India is transforming and repositioning herself globally in her infrastructure, industries, environment, energy and economy. Chemical engineering is one of the disciplines leading and shaping this transformation at the forefront.

Chemical engineers play a vital role in such diverse industries such as petroleum and petrochemicals, energy, power generation including ultra mega power plants, coal-bed methane, combined gas cycle plants and nuclear power, defense, mining and minerals including steel and aluminum, pharmaceuticals and biotechnology, nanotechnology, cement, fertilizers, textiles, leather, food and agro-based technologies, polymers, and environmental engineering. Chemical engineering is the broadest branch of engineering, training professionals to design, manufacture, operate and control processes of such diversity.

Indian biotech and defense industries are highly research-driven and have among the highest demands for chemical engineers.

In this context, the demand for qualified professional chemical engineers to propel the growth of the industry and shape the contours of Indian economy is on the rise. The undergraduate(B. Tech) program offered in Chemical Engineering at Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham has a curriculum of global standards emphasizing the fundamentals, breadth of the discipline, and the necessary flexibility in being able to apply the fundamentals in widely varying contexts.

It simultaneously trains the students in specialized elective streams such as materials science, nanotechnology, pharmaceuticals and petrochemicals, and petroleum refineries. With 45% of the faculty having a PhD degree, and another 25% actively pursuing their PhD, the students get to learn from well qualified and experienced staff.

The students learn hands-on engineering skills in excellent labs, workshops and on computers. They also use the excellent library facilities and computing facilities in the campus, and have access to the state-of-the-art instrumentation equipment at Amrita Center for Nanosciences. Amrita School of Engineering and the department have excellent placement records for the graduating students. Nearly 25% of our students go abroad every year for higher studies. We have a hardworking and enterprising student group. Our students have been placed in top notch companies like General Electric, Schneider India, Akzo Nobel, Apollo tyres etc.

Vision

To be recognized nationally and internationally for excellence in teaching and research in chemical engineering & materials science, integrated with, and practising, social responsibility and value systems.

Mission

The department strives for a passionate and committed drive towards continuous improvement in

  • the delivery, standards, and currency of education,
  • administration efficiency,
  • socially beneficial scientific researchto create new processes, products, methods, materials, or systems that impact and are beneficial to society, and
  • meeting and exceeding the needs of the stakeholders and Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham.

Program Educational Objectives (PEOs)

To produce graduates in chemical engineering, who, immediately after graduation or within five years of it:

  • can apply the knowledge for engineering practice, research, and management in the chemical and allied industries such asbulk chemicals, specialty chemicals, petroleum & petrochemicals, energy, advanced materials, microelectronics, healthcare, biotechnology, consumer products, and other industries, while adhering to values in the context of ethical, health, environmental, social, safety and economic issues,
  • can make worthy progress towards the acquisition of advanced degrees,are motivated to pursue additional training and certifications, and use their knowledge and skills to participate in the activities of local/national/international professional societies,
  • have good written and oral communication skills, and communicate their ideas and knowledge via scholarly articles, patents, delivery of effective presentations, and/or training of co-workers and associates,
  • strive for continuous self-development and life-long learning, andengage in their daily work with awareness of the global or social implications.

Program Outcomes (POs)

The Program Outcomes are defined by National Board of Accreditation. Engineering graduates will be able to:

  • Engineering Knowledge : Apply the knowledge of mathematics, science, engineering fundamentals, and an engineering specialization to the solution of complex engineering problems
  • Problem Analysis : Identify, formulate, review research literature, and analyze complex engineering problems reaching substantiated conclusions using first principles of mathematics, natural sciences, and engineering sciences
  • Design/Development of Solutions : Design solutions for complex engineering problems and design system components or processes that meet the specified needs with appropriate consideration for the public health and safety, and the cultural, societal, and environmental considerations
  • Conduct Investigations of Complex Problems : Use research-based knowledge and research methods including design of experiments, analysis and interpretation of data, and synthesis of the information to provide valid conclusions
  • Modern Tool Usage : Create, select, and apply appropriate techniques, resources, and modern engineering and IT tools including prediction and modeling to complex engineering activities with an understanding of the limitations
  • The Engineer and Society : Apply reasoning informed by the contextual knowledge to assess societal, health, safety, legal and cultural issues and the consequent responsibilities relevant to the professional engineering practice
  • Environment and Sustainability : Understand the impact of the professional engineering solutions in societal and environmental contexts, and demonstrate the knowledge of, and need for sustainable development
  • Ethics : Apply ethical principles and commit to professional ethics and responsibilities and norms of the engineering practice
  • Individual and team work: Function effectively as an individual, and as a member or leader in diverse teams, and in multidisciplinary settings
  • Communication : Communicate effectively on complex engineering activities with the engineering community and with society at large, such as, being able to comprehend and write effective reports and design documentation, make effective presentations, and give and receive clear instructions
  • Project Management and Finance : Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of the engineering and management principles and apply these to one’s own work, as a member and leader in a team, to manage projects and in multidisciplinary environments
  • Life-long Learning : Recognize the need for, and have the preparation and ability to engage in independent and life-long learning in the broadest context of technological change

Program Specific Outcomes (PSOs)

The undergraduate chemical engineering graduates will be able to:

  • obtain, apply, and demonstrate knowledge of core concepts and principles associated with chemical engineering unit operations and unit processes, along with the associatedethics, economics, safety, and sustainability aspects required to work in manufacturing, service, and R&D sectors,
  • formulate chemical engineering problems, and then apply computational and simulation tools to solve them for effective, efficient, and sustainable design, operation, and optimization of chemical processes, while being socially and environmentally responsible, and
  • plan, design and conduct scientific experiments, analyse the data, apply critical thinking to make valid inferences, and prepare technical and scholarly reports that include management and economics.

The Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science offers

Recent Recruiters

National and International Student Chapters

Student Chapter

Student Chapter

Faculty members of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science come from internationally acclaimed institutions such as Indian Institute of Technology, Indian Institute of Science, University of Florida, Clarkson University, Iowa State University, Florida Institute of Technology, TU-Eindhoven, University of Milano etc. Many of the faculty members have experience in reputed industries like Unilever, 3M, Gharda Chemicals, Akzo Nobel, BPCL etc.

Chairperson
Vice Chairperson
Asso. Professor
Asso. Professor
Asso. Professor
Asso. Professor
Asst. Professor
Asst. Professor
Asst. Professor
Asst. Professor
Asst. Professor
Asst. Professor

Research Laboratories

The Materials Chemistry and Research Laboratory were inaugurated on 7th September 2009. This laboratory is a state-of-the-art facility and the first materials research laboratory on the Ettimadai campus. It will host a variety of sophisticated equipment and synthesis and processing facilities for carrying out internationally competitive research in the fields of materials science and chemistry. The inauguration puja was well-attended by senior professors and members from the management including the Registrar, Dr. S. Krishnamoorthy, Chair, Postgraduate Programmes, Dr. Pandian, Special Officer Shri. K. S. Moorthy, Head, ICTS, Sri. Sreevalsan, all the faculty and staff of the departments of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, and staff of the Estate Office and ICTS. There was a lunch following the puja for all the guests.

This laboratory is the product of excellent leadership shown by our Pro-Chancellor, the tireless efforts and cooperation of Br. Sreevalsan and his efficient team at the estate office, the prompt and excellent support provided by Shri. Sreevalsan and his team at ICTS, the constant encouragement and guidance of Prof. Subba Rao, and the hard work, planning and suggestions of our colleagues from the Chemical Engineering and Chemistry Departments.

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORIES RESEARCH LABORATORIES
Fluid Mechanics lab Process Control and Instrumentation lab Materials Chemistry and Research Laboratory (MCRL)
Mechanical Operations lab Computer-aided design (CAD) lab using ASPEN Plus Solar Energy and Optoelectronics Laboratory (SEOL)
Chemical Kinetics and Reaction Engineering lab (in-progress) Chemical Process Simulation lab using MATLAB Advanced Electrochemistry and Energy Systems Laboratory (AEES)
Mass Transfer lab (in-progress)    

The Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science has recently purchased a three-year license of ASPEN PLUS software on Process Optimization for Engineering, Manufacturing, and Supply Chain. Undergraduate students of the department will undergo a laboratory course on "Computer-Aided Design of Chemical Processes" where they will learn to use ASPEN PLUS for process and equipment design. With this, Amrita Chemical Engineering is set to become one of the very few chemical engineering departments in the country that will its train undergraduate students on advanced process and equipment design.

  • Total Research funding during the last 3 years is INR 11, 20, 94, 878.00
  • 147 Journal Publications during last 5 years.
  • Several International books and book chapters
  • 13 Patents (under various stages of development / processing)

Research Expertise

  • Nanocomposites, Polymer blends and composites,   Polymer Processing
  • Rubber Technology Rheology - Polymer Characterisation, Design of Experiments
  • Optimization in material synthesis, Fault diagnosis by statistical methods, Molecular modelling and simulation
  • Nanotechnology, Renewable Energy, Energy Systems, Dye sensitized solar cells, Green Technology
  • Photonic and Optoelectronic Materials, Chemical Reaction Engineering, Microchannel Reactors & Heat Exchangers, Process Intensification
  • Waste Water Engineering, Bioremediation, Hazardous Waste Management, Signal Processing in Analytical Chemistry, Biomedical devices and biosensors

Sponsored Projects

Research Projects including Cogeneration Unit, PET based dye sensitized solar cells fabrication, EPDM Rubber based nanocomposites, Photosensitizers for Nanocrystalline Solar Cells, Nuclear Wastage Storage Containers, Metal Nanocomposites for Microwave Absorption, Polymer nanocomposites, dynamically molding footwear for diabetic patients, Particulate Polymer Composites for Space Applications, Fluoritestructured Hydrogen Storage Materials, etc. sponsored by DST, ISRO, UGC, DAE, BNRS, DRDO, MHRD, ISRO, DBT and DST - Indo Norway Consortium.

