) and microleakage of total etching single bottle system to self-etching adhesive system in primary dentition. The flat buccal/lingual surfaces of 20 teeth were divided into two groups and treated with Single Bond (Group 1) and Adper Prompt (Group 2) to develop a composite resin cone. Then tensile-bond strength was measured using Instron machine. Fracture mode was evaluated in three specimens from each group under SEM. Microleakage of Class V composite restorations (in 20 teeth) with the above-mentioned adhesives was assessed under stereomicroscope after Basic fuschin dye immersion. Results showed no statistically significant difference between two groups. It was concluded that concerning the single step application with similar efficacy, the self-etching adhesive is better for bonding in primary dentition. More »»