  • Development of Novel Carbon-Inherently Conducting Polymer (C-ICP) and C-ICP-Metal Nanocomposites with Unusually High Conductivity for Microwave Absorption
  • Development of New and Efficient Photosensitizers for Nanocrystalline TiO2 Based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells
  • Advanced Nanocomposites for Microwave Absorption
  • Electrochemically Tailored Compliant Solder Materials for Flip-Chip Joining
  • Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials & Green Technologies
  • Analysis and Evaluation of Multi-Layer Shear Damped Visco-Elastic Treatments for Launch Vehicle Application
  • Polymer nanocomposites for inflatable space structures [ISS]
  • Elastomer based polymer nanocomposites.for control system bladders
  • To Develop Differential Strength Polymer on a Single Sheet as a Test Specimen for Diabetic Footwear
  • Optimisation of Nanofiller Loading in Natural Rubber based Micro Cellular Sheet Using DoE
  • Technical assessment on photocatalytic hydrogen production
  • Flow Patterns of Oil-Water Immiscible Liquid Mixtures in Small and Microchannels
  • Particulate Polymer Composites for Space Applications: Modelling and Simulation of Physical, Mechanical and Rheological Properties
  • Development of a Novel Microchannel Reactor for the Conversion of Biomass to Liquids
  • Development of machine for manufacturing low-cost sanitary napkins

Sponsoring Organizations

Collaborative Research

Collaborations with University of Arkansas, Columbia University, EPFL, Switzerland, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Bhaba Atomic Research Centre, Centre for Materials for Electronics Technology (C-MET), ISRO, and other leading Research Universities in India in the area of Nanocomposites, Carbon Nano materials, Solar Cells, Corrosion, Nuclear Materials, Polymer Composites, Nanodielectric Materials, Polymer Nano Fiber Composites, Graphen Composites.

  • University of Arkansas, Little Rock-Research on “Inherently Conductive Polymer based Nanocomposites” and “RF-CVD Synthesis of Carbon Nano materials”
  • Columbia University - Research on “RF-CVD Synthesis of Carbon Nano materials”
  • EPFL, Switzerland- Research on “Collaboration In R&D projects of both organizations”
  • Bharathiar University - Research on “Polymer Nano Fiber Composites”
  • PSG Centre of Nanotechnology - Research on “Nanocomposite Gas Sensors”
  • Abdur Rahman University- Research on “Graphen Composites” and “ Synthesis and hydrodynamics of ferrofluids for drug delivery applications”

Projects

school-engineering-coimbatore-chemical-and-material-science-research-project-flow-patter-immiscible-liquids
Flow Patterns of Oil-Water Immiscible Liquid Mixtures in Small and Microchannels
PI: Dr. Murali Rangarajan
Duration of the Project: 2 Years

 
school-engineering-coimbatore-chemical-and-material-science-research-project-microchannel-reactor-conversion-biomass-liquid
Development of a Novel Microchannel Reactor for the Conversion of Biomass to liquids
PI: Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula
Duration of the Project: 1 Year

 
school-engineering-coimbatore-chemical-and-material-science-research-project-electrochemically-tailored-solder-materials-flip-chip-joining
Electrochemically Tailored Compliant Solder Materials for Flip-Chip Joining
PI: Dr. Murali Rangarajan
Sponsor: DRDO
Duration of the Project: 3 years
school-engineering-coimbatore-chemical-and-material-science-research-project-sisal-glass-hybrid-composite
Studies On Sisal / Glass Hybrid Reinforced Composites
PI: Dr. K. Jayanarayanan
Co-PI’s: Dr. S.S. Bhagawan and L. Mahadevan
Duration of the Project: July 2012 – April 2013



 
school-engineering-coimbatore-chemical-and-material-science-research-project-developing-ccip-cicp-nanocomposites
Development of Novel Carbon-Inherently Conducting Polymer (CICP) and C-ICP-Metal Nanocomposites with Unusually High Conductivity and Processability for Microwave Absorption
PI: Dr. Nikhil Kothurkar, Dr. T. G. Satheesh Babu
Sponsor: DRDO
Duration of the Project: 3 years
school-engineering-coimbatore-chemical-and-material-science-research-project-photosensitizer-for-dye-senitized-solar-cells
Development of New and Efficient Photosensitizers for Nanocrystalline TiO2 Based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells
PI: Dr. Kumaresan, Dr. Nikhil K. Kothurkar and Dr. R. Yamuna
Sponsor: DRDO
Duration of the Project: 3 years

 
school-engineering-coimbatore-chemical-and-material-science-research-project-coe-amgt
Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials & Green Technologies
PI: Dr. Sriram Devanathan,
Co-PI: Dr. Murali Rangarajan, Dr. Nikhil K. Kothurkar, Dr. S. S. Bhagavan, Dr. Kumaresan
Sponsor: MHRD
Duration of the Project: 3 years
school-engineering-coimbatore-chemical-and-material-science-research-project-polymer-composite-for-space-applications
Respond Project on Particulate Polymer Composites for Space Applications
Dr. P.K. Krishnan Namboori (CEN) and Dr. S. S. Bhagwan
Sponsor: ISRO
Duration of the Project: 3 years

 
school-engineering-coimbatore-chemical-and-material-science-research-project-smart-materials-based-on-pvdf
Smart Materials based on PVDF
PI: Dr. S.S. Bhagawan
Co-PI: Dr. Meera B. Sasikumar
Duration of the Project: July 2012 – April 2013



 
school-engineering-coimbatore-chemical-and-material-science-research-project-solar-cells
Cadmium Selinide Quantum Dots for Solar Cells
PI: Dr. Duraisamy Kumaresan
Duration of the Project: July 2012 – April 2013

 
school-engineering-coimbatore-chemical-and-material-science-research-project-regenerative-haemodialysis
Development of Regenerative Haemodialysis
PI: Dr. Uday Bhaskar Reddy Regula
Duration of the Project: July 2012 – April 2013

 
school-engineering-coimbatore-chemical-and-material-science-research-project-detect-adulteration-gasoline-chemometrics
Detection of Adulteration in Gasoline using Chemometrics
PI: Dr. Murali Rangarajan
Duration of the Project: July 2012 – April 2013
school-engineering-coimbatore-chemical-and-material-science-research-project-nanocomposite-materials-for-hydrogen-separation
Alligned CNT / Polymer Nanocomposite Membranes for Hydrogen Separation
PI: Dr. Kannan M.
Duration of the Project: July 2012 – April 2013

Publications

Publication Type: Conference Paper

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2018

Conference Paper

J. Mathew, Sathishkumar, M., Kothurkar, N. K., Senthilkumar, R., and B. Narayanan, S., “Polyaniline/Fe3O4-RGO Nanocomposites for Microwave Absorption”, in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2018, vol. 310.[Abstract]


Fe3O4 nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation of ferric chloride (FeCl3) and ferrous chloride (FeCl2). Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was prepared by reducing the graphene oxide, which was synthesized by Hummer's method, using hydrazine hydrate. Three nanocomposites based on sodium dodecyl benzene sulphonate (SDBS)-doped polyaniline were synthesized through in situ polymerization in the presence of the fillers (i) Fe3O4, (ii) reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and (iii) Fe3O4-decorated RGO respectively. The synthesized PANI and the composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Their microstructures, electrical conductivities, and EMI shielding effectiveness were studied. The nanocomposite containing 10 % RGO showed the maximum electrical conductivity and the one with 10 % RGO and 10 % Fe3O4 showed the maximum EMI shielding effectiveness of 7.5 dB for a 1 mm thick sample. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

More »»

2018

Conference Paper

S. Ramachandran, Sathishkumar, M., Kothurkar, N. K., and Senthilkumar, R., “Synthesis and characterization of graphene quantum dots/cobalt ferrite nanocomposite”, in IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 2018, vol. 310.[Abstract]


A facile method has been developed for the synthesis of a graphene quantum dots/cobalt ferrite nanocomposite. Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) were synthesized by a simple bottom-up method using citric acid, followed by the co-precipitation of cobalt ferrite nanoparticles on the graphene quantum dots. The morphology, structural analysis, optical properties, magnetic properties were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) measurements. The synthesized nanocomposite showed good fluorescence and superparamagnetic properties, which are important for biomedical applications. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

More »»

2018

Conference Paper

N. Ashok, Webert, D., Suneesh, P. V., and S. Balachander, “Mechanical and sorption behaviour of organo-modified montmorillonite nanocomposites based on EPDM - NBR Blends”, in Materials Today: Proceedings, 2018, vol. 5, pp. 16132-16140.[Abstract]


Nanocomposites of blends based on ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber and acrylonitrile butadiene copolymer (nitrile rubber or NBR) rubber was prepared by melt compounding in an internal mixer using maleic anhydride as compatibilizer. The blends were reinforced with varying amount (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 phr (parts per 100 parts rubber)) of organomodified montmorillonite (nanoclay). The nanocomposites were vulcanized at 170°C for the optimum cure time in hydraulic compression press to obtain approximately 2mm thick sheets. Morphological analysis using X-ray diffraction and Atomic Force Microscopy confirmed intercalation and exfoliation of nanoclay at lower concentration and slight agglomeration at higher concentration. Consequently, owing to the large surface area and strong matrix - reinforcement interaction, the mechanical properties improved with increasing nanofiller content. The barrier properties, characterized by diffusion, sorption and permeation coefficients also improved with increasing nanoclay content. However, at higher concentration of nanoclay, both mechanical and barrier properties showed slight decline due to formation of agglomerates. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

More »»

2018

Conference Paper

A. Baladhandapania, Suresh, S., Sindhu, S., and Ramani, P., “Physico-chemical studies of amoxycillin loaded sulfonated polymer”, in Materials Today: Proceedings, 2018, vol. 5, pp. 16146-16151.[Abstract]


This study involves in the selection of polymer, poly etherether ketone (PEEK), and its modification to serve the purpose of drug carrier. The polymer is sulfonated to increase the hydrophilic character, thereby making it feasible for functioning as a drug carrier. A blend of sulphonated PEEK and drug was made into thin membrane and characterized using FT-IR and surface morphology studies. Physico-chemical properties such as partition coefficient, permeability coefficients and diffusivity constant were measure for the sulphonated PEEK membranes. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

More »»

2018

Conference Paper

E. R. Pavithra, Arun, M., Swaminathan, R. A., Vishwanath, S. M. M., and Ramani, P., “An alternate method to synthesize zeolites for biological applications”, in Materials Today: Proceedings, 2018, vol. 5, pp. 16461-16465.[Abstract]


Zeolites find use in various applications in biological/medical field where the majority of them were prepared using Cetrimonium Bromide (CTAB), Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and fly ash as binders. In this work, two new zeolites were prepared by using polyethylene glycol (PEG) as binder starting from aluminium nitrate nonahydrate (ANN) and tetraethylortho silicate (TEOS) through sol-gel technique. The resultant zeolites were compared with the one synthesized using CTAB as binder. Zeolites prepared using PEG was found to be polycrystalline with an average grain size of 0.5-1nm by X-ray analysis. The new zeolites were characterized using SEM, XRD, EDAX and FTIR analysis. The zeolites prepared were comparable with those used in biological applications. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

More »»

2018

Conference Paper

S. Sivakumar, Ramani, P., and Shilpa, G. S., “Phthalimido protected peptide nucleic acid monomer - Synthesis and Characterization”, in Materials Today: Proceedings, 2018, vol. 5, pp. 16580-16584.[Abstract]


Glycine based peptide nucleic acid (PNA) monomers are useful in the construction of PNA oligomers which are, in general, hydrophobic in nature. To overcome this huddle, serine based peptide nucleic acid (PNA) monomer was synthesized which will a good candidate in terms of increasing hydrophilicity. The synthesis involves in the alkylation of N-bromoethyl phthalimide on nosyl protected serine methyl ester followed by deprotection and condensation with nucleobase yields PNA monomer. The phthalimide group on nitrogen serves as protecting group as well as marker. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

More »»

2017

Conference Paper

Dr. Rajathilagam B. and Rangarajan, M., “Spectral representation of principal components in signals and images using G-lets decomposition of subbands”, in IEEE Region 10 Annual International Conference, Proceedings/TENCON, 2017, pp. 3809-3812.[Abstract]


This paper presents a spectral subband decomposition using G-lets in time-domain for 1-D and 2-D signals. The decomposition is achieved through successive filtering and decimation steps ending up in a decomposition tree. At each node of the tree, the parameters of the corresponding subband signal are estimated using high gradients obtained at the first node. The resulting subbands are found to highlight the components of the signal. The proposed method using G-lets enables one to reduce the processing time and makes the choice of decomposition levels easier, comparatively to the case where the whole signal is processed at once. The advantage of G-lets based subbands is demonstrated using 1-D and 2-D signals. It is seen that a synthetic signal generated from a sine and cosine signal is separated into exactly the same two signals and the performance is good for monocomponent and multicomponent signals. © 2016 IEEE. More »»

2017

Conference Paper

I. Ray, Alangot, B., Nair, S., and Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, “Using Attribute-Based Access Control for Remote Healthcare Monitoring”, in 2017 4th International Conference on Software Defined Systems, SDS 2017, 2017, pp. 137-142.[Abstract]


Remote Healthcare Monitoring (RHM) IoT infrastructure uses sensors and smartphones to collect vital parameters from patients. These parameters pertaining to medical records are shared with healthcare professionals at geographically distant locations to provide timely medical care. RHM applications deployed on IoT infrastructure must address the issues of security and privacy in a constrained environment. We present our H-Plane framework for RHM and propose the use of the NIST Next Generation Access Control (NGAC) framework for specifying and enforcing access control policies. © 2017 IEEE.

More »»

2017

Conference Paper

N. Rasana, “Effect of compatibilizer and carbon nanotubes on blends of Polypropylene and Nylon 6”, in International Conference on Advances in Materials and Manufacturing Applications, IconAMMA2017 (Scopus), Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amrita School of Engineering, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Bangalore , 2017.

2016

Conference Paper

S. O. Wietlisbach, Ram, K., Dr. Nikhil K. Kothurkar, Nair, R., and Harigovind, S., “Performance of a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland in treating biomethanation effluent”, in GHTC 2016 - IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference: Technology for the Benefit of Humanity, Conference Proceedings, 2016, pp. 847-853.[Abstract]


A system consisting of a biomethanation plant whose effluent is fed to a constructed wetland, can serve as a multipurpose waste-to-wealth system. It can safely treat domestic sewage, and organic solid waste while providing cooking fuel (biogas), reclaimed water and plant biomass. This study evaluates the performance of an outdoor 30 LPD constructed wetland setup in treating the effluent from an existing biomethanation reactor fed with blackwater and organic solid waste. The constructed wetland units contained Vetiver zizanioides and Canna indica and earthworms (Lumbricus terrestris) and the changes in BOD, NH4, NO2, P, total solids (TS) and pH of the effluent were measured. The constructed wetlands were effective in reduction of BOD, N and P. The effect of bed depth and series arrangement of wetland units was studied. The system was modeled using a 1st order differential model assuming plug flow and steady state. The model predictions partly matched the measured values and the trends and the sources of deviations have been discussed. Overall, the performance of vertical subsurface flow constructed wetlands for treating biomethanation effluent was found to be highly encouraging and it warrants further studies to realize the full waste-to-wealth potential of multipurpose biomethanation-constructed wetland systems. © 2016 IEEE.

More »»

2016

Conference Paper

N. Rasana, “Influence of multiphase fillers on the mechanical, transport and rheological properties of Polypropylene”, in International Conference on Material Sciences SCICON’16, (Scopus) , Department of Sciences, Amrita School of Engineering, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore , 2016.

2014

Conference Paper

N. Rasana, Rangarajan, M., and Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula, “Design and Implementation of Model Predictive Control in a Three Tank Interacting System”, in International Conference on Recent Advances in Chemical, Environmental and Energy Engineering (RACEEE2014), S.S.N College of Engineering, Chennai, 2014.[Abstract]


An advanced control method, Model Predictive Control (MPC) has been widely used and well received in a wide variety of applications in process control. MPC utilizes an explicit process model to predict the future response of a process and solve a control problem with a finite horizon at each sampling instant. Model predictive control has proven to be a very effective controller design strategy over the last twenty years and has been widely used in process industry, such as oil refining, chemical engineering and metallurgy. A greater challenge for the controllers is to control an unstable system. In this work, a three tank interacting system has been used to implement Model Predictive Control for controlling the level of water in all the three tanks placed at the corners of an equilateral triangle with input, interaction and drain from each tank thus making the system a Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO). The appropriate model equations in the non-linear form have been formulated for the proposed system. The non-linear equations are linearized and a state space model was developed and implemented using MPC tool box of MATLAB. MPC simulation environment has been used to design the controller for the three tank interacting system and compared 
the results under various operating conditions including the constraints. The MPC behavior has been analyzed for set point control of the level of water in three tanks by tuning the extent of interaction between the tanks through the openings of solenoid valves connecting the tanks.</p>

More »»

2014

Conference Paper

V. S, P, M., R, V., R, J., Tsuzuki, T., and Rangarajan, Ma, “Online Sensing of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Static and Hydrodynamic Media”, in 7th Bangalore India Nano,Bangalore,December 5-6, 2014, Bangalore, 2014.

2014

Conference Paper

A. R. Rajamani and Rangarajan, Ma, “Electrochemical Co-Deposition of SnBi Alloys: Mechanism, Morphologies, Additives, and Composition”, in Collaborative Conference on Crystal Growth – 3CG 2014, Phuket, Thailand November 4-7, 2014, 2014.

2014

Conference Paper

Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula, Shrinidhi, S. R., and Dr. Murali Rangarajan, “Mixed-Paraffin Dehydrogenation in Fixed-bed Reactors: Modeling and Simulation,”, in Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Annual Meeting, , Atlanta, 2014.

2014

Conference Paper

V. K, R, R. U. B., and Dr. Murali Rangarajan, “Studying the Flow of Oil-Water Immiscible Liquid Mixtures in Small Channels”, in 1st International Conference on Recent Advances in Chemical, Environmental, and Energy Engineering (RACEEE-2014), February 27-28, 2014.

2014

Conference Paper

A. Vadivambigai, S, P. Anandh, Kothurkar N, and Rangarajan, Ma, “Graphene Oxide-based Electrochemical Sensor for Salicylic Acid”, in ICONEST 2014, International Conference on Electrochemistry, Electrochemical Society of India, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 2014.

2014

Conference Paper

Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula, S.R., S., and Rangarajan, M., “Modeling and Simulation of Mixed-Light Paraffin Dehydrogenation in a Multi-tubular Packed bed Reactors”, in International Conference on Recent Advances in Chemical, Environmental and Energy Engineering (RACEEE2014), Chennai, 2014.[Abstract]


Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) units convert high molecular compounds (from atmospheric distillation and vacuum distillation units) to light gases. The major compounds in the light gases are methane, ethane, propane and butane. These light gases are then converted to highly reactive propylene (raw material for polypropylene) and butylene (raw material for butadiene and polybutadiene) via dehydrogenation. Propane and butane are always available as mixture along with traces of methane and ethane. In any commercial dehydrogenation process, the propane and butane are separated first and then dehydrogenated separately. This certainly leads to high fixed and operating costs. In this study, mixed-feed dehydrogenation of propane and butane is proposed. An isothermal model for a multi-tubular fixed bed reactor using Pt-Sn/Al 2 O 3 as a catalyst for the dehydrogenation of mixed-paraffin feed is developed considering the axial and radial variation of concentration (2D model). The 2D model is solved using central difference scheme. The simulations were carried out using MATLAB and the developed model is tested for the effect of space velocity, reactor temperature, reactor pressure, and propane to butane ratio in the feed on total paraffin conversion and olefin yield.

More »»

2014

Conference Paper

Dr. Yamuna R., Ramakrishnan, S., Prabhavathi, G., and Kothurkar, N. K., “A Comparative study of porphyrin functionalized carbon nano materials”, in 1st International symposium on Nanoparticle/Nanomaterial and Applications (ISN2A), Portugal, 2014.

2013

Conference Paper

V. S, R, V., R, R. A., and Rangarajan, M., “Hydrodynamics of Iron Oxide Nanoparticles”, in International Conference on Chemical and Bioprocess Engineering (ICCBPE 2013), NIT Warangal, November 16-17, 2013, 2013.

2013

Conference Paper

R. A. R and Dr. Murali Rangarajan, “Electrodeposition of SnBi Alloys: Effects of pH and Additives”, in 51st NMD and 67th ATM of Indian Institute of Metals, IIT-BHU, November 12-15, 2013.

2013

Conference Paper

A. B, S, P. Anandh, Kothurkar N, and Dr. Murali Rangarajan, “Graphene-based Electrochemical Sensor for Paracetamol”, in International Conference on Biotechnology for Innovative Applications – AmritaBioQuest 2013, August 10-14, 2013.

2013

Conference Paper

R. D Kannan, R, R. A., S, K., and Dr. Murali Rangarajan, “Graphene-based Electrochemical Sensor for Simultaneous Detection of Dopamine, Uric Acid, and Ascorbic Acid”, in International Conference on Biotechnology for Innovative Applications – AmritaBioQuest 2013, August 10-14, 2013.

2013

Conference Paper

A. R. Rajamani and Dr. Murali Rangarajan, “Electrodeposition of Bi and SnBi Alloys for Microelectronic Packaging”, in RATES 2013, International Conference on Recent Advances in Textile and Electrochemical Sciences, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, March 21-23, 2013.

2013

Conference Paper

A. R. Rajamani and Dr. Murali Rangarajan, “Electrodeposition of Bismuth and Effects of Additives in Acid Bath”, in ELAC 2013, 5th ISEAC Triennial International Conference on Advances and Recent Trends in Electrochemistry, pp. 341-344, Hyderabad, January 16-20, 2013.

2013

Conference Paper

Dr. Thirugnasambandam G. Manivasagam, C.M.M.Magusin, P., and .H.L.Notten, P., “Meta-Stable Mg-Based Hydrogen Storage Alloys : A 2H NMR Study”, in ACTS symposium, Lunteren, The Netherlands, 2013.

2013

Conference Paper

Peter Ash, Anju Bist, Dr. Smitha Chandran S., Dan Sullivan, and Nikhil Korthurkar, “Rehabilitating former landfill sites: A case study in habitat restoration”, in IEEE Global Humanitarian Technical Conference (GHTC 2013), San Jose, California USA , 2013.[Abstract]


This paper describes the dramatic success in the eco-restoration of a heavy-metal contaminated open garbage dump. A number of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Co, Pb, Hg, Cr) were detected in the soil and river sediment at the site. The main restoration activities included mulching, surface-addition of compost and fresh soil and phytoremediation using vetiver and other plants. Within three years of the restoration activities, heavy metal concentrations in the contaminated soil reduced drastically. There was relatively low uptake of the heavy metals by the plants; however, they might have been crucially responsible for providing a favorable environment for soil-restoring microrganisms in their rhizosphere. Observable habitat-restoration continues at the site, including the return of birds and insects and other wildlife, making this an ideal site for further research and demonstration for community awareness and education.

More »»

2012

Conference Paper

D. M, S, R., S, V., Kothurkar N, Vasanthakumari, R., and Dr. Murali Rangarajan, “SWCNT-Polyimide Electrospun Nanocomposites”, in SWCNT-Polyimide Electrospun Nanocomposites”, 6th International Symposium on Macro-and Supramolecular Architectures and Materials on Nov 21-25, 2012.

2012

Conference Paper

M. D, S, V., M, D., R, V., and Dr. Murali Rangarajan, “Effect of polar and nonpolar solvents in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Azadirachta indica leaf extract”, in National Symposium on Emerging Horizons in Biotechnology – Challenges and Prospects, Alpha Arts and Science College, September 20-21, 2012.

2012

Conference Paper

S. K, R, R. A., S, R., Kothurkar N, and Dr. Murali Rangarajan, “Electrochemical Sensing of Dopamine on TiO2-RGO Nanocomposites”, in NMC 2012, 9th International Workshop on Nanomechanical Sensing, IIT Mumbai, June 6-8, 2012.

2012

Conference Paper

S. Ramakrishnan, J, J. E., Rangarajan, Ma, and Kothurkar N, “Synthesis of carbon nanotubes from ethanol using RF-CCVD and Fe-Mo catalyst”, in 6th International Symposium on Macro-and Supramolecular Architectures and Materials on Nov 21-25, 2012, 2012.

2012

Conference Paper

Z. Karim, Yang, L., Mack, J., Liu, M., Weber, U., Baumann, P., Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, Lu, B., Czubatyj, W., Hudgens, S., and , “Advances in ALD GST Process and Equipment for sub-20nm PCRAM Devices: Precursor delivery, GST Gapfill and Electrical Characterization”, in Conference Proceedings by the Society for Solid State and Electrochemical Science and Technology, 2012.

2011

Conference Paper

M. V, M, S., J, S., R, S. S., and Dr. Murali Rangarajan, “Model-Based Composition Control of Binary Batch Distillation Column”, in COSMA, 2011.

2011

Conference Paper

Dr. Murali Rangarajan, S, S., N, K., and S., R., “Towards Predicting Heat Transfer to Immiscible Liquid Mixtures”, in CHEMCON , 2011.

2011

Conference Paper

S. S, Dr. Murali Rangarajan, and S, R., “Thermal Effectiveness and Transfer Coefficients in Spiral Heat Exchangers for Liquid-Liquid Mixtures”, in CHEMCON, 2011.

2011

Conference Paper

S. P. Upadyayula and Rangarajan, Ma, “Actin-Based Motility Propelled by Molecular Motors”, in ICANN 2011, IIT Guwahati, 2011.

2011

Conference Paper

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Sabu Thomas, and Kuruvilla Joseph, “Microfibrillar Composites from Polymer Blends”, in First International Conference on Composites and Nanocomposites (ICNC 2011) organized by Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 2011.

2011

Conference Paper

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Sabu Thomas, and Kuruvilla Joseph, “Effect of Compatibilizer on the Morphology and Mechanical Properties of Novel Polymer - Polymer Composites from LDPE and PET”, in International Conference on Materials for Future (ICMF 2011), Government Engineering College, Trichur, 2011.

2011

Conference Paper

Dr. Thirugnasambandam G. Manivasagam and .H.L.Notten, P., “Multicomponent Mg based Hydrogen storage materials”, in Advances in Dutch Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Research, Eindhoven, The Netherlands , 2011.

2011

Conference Paper

Dr. Thirugnasambandam G. Manivasagam and .H.L.Notten, P., “Multicomponent Mg based Hydrogen Storage materials (paper)”, in (NWO) – ACTS symposium, Lunteren, The Netherlands, 2011.

2010

Conference Paper

Dr. Murali Rangarajan, S, S., and S, R., “Modeling of Liquid-Liquid Two-Phase Heat Transfer in Spiral Plate Heat Exchanger”, in CHEMCON, 2010.

2010

Conference Paper

S. Sathiyan, Rangarajan, Ma, and Ramachandran, S., “Heat Transfer in Spiral Plate Heat Exchangers with Water-Organics Liquid-Liquid Two-Phase Systems”, in CHEMCON, 2010.

2009

Conference Paper

Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula, Dutta, S., Whitlow, J., and Elrod, H. Wright and, “Production of Liquid fuels using Microreactor technology”, in AIChE National Conference, Nasheville, Tennesse, USA., 2009.[Abstract]


tilization of a micro-channel reactor for production of liquid fuels from synthesis gas has been shown to lead to substantial improvement in liquid productivity compared to conventional technology. The exceptional heat transfer characteristics of the catalytic micro-channel reactor allows for significantly higher operating temperatures without excess formation of methane. Experimental results are presented showing the effect of H2/CO ratio, temperature, pressure, and space velocity on the conversion and selectivity to liquid fuels on a cobalt catalyst using Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis. A statistical analysis of these results is given indicating the primary and interaction effects for each of these variables. Also discussed are the catalyst deposition techniques employed and issues pertaining to the scale up of the micro-channel system. More »»

2009

Conference Paper

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Dhanuja, M. T., Bhagawan, S. S., Divya, B., ,, and Nair, P. S., “Polymer nanocomposites for inflatable Space Structures:Property Optimization using Response Surface Methodology”, in Sixth International Conference on “Precision ,Meso,Micro and Nano Engineering, Coimbatore, 2009.

2009

Conference Paper

Dr. Thirugnasambandam G. Manivasagam, .Kiraz, K., and .H.L.Notten, P., “Multi component Mg based Hydrogen storage materials”, in ACTS symposium, Lunteren, The Netherlands, 2009.

2008

Conference Paper

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Bhagawan, S. S., Kuruvilla Joseph, and Sabu Thomas, “Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Microfibrillar Insitu Composites based on PP and PET”, in POLYCHAR 16 - World Forum for Advanced Materials, Lucknow, 2008.

2008

Conference Paper

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Sabu Thomas, and Kuruvilla Joseph, “Microfibrillar composites based on blends of Polypropylene and Poly (ethylene terephthalate): Morphology development, static and dynamic mechanical properties, crystallization behaviour and dynamic rheology”, in Second International Conference on Blends and Composites (ICBC-2008), Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, 2008.

2008

Conference Paper

Dr. Yamuna R., “Crystal engineering in cobaloximes: Lamellar, pillared, tubular and helical assemblies assisted by C-H…O, C-H…Cl and C-H…pi interactions”, in International symposium on Structural bioinformatics: Structure and functions of macromolecules (BIOFEST-08), Ramakrishna college of arts and science , 2008.

2008

Conference Paper

Y. Senzaki, Seidel, T., McCormick, J., Kim, G. Y., Kim, H. Y., Karim, Z., Lu, B., Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, Lindner, J., Silva, H., and Daulesberg, M., “Atomic Level Solutions for Advanced Microelectronic Applications”, in International Conference on Solid State and Integrated Circuit Technology, ICSICT 2008. , 2008.[Abstract]


Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) has successfully been applied to advanced microelectronic applications importantly for conformal coatings on high aspect ratio devices. However, traditional ALD is limited in deposition rate because the ability to bring precursors rapidly to the surface. In this paper we review recent results for precursor delivery using advanced vaporization (Trijet) as well as recent advances in Pulsed CVD (AVD®) using art elements held in common with ALD technology. These and other advances - such as Multiple Single Wafer configurations allow ALD application for continued scaling under conditions of improved process control and higher productivity. Key applications include: capacitors (dielectrics and electrodes), transistors and contacts. This paper reviews these technological advances in the context of their applications.

More »»
PDF iconatomic-level-solutions-for-advanced-microelectronic-applications.pdf

2007

Conference Paper

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Kuruvilla Joseph, and Sabu Thomas, “Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Microfibrillar Polymer Polymer Composite”, in International Seminar on Frontiers in Polymer Science and Technology, POLY-2007, Tezpur University, Assam, 2007.

2007

Conference Paper

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Sivadayanithy, M., and Bhagawan, S. S., “Modelling techniques for optimizing polymer formulations and process parameters”, in International Conference on Natural Polymers (ICNP 2007), Kottayam, 2007.

2006

Conference Paper

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Bhagawan, S. S., Shivashankari, S., R. Karthikeyan, V., K. Narayanan, D., and Venkateshwar, P., “Analysis of flow characteristics of injection molded polyacetal component”, in MACRO 2006, NCL, Pune, 2006.

2005

Conference Paper

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Sabu Thomas, and Kuruvilla Joseph, “Preparation and Properties of Microfibrillar based Polymer-Polymer Composites”, in International conference on Science and Technology for Sustainable Development, S B College, Changanacherry, 2005.

2005

Conference Paper

R. Vibanchya, Suganya, P., Satheeshkumar, P., Padmakumar, M. S., and Dr. Jayanarayanan K., “Analysis of Rejection Rate in Gas Assisted Injection Molded Products using FMEA”, in Third National conference on Polymers MACRO 05, Sri Jayachamarajendra College of Engineering, Mysore, 2005.

2004

Conference Paper

Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula, E., R., and S., G., “Modeling and Analysis of Reaction in Turbulent Flows”, in CRSYS-2004, IIT, Kharagpur, 2004.

2004

Conference Paper

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Ray, V. V., and Krishnaparasad, R., “Recycling of Scrap Tyres and Tyre Derived Fuel”, in National Seminar on “Emerging Trends in Polymer Engineering, STAS Mahatma Gandhi University,Kottayam, 2004.

2004

Conference Paper

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., “Role of Rheology In Polymer Extrusion”, in National Conference on Application of Melt Rheology in Polymer, AICTE-ISTE STTP, Amrita Institute of Technology, , 2004.

2003

Conference Paper

Dr. Murali Rangarajan and R, R., “Understanding Polymer-Mediated Cell-Cell Interactions: Estimation of Polymer-Induced Forces”, in Annual Conference of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE), 2003.

2003

Conference Paper

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., S. Selvan, A., and Kumar, P. V. Rajesh, “Process Optimisation of Injection Moulded Plastic Products Using Moldflow Analysis”, in EPAT 2003, National Symposium on Engineering Polymers: Applications and Technology, AITEC, Coimbatore, 2003.

2002

Conference Paper

Dr. Murali Rangarajan, J, J., and R, R., “Interaction between Physisorbed Polymer Layers: Anisotropic Mean-Field Theory”, in at Chemistry at Interfaces, Gordon Research Conferences (GRC), 2002.

2002

Conference Paper

Dr. Murali Rangarajan and R, R., “Thermodynamics of Interacting ‘Solid’/’Liquid’ Interfaces: Polymer Layers”, in Chemistry at Interfaces, Gordon Research Conferences (GRC), 2002.

2002

Conference Paper

Ma Rangarajan and R, R., “On the Forces of Compression of Polymer Layers from Mean-Field Theories”, in 3rd Annual Graduate Symposium, Graduate Association of Chemical Engineers, UF, January 2002; Won the Outstanding Presentation Award, 2002.

1993

Conference Paper

D. K. Rollins and Dr. Sriram Devanathan, “Computational issues in gross error detection and data reconciliation”, in International Conference on Foundations of Computer-Aided Process Operations FOCAPO, Crested Butte, Colorado, 1993.

Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2018

Journal Article

N. Ashok, S. Balachander, and Lawrence, F., “Organo-modified layered silicate nanocomposites of EPDM–chlorobutyl rubber blends for enhanced performance in γ radiation and hydrocarbon environment”, Journal of Composite Materials, 2018.[Abstract]


In this work, blends of ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber and chlorobutyl rubber were reinforced with organo-modified layered silicate (nanoclay) to enhance their performance in radiation as well as hydrocarbons environments. The mechanical properties of the nanocomposites increased (up to 57%) and solvent transport coefficients decreased (by 30%) with increasing nanoclay content. The enhancement in properties was attributed to the dispersion of nanoclay platelets in the ethylene propylene diene monomer–chlorobutyl rubber blends and the chemical interaction between nanoclay and the polymer which were confirmed by morphological and spectroscopic analysis, respectively. The effect of nanofiller content on the mechanical properties, solvent uptake and thermal degradation of blends exposed to gamma radiation was investigated by irradiating the nanocomposites with gamma rays for cumulative doses of 0.5, 1 and 2 MGy. The ethylene propylene diene monomer–chlorobutyl rubber nanocomposites with 5 phr nanoclay had the best retention of mechanical properties and solvent sorption coefficients on exposure to radiation. Depending on the dose of cumulative radiation exposure, chain scission and/or crosslinking occurred in the nanocomposites, resulting in varying degrees of changes in properties. © 2018, The Author(s) 2018.

More »»

2018

Journal Article

M. S. Kumar, Yasoda, K. Y., Batabyal Sudip Kumar, and Dr. Nikhil K. Kothurkar, “Carbon-polyaniline nanocomposites as supercapacitor materials”, Materials Research Express, vol. 5, 2018.[Abstract]


Polyaniline-based nanocomposites containing carbon nanotubes (CNT), reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and mixture of CNTs and rGO were synthesized. UV-visible spectroscopy and FT-IR spectroscopy confirmed the presence of polyaniline (PANi) and carbon nanomaterials. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the neat PANi had a granular morphology, which can lead to increased electrical resistance to high interfacial resistance between domains of PANi. Cyclic voltammetry of PANi, PANi/CNT, PANi/rGO and PANi/CNT/rGO showed that in general, specific capacitance reduces with increasing scan rate within the range (10-100mVs-1). Also the specific capacitance values at any given scan rate within the above range, for PANi, PANi/CNT, PANi/rGO and PANi/CNT/rGO were found to be in increasing order. The specific capacitance of the PANi/CNT/rGO nanocomposite as measured by galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements, was found to be 312.5 F g-1. The introduction of the carbon nanomaterials (CNTs, rGO) in PANi in general leads to improved specific capacitance, while the addition of CNTs and rGO together leads to synergistic improvement in the specific capacitance, owing to a combination of factors. ©2018 IOP Publishing Ltd. More »»

2018

Journal Article

R. K. Johar, Saravanakumar, G., and Prasad, R. K., “Kinetics and sub sieve morphology of ball mill grinding for different grades of Indian coals”, International Journal of Oil, Gas and Coal Technology, vol. 17, pp. 458-471, 2018.[Abstract]


The interactions of various factors affecting the ball mill grinding such as diameter of the ball, particle size and grinding time were studied. The kinetics of grinding on 80% passing size of product d80 was studied for two grades of coal namely lignite and bituminous using Box-Behnken method of surface response experiment. The bond grindability index and work index of the ball mill were determined. The variation in specific rate of breakage with ball diameter and number of balls was studied. The study on power consumption was done by varying the number of balls, ball diameter and grinding time. It was observed that the breakage was better for more balls with increase in ball diameter. The sub sieve morphology of particles in sieve was analysed using scanning electron microscopic observations to determine the breakage characteristics. Copyright © 2018 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

More »»

2018

Journal Article

A. Jenifer, Rasana, N., and Dr. Jayanarayanan K., “Synergistic effect of the inclusion of glass fibers and halloysite nanotubes on the static and dynamic mechanical, thermal and flame retardant properties of polypropylene”, Materials Research Express, vol. 5, no. 6, p. 065308, 2018.[Abstract]


Hybrid composites based on polypropylene (PP), glass fiber (GF) and halloysite nanotubes (HNT) were prepared in the presence of a compatibilizer, polypropylene grafted with maleic anhydride (PP-g-MAH), in a twin screw extruder. The properties of the micro composite (PP/GF), nanocomposite (PP/HNT) and hybrid composite (PP/GF/HNT) were studied and compared. The dispersion of the fillers in the base matrix and the effectiveness of the compatibilizer were ascertained by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The tensile strength and modulus of the hybrid composite prepared in the presence of PP-g-MAH were found to be superior to those of the compatibilized micro and nanocomposites. Differential scanning calorimetry gave insight to the effect of the fillers on modifying the crystallization behavior of the base polymer. The combination of GF and HNT increased the crystallization temperature of PP phase in all the composites. The dynamic mechanical analysis proved that the fillers introduced in the polymer matrix restricted the relaxation of the PP polymer chains as evidenced by the rise in the glass transition temperature (T g ). The thermal stabilities of the hybrid composites were far superior to the neat polymer as the fillers formed an insulating layer delaying the degradation tendency and elevated the activation energy. The flammability of PP could be modified tremendously by the incorporation of the fillers as they reduced the burning rate and raised the limiting oxygen index values.

More »»

2018

Journal Article

A. Moorthy, Subramaniam, M. Raj, Manivasagam, T. G., and Dr. Duraisamy Kumaresan, “Surfactant-assisted synthesis of metallic cadmium, cadmium hydroxide nanostructures and their electrochemical charge storage properties.”, Dalton Transactions, 2018.[Abstract]


We report a simple, surfactant-assisted room temperature synthesis of metallic cadmium nanoparticle sheets and their subsequent hydrolysis to the formation of rice-shaped monoclinic cadmium hydroxide nanostructures. These new nanostructures have demonstrated 30-40 fold superior electrochemical charge storage capacity along with quantized double layer charging of metal nanoparticles as compared to the bulk cadmium.

More »»

2018

Journal Article

M. P. Kumar, Mini, K. M., and Rangarajan, M., “Ultrafine GGBS and calcium nitrate as concrete admixtures for improved mechanical properties and corrosion resistance”, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 182, pp. 249-257, 2018.[Abstract]


This work reports the modification of ordinary Portland cement with ultrafine ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) as a mineral admixture and calcium nitrate as a chemical admixture and examines how mechanical and corrosion properties are improved by this modification. Ultrafine GGBS with average particle size of 4–6 μM was introduced as a replacement mineral admixture (10%) to ordinary Portland cement while calcium nitrate was introduced as a chemical admixture at 2% amount of cementitious material, in the preparation of concrete. X-ray diffraction studies on powdered concrete showed that the amount of silica in the concrete increases with the introduction of GGBS. Calcium hydroxide was converted to calcium silicates. Ultrafine GGBS reduced the workability and water absorption and increased the compressive strength of the concrete (18%) and the bond strength of the steel rebar (45%). Adding calcium nitrate further reduced water absorption of the concrete but improved workability, compressive strength (32%) and bond strength (131%). The pH of the concrete powdered solution became more alkaline with the replacement of ultrafine GGBS and addition of calcium nitrate. Free chloride content dropped by 39% and 65%, respectively, with the introduction of GGBS and nitrate. Corrosion behaviour of the concrete specimens were studied using measurement of open circuit potentials, linear polarization resistance and Tafel polarization in an accelerated corrosion medium of 3.5% NaCl and 1 M sulphuric acid. Corrosion potential and current of the control specimens decreased with time for 40 days after which an increase was observed. Ultrafine GGBS shifted the corrosion potential in the cathodic direction, indicating retardation of the cathodic reaction (ex. oxygen reduction). Calcium nitrate, on the other hand, shifted the corrosion potential anodically by promoting the formation of a passive film of iron(III) hydroxide on the steel surface. Corrosion currents in GGBS and nitrate-modified concrete decreased by 200-fold compared to the control specimen on the first day, and by 480-fold on the 50th day (150-times smaller than the specimen modified with GGBS alone). Finally, scanning electron microscopy images of the corroded rebar at the end of 50th day indicate that pitting and intergranular corrosion occurs, with its extent reduced significantly by the introduction of admixtures. These results demonstrate that ultrafine GGBS and calcium nitrate as admixtures enhance the mechanical properties of concrete and reduce the corrosion of rebar. © 2018

More »»

2018

Journal Article

A. R. Rajamani, Jothi, S., Datta, M., and Rangarajan, M., “Electrodeposition of tin-bismuth alloys: Additives, morphologies and compositions”, Journal of the Electrochemical Society, vol. 165, pp. D50-D57, 2018.[Abstract]


Electrodeposition of tin-bismuth alloys on polycrystalline copper electrodes has been studied from an acidic bath comprising SnCl4, Bi(NO3)3, citric acid, poly(vinyl alcohol) and betaine. Using linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and chronoamperometry (CA), co-deposition of tin and bismuth from the above bath has been examined. Bismuth (III) ions get reduced in a single-step, threeelectron- transfer reaction while tin (IV) ions undergo a two-step reduction through the formation of tin (II) ions. Nitric acid in the bath not only enhances solubility of the precursors but also decreases the peak potential separation between bismuth (III) and tin (II) ions. Through the introduction of various additives and variation in bath pH, co-deposition is preserved while the composition of tin in the obtained alloy is modified. The morphologies, composition and crystallinity of the deposits have been determined using scanning electron microscopy, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. A wide range of alloy compositions (from 14% to 75% tin), including the eutectic Sn-Bi alloy have been deposited. Novel morphologies such as yarns-of-spool have been obtained. © 2018 The Electrochemical Society.

More »»

2018

Journal Article

N. Rasana and Dr. Jayanarayanan K., “Experimental and micromechanical modeling of fracture toughness”, Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, 2018.[Abstract]


In this study, polypropylene-based nano and hybrid composites are prepared with 20 wt% glass fiber and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) ranging up to 5 wt%. The multiaxial stress fields developed during external loading of composites cause crack propagation by various fracture mechanisms. Among the nanocomposites, it is observed that the critical stress intensity factor (KI) is highest for the one prepared at 3 wt% loading of MWCNTs. The synergistic effect of multiscale fillers in hybrid composite with MWCNT content of 3 wt% results in superior fracture toughness properties as evidenced by 16.6% increase in KI with respect to neat PP. Analytical expressions that take into account the fracture mechanisms like particle debonding and matrix yielding are employed to estimate the composite crack resistance and then compared with experimentally obtained fracture toughness properties. The fracture toughness properties are found to be dependent on composition of fillers, matrix yield strain, and debonding strain of the composites.

More »»

2018

Journal Article

K. G. Baiju, Murali, B., and Kumaresan, D., “Synthesis of hierarchical barium titanate micro flowers with superior light-harvesting characteristics for dye sensitized solar cells”, Materials Research Express, vol. 5, 2018.[Abstract]


Hierarchical barium titanate (BaTiO3) micro flowers have been successfully grown on the conducting glass substrates by a two-step hydrothermal process. Morphological and crystal structure analyses revealed that the tetragonal phase BaTiO3 micro flowers have formed as clusters of highly crystalline, one dimensional parallelepiped nanorods of widths ranging from 50 to 500 nm. The as-grown BaTiO3 micro flowers tested as dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) photoanode has showed maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.13%, which is comparable to the PCE of TiO2 nanoparticles based DSSC photoanode (5.90%) measured under one sun illumination conditions. Besides, incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) and UV-visible absorption analyses have confirmed that the superior light-harvesting capability of BaTiO3 micro flowers over TiO2 nanoparticles is observed in DSSC due to their favorable morphological features and increased visible light absorption properties along with the superior charge transport characteristics of nanorods. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd. More »»

2018

Journal Article

M. Raj Subramaniam, Dr. Duraisamy Kumaresan, Jothi, S., McGettrick, J. D., and Watson, T. M., “Reduced graphene oxide wrapped hierarchical TiO2 nanorod composites for improved charge collection efficiency and carrier lifetime in dye sensitized solar cells”, Applied Surface Science, vol. 428, pp. 439 - 447, 2018.[Abstract]


Three dimensional hierarchical TiO2 nanorods-reduced graphene oxide (HTNs-rGO) composites with different rGO wt% were directly grown on conducting glass substrate by an in situ hydrothermal process for improved charge separation and collection in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The crystal structure and chemical composition of as grown composites were confirmed by X-ray diffraction and optical studies. Electron microscopic studies on the composites surface morphologies revealed the formation of rGO wrapped or intertwined HTNs architectures onto the FTO substrates with thicknesses ranging from 14.33 to 15.70μm. 2wt% rGO loaded HTNs composite photoanode showed a superior power conversion efficiency of 4.54% as compared to the other wt% rGO loaded HTNs composite and bare HTNs photoanodes in DSSCs. This is due to optimal loading of rGO facilitating formation of a better charge transport channel within HTNs matrix and reducing charge transport resistance (Rtr), which resulted in a higher charge collection of HTNs-rGO composite. Besides, the solar cell current-voltage (J-V) and electrochemical impedance characterizations confirmed the superior light scattering and dye loading capabilities of HTNs, together with a low charge transport resistance and improved charge carrier lifetime in HTNs-rGO composites contributed to the photovoltaic performance enhancement of their DSSCs.

More »»

2018

Journal Article

M. S. Kumar, Yasoda, K. Y., Kumaresan, D., Kothurkar, N. K., and Batabyal, S. K., “TiO2-carbon quantum dots (CQD) nanohybrid: Enhanced photocatalytic activity”, Materials Research Express, vol. 5, 2018.[Abstract]


In situ synthesized carbon quantum dot (CQD)-titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanostructures were found to exhibit excellent photocatalytic dye degradation properties. CQDs were synthesized by solvothermal decomposition of PEG in basic pHin presence ofNaOHand their morphology and photophysical properties were studied. Nanostructures were produced by synthesizing CQDs in the presence of (a) commercial TiO2 [CQD/TiO2-P25] and (b) TiO2 precursor [CQD/TiO2] to obtain cosynthesized nanostructures. The photocatalytic properties of the hetero-structures, was also studied and compared with those of commercial TiO2-P25 and synthesized TiO2. The photocatalytic degradation rates of methylene blue were found to rise in the order of TiO2-P25 (2.00 × 10-3 min-1), synthesized TiO2 (6.7 × 10-3 min-1), CQD/TiO2-P25 (1.31 × 10-2 min-1) andCQD/TiO2 (3.6 × 10-2 min-1) respectively. The highest degradation rate forCQD/TiO2 among the samples is attributed to the superior interface between the CQDs and the TiO2, leading to higher interfacial charge transfer. The observed 18-fold increase in degradation rate forCQD/TiO2 over commercial TiO2-P25 photocatalyst and the over two-fold increase overCQD/TiO2-P25 photocatalyst, has significant techno-commercial implications, makingCQD/TiO2 a promising photocatalyst. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd. More »»

2018

Journal Article

M. Remanan, Shantanu Bhowmik, Varshney, L., and Dr. Jayanarayanan K., “Tungsten carbide, boron carbide and MWCNT reinforced polyaryl ether ketone nanocomposites: Morphology and thermomechanical behavior”, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, p. 47032, 2018.[Abstract]


This study involves the development and thermo-mechanical characterization of the individual, binary, and ternary nanocomposites using radiation resistant fillers like boron carbide (B4C), tungsten carbide (WC), and functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (F-MWCNT) in a high performance polymer, namely, poly aryl ether ketone (PAEK). Transmission electron microscopy studies revealed the distribution and dispersion of nanofillers in the matrix. It has been observed that the presence of WC and F-MWCNT in PAEK matrix significantly enhanced the tensile strength of the composite whereas B4C made it stiff and brittle in nature. The tensile property improvement caused by WC and F-MWCNT has been correlated with the tensile fracture surface morphology studies. Dynamic mechanical analysis provided insight into the positive effect of nanofillers in delaying the relaxation of polymer chains. The thermogravimetric analysis gave indications on the increase in the thermal stability of the nanocomposites with the increase of nanofillers content.

More »»

2018

Journal Article

R. Senthilkumar, Ramakrishnan, S., Balu, M., Ramamurthy, P. C., Kumaresan, D., and Kothurkar, N. K., “One-step hydrothermal synthesis of marigold flower-like nanostructured MoS2 as a counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells”, Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry, pp. 1-11, 2018.[Abstract]


MoS2 thin films with marigold flower-like nanostructures were grown on conductive fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) substrates through a one-step hydrothermal synthesis for their application as counter electrodes (CEs) in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Different MoS2 thin film samples (A–D) were grown on FTO slides using different concentrations of precursors (sodium molybdate and thioacetamide), while keeping the Mo/S molar ratio constant (1:4.6), in all samples. The effect of varying precursor concentrations (3.2–12.6 mM on MoS2 basis) on the structure of the nanostructured thin films and their performance as DSSC-CEs was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy revealed a material with an infolded petal-like morphology. With increasing precursor concentration, the petal-like structures tended to form bunched nanostructures (100–300 nm) resembling marigold flowers. X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray photoelectron, and Raman spectroscopy studies showed that the thin films were composed of hexagonal MoS2 with good crystallinity. Hall effect measurements revealed MoS2 to be a p-type semiconductor with a carrier mobility of 219.80 cm2 V−1 s−1 at room temperature. The electrochemical properties of the thin films were examined using cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The marigold flower-like MoS2 thin films showed excellent electrocatalytic activity towards the I¯/I3¯ reaction and low charge transfer resistance (Rct) values of 14.77 Ω cm−1, which was close to that of Pt electrode (12.30 Ω cm−1). The maximum power conversion efficiency obtained with MoS2 CE-based DSSCs was 6.32%, which was comparable to a Pt CE-based DSSC (6.38%) under one sun illumination. Similarly, the maximum incident photon-to-charge carrier efficiency exhibited by MoS2 CE-based DSSCs was 65.84%, which was also comparable to a Pt CE-based DSSC (68.38%). The study demonstrated that the marigold flower-like nanostructured MoS2 films are a promising alternative to the conventional Pt-based CEs in DSSCs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2018 Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

More »»

2018

Journal Article

N. Rasana and Jayanarayanan, K., “Experimental and micromechanical modeling of fracture toughness: MWCNT-reinforced polypropylene/glass fiber hybrid composites”, Journal of Thermoplastic Composite Materials, 2018.[Abstract]


In this study, polypropylene-based nano and hybrid composites are prepared with 20 wt% glass fiber and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) ranging up to 5 wt%. The multiaxial stress fields developed during external loading of composites cause crack propagation by various fracture mechanisms. Among the nanocomposites, it is observed that the critical stress intensity factor (KI) is highest for the one prepared at 3 wt% loading of MWCNTs. The synergistic effect of multiscale fillers in hybrid composite with MWCNT content of 3 wt% results in superior fracture toughness properties as evidenced by 16.6% increase in KI with respect to neat PP. Analytical expressions that take into account the fracture mechanisms like particle debonding and matrix yielding are employed to estimate the composite crack resistance and then compared with experimentally obtained fracture toughness properties. The fracture toughness properties are found to be dependent on composition of fillers, matrix yield strain, and debonding strain of the composites. © 2018, The Author(s) 2018.

More »»

2018

Journal Article

N. Rasana, Malavika, D., Aparna, R., Deepak, T., Haritha, P. S., and Dr. Jayanarayanan K., “Influence of multiphase fillers on the mechanical, transport and rheological properties of Polypropylene”, Materials Today Proceedings (Scopus), vol. 5, no. 8, Part 3, pp. 16478-16486, 2018.[Abstract]


Recently increasing importance has been paid to nano level reinforcements in composites as they can significantly improve the properties at very low level of loading. This study is focused to detail the synergistic effect of micro (glass fibre) and nano (nanosilica) fillers in polypropylene (PP) matrix. A significant increase of 26% in the tensile strength and a notable increase in storage modulus and complex viscosity was observed for the hybrid composite. It is seen that the network structure developed by the localization of nanosilica around glass fiber in PP matrix offered an exigent path for solvent penetration.

More »»

2018

Journal Article

R. Rashmi, Nedungadi, D., Podder, A., Dr. Nandita Mishra, and Bhuniya, S., “Monitoring of topoisomerase (I) inhibitor camptothecin release from endogenous redox-stimulated GO-polymer hybrid carrier.”, J Photochem Photobiol B, vol. 189, pp. 14-20, 2018.[Abstract]


We have developed endogenous redox-responsive polymer conjugated GO-based hybrid nanomaterials (GO-PEGssFol-CPT) for delivery of anticancer drug camptothecin (CPT) to the cancer cells. The synthesized intermediate (PEGFol) and CPT loaded GO- PEGFol were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and H NMR. The morphological feature changes of TEM and AFM images have confirmed the loading of CPT on the nanocarrier and its release from the nanocarrier. The amount of CPT was loaded was found to be 14.2%. The extent of camptothecin (CPT) release from GO-BiotinPVA-CPT in the presence of different concentrations of glutathione (GSH) was monitored with the increase in the fluorescence intensity at λ 438 nm and UV-Vis absorbance at 366 nm. The time-dependent camptothecin (CPT) release was monitored in the presence of GSH. It was noticed that CPT was completely released from GO-PEGssFol-CPT within 45 min. This release process is free from interference by other ubiquitous analytes in the living system. The constant fluorescence intensity of GO-PEGssFol-CPT against acidic pH indicated that CPT would not be released in the extracellular region of cancer cells. Therefore, such delivery system could be used to prevent unwanted cytotoxicity to the healthy cells. The GO-PEGssFol-CPT showed higher antiproliferative activity against cervical cancer cells compared to the CPT. Thus, GO-PEGssFol-CPT can be a new material to deliver the anticancer drug to the target tumor region.

More »»

2018

Journal Article

K. Govindan, Angelin, A., and Rangarajan, M., “Critical evaluation of mechanism responsible for biomass abatement during electrochemical coagulation (EC) process: A critical review.”, J Environ Manage, vol. 227, pp. 335-353, 2018.[Abstract]


This is a first review paper that delineates fundamental disinfection mechanism undergoes during the simple electrochemical coagulation (EC) process. The elucidation of detailed mechanistic phenomenon of EC process involved would help to enhance the disinfection efficiency. In this context, the biomass (bacteria, virus and algae) abatement mechanism by EC is critically reviewed and rationalized based on the experimental demonstration performed from the recent decade. Whereas, the effect of most significant abiotic operating parameters, dissolved contents and bacteria cell wall composition on biomass reduction are explored in detail. From these analyses, physical removal and chemical inactivation routes are identified for bacteria abatement mechanism during the EC process using sacrificial electrodes. Which includes (i) enmeshment of microbial contaminants by EC flocs, (ii) sweeping flocculation is preferentially for destabilization of negatively charged biomass, and (iii) inactivation/attenuation of micro-organism cell walls by electrochemically induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) or direct interaction of electric field. Perhaps, the overall abatement mechanism attributes due to the aforementioned phenomenon endures independently and/or synergistically during the EC process. Nonetheless, to obtain better understanding of virus and algae abatement mechanism, we require more experimental investigation on algae and virus removal. Eventually, more intensive research efforts on biomass attenuation by EC are most important to reinforce this claim.

More »»

2018

Journal Article

S. Sindhu, Dharani, S., Bhavanitha, V., and Pradhibha, S., “Preparation and characterization of nitrendipine loaded grafted copolymer microspheres: A preliminary study”, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 11, pp. 126-129, 2018.[Abstract]


Objectives: Developing countries like India suffers mostly from cardiovascular problems and kidney failure. An antihypertensive drug is mainly used to avoid the cardiovascular problems and kidney failure. Nitrendipine is a calcium antagonist widely used in the treatment of hypertension. The bioavailability of drug, when administered orally, is low. Sustained drug delivery systems are using microspheres emerging as an effective method to increase the bioavailability of the drug. The current work involves the encapsulation of nitrendipine - acrylamide grafted chitosan which helps to overcome poor solubility and hydrophobic nature of the nitrendipine. This will enhance the drug dissolution and reduce the side effects of the antihypertensive drug. Methods: By emulsion cross-linking method, grafted copolymers were prepared. The physicochemical interactions between the drug and grafted copolymer were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results: Encapsulated drug and grafted copolymer were characterized by FTIR to understand the chemical interactions and to identify the functional groups present. Morphology and particle size of the grafted copolymer with drug and without drug were assessed by SEM. DSC was used to identify the melting endotherms of a drug, copolymer cross-linked microspheres, and drug encapsulated microspheres. Conclusion: Thus, the drug encapsulated grafted copolymer increases the hydrophilic character and thereby making the polymers feasible for functioning as drug carriers for sustained drug delivery system. © 2018 The Authors.

More »»

2018

Journal Article

E. - J. Kim, Podder, A., Maiti, M., Lee, J. M., Chung, B. G., and Bhuniya, S., “Selective monitoring of vascular cell senescence via Β-Galactosidase detection with a fluorescent chemosensor”, Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical, vol. 274, pp. 194-200, 2018.[Abstract]


A new senescence-responsive fluorescent probe (SRP) was developed for the detection of β-galactosidase activity in senescent cells. UV-absorption of t probe SRP at 495 nm was increased in the presence of β-galactosidase. Its fluorescence at λem 545 nm increased ∼27-fold upon incubation with β-galactosidase (0.1 U/mL). The SRP probe is non-toxic and highly chemoselective for β-galactosidase. The high cell viability and chemoselcivity of probe SRP offer it to be a suitable marker for assessing cell senescence in live cells. Using this probe, H2O2-induced cellular senescence of human umbilical vein cells (HUVECs) could be distinguished from normal cells based on the extent of fluorescent labeling of the cells. Moreover, it was preferentially localized in acidic lysosomes. Overall, SRP is a unique chemosensor that can provide preclinical information on cell senescence in vascular endothelial cells. © 2018 Elsevier B.V.

More »»

2018

Journal Article

Mahendra Naktuji Nadanwar, “A modelling and simulation study of solublelead redox flow battery: Effect of presence of free convection on the batterycharacteristics”, Journal of Power Sources, 2018.

2018

Journal Article

A. Padanattil, Lakshmanan, M., Dr. Jayanarayanan K., and Dr. Mini K. M., “Strengthening of Plain Concrete Cylinders with Natural FRP Composite Systems”, Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions of Civil Engineering, pp. 1-9, 2018.[Abstract]


This paper reports the performance of plain concrete cylinders confined externally with fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites with natural sisal as the reinforcement. Strength tests are performed on plain concrete cylinders confined with different sisal FRP thicknesses such as 1, 2 and 3 layers. The results show that external confinement with sisal FRP enhanced the axial load-carrying capacity, ductility and energy absorption of concrete compared to control specimens. For predicting the ultimate strength of sisal FRP-confined concrete a new strength equation was developed based on the lateral confining pressure of sisal FRP which shows a good agreement with the experimental results. To assess the durability criteria, sisal FRP-filled concrete specimens are exposed to severe environmental factors such as variation in temperature, alternate wet and dry cycling and exposure to alkaline condition. The outcomes indicate that sisal FRP-confined specimen subjected to temperature variation has shown a remarkable increase in strength, whereas alkaline exposure has exhibited a decrease in strength.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

Y. Zhou, Bobba, K. Naidu, Lv, X. Wei, Yang, D., Velusamy, N., Zhang, J. Feng, and Bhuniya, S., “A biotinylated piperazine-rhodol derivative: a 'turn-on' probe for nitroreductase triggered hypoxia imaging”, Analyst, p. -, 2017.[Abstract]


We developed a nitroreductase responsive theranostic probe 1; it comprises biotinylated rhodol in conjunction with p-nitrobenzyl functionality. The probe 1 showed a remarkable fluorescence {'}turn-on{'} signal in the presence of nitroreductase under physiological conditions. The probe is considerably stable within a wide biological pH range (6-8) and also is very sensitive toward a reducing micro-environment e.g. liver microsome. Further{,} it enables providing cellular and in vivo nematode images in a reducing microenvironment. More »»

2017

Journal Article

Aa Padanattil, Dr. Jayanarayanan K., and Dr. Mini K. M., “Novel hybrid composites based on glass and sisal fiber for retrofitting of reinforced concrete structures”, Construction and Building Materials, vol. 133, pp. 146-153, 2017.[Abstract]


In this work an attempt has been made to assess the efficacy of hybrid composite system as a potential choice for the retrofitting of reinforced concrete structures. The combination of synthetic and natural fibers are used for the external confinement of concrete cylinders. A comparative performance analysis of hybrid sisal-glass fiber reinforced polymer (HSGFRP) confinement vis a vis carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP), glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) and sisal reinforced polymer (SFRP) individual confinement is carried out. The axial compressive behaviour, stress-strain response and energy absorption characteristics are studied. The inclusion of sisal fibers along with glass fiber is found to improve the energy absorption characteristics. For predicting the ultimate strength of HSGFRP confined concrete, a new equation was developed based on the lateral confining pressure which shows good agreement with the experimental results. Durability performance studies indicated that exposure to wet/dry conditions and temperature variations resulted an increase in strength for all FRP confined specimens and whereas it decreased for unconfined ones. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

More »»

2017

Journal Article

B. L. P. Dheeraj Swamy, Raghavan, V., Srinivas, K., K Rao, N., Lakshmanan, M., Dr. Jayanarayanan K., and Dr. Mini K. M., “Influence Of Silica Based Carbon Nano Tube Composites In Concrete”, Advanced Composites Letters, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 12-17, 2017.[Abstract]


This study focuses on the utilization of highly densified materials in cementitious composites with objectives of improving the mechanical performance and minimizing the number and size of defects. Due to their excellent mechanical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are now viewed as potential candidate for reinforcement in cement composites. The present paper reports the use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as reinforcement to improve the mechanical properties of portland cement paste and creating multifunctional concrete. In order to increase the bonding, and strength, a material with intermediate fineness, highly densified silica fumes, was also utilized. The densified silica fumes along with CNT are added to cement mortar in various proportions. Small-scale specimens were prepared to measure the mechanical properties as a function of nanotube concentration and distribution. Furthermore, properties like shrinkage, permeability and alkalinity of the resultant composite were also investigated. The study addresses the significance of CNT as an additive to the enhancement of properties of cement composite. More »»

2017

Journal Article

Ya Zhou, Bobba, K. Nb, Lv, X. Wa, Yang, Da, Velusamy, Nb, Zhang, J. Fc, and Bhuniya, S., “A biotinylated piperazine-rhodol derivative: A 'turn-on' probe for nitroreductase triggered hypoxia imaging”, Analyst, vol. 142, pp. 345-350, 2017.[Abstract]


We developed a nitroreductase responsive theranostic probe 1; it comprises biotinylated rhodol in conjunction with p-nitrobenzyl functionality. The probe 1 showed a remarkable fluorescence 'turn-on' signal in the presence of nitroreductase under physiological conditions. The probe is considerably stable within a wide biological pH range (6-8) and also is very sensitive toward a reducing micro-environment e.g. liver microsome. Further, it enables providing cellular and in vivo nematode images in a reducing microenvironment. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2017.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

Dr. Rajathilagam B. and Rangarajan, M., “Edge detection using G-lets based on matrix factorization by group representations”, Pattern Recognition, vol. 67, pp. 1-15, 2017.[Abstract]


A new edge detection technique using transformation groups based G-lets filters is proposed in this paper. Discretizing gradients seem to produce discontinuity in classic edge detectors. No particular filter is capable of identifying meaningful edges at all scales and it increases computations with a multiscale approach. It is a challenge to get localized edges without spurious ones due to noise and integrate the obtained edges into meaningful object boundaries. Without breaking edge continuity and strictly localizing edges requires that filters do not blur the image during preprocessing. G-lets filters are found to be capable of performing well in most type of images including natural, noisy, low resolution and synthetic. In this paper, an edge detection algorithm using G-lets filters which are built by direct factorization of linear transformation matrices using irreducible representations is proposed. A multiresolution approach is shown to enhance the possibility of detecting faint edges. An edge tracing algorithm is presented to produce the edge image. The computational cost involved is comparatively lesser than existing filters. It is found that the geometries in the original image are preserved in the edge image. The edge tracing algorithm is capable of constructing object boundaries without the inner textures in a way that is not completely dependent on intensity thresholding. G-lets filters and the edge operator is found to be a promising algorithm for drastically bringing down the computations needed for realtime applications. The results are compared with BSDS500 boundary detection dataset using pb and global pb detectors. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

K. Govindan, Chandran, H. T., Raja, M., Maheswari, S. U., and Rangarajan, M., “Electron scavenger-assisted photocatalytic degradation of amido black 10B dye with Mn3O4 nanotubes: A response surface methodology study with central composite design”, Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry, vol. 341, pp. 146-156, 2017.[Abstract]


In this present work, visible-light-sensitive Mn3O4 photocatalyst has been synthesized using a simple hydrothermal route and the photocatalyst has been characterized by XRD, FT-IR, UV-vis DRS and SEM-EDX techniques. These studies show the formation of Mn3O4 nanotubes assembled into fused rod-like structures with good crystallinity and an optical bandgap of 1.81 eV. The photocatalytic performance of Mn3O4 in the absence and presence of electron scavenger (ES) such as peroxomonosulfate (PMS), peroxodisulfate (PDS) and hydrogen peroxide (HP) has also been analyzed in detail. The results reveal that merely 25% photodegradation efficiency is achieved by Mn3O4 photocatalysis. However, the photodegradation efficiency is significantly amplified up to 80% by Mn3O4 photocatalysis in the presence of PDS as an ES. Mn3O4 with PDS exhibits higher photodegradation efficiency than PMS and HP. The possible mechanisms of dye degradation by the photocatalyst in the absence and presence of electron scavengers and the significance of the obtained results are discussed. To identify the effects of experimental factors involved in photocatalytic degradation of amido black 10B dye, a response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD) has been employed. The factors that most significantly affect the degradation process are identified as the choice of electron scavenger, amount of photocatalyst added, and the irradiation time. A quadratic model has been developed based on the RSM analysis and has been found effective in predicting the degradation performance. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

N. Ashok, Dr. Meera Balachandran, Lawrence, F., and Sebastian, N., “EPDM-chlorobutyl rubber blends in γ-radiation and hydrocarbon environment: Mechanical, transport, and ageing behavior”, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 2017.[Abstract]


In nuclear applications, ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber is the material of choice as gaskets and O-rings due to its radiations resistance. In nuclear fuel reprocessing, in addition to radiation, the elastomeric components have to withstand paraffinic hydrocarbons as well. But, EPDM has poor resistance to hydrocarbons. To enhance the durability of EPDM in such environments, EPDM-chlorobutyl rubber (CIIR) blends of varying compositions were developed and characterized for mechanical, thermal, dielectric, and solvent sorption behavior. Spectroscopic and morphological analysis was used to evaluate the compatibility of blends. Due to synergistic effect, the optimal composition of blends with superior mechanical properties and solvent resistance were found to be 60 to 80% EPDM and 20 to 40% CIIR. The optimized blends were irradiated with gamma rays at cumulative doses up to 2 MGy. Based on spectroscopic, morphological, mechanical, thermogravimetric, and sorption properties, blend containing 80% EPDM was found to have superior retention of properties after irradiation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

A. A. Shankar, Pentapati, P. R., and Dr. Krishna Prasad R., “Biodiesel synthesis from cottonseed oil using homogeneous alkali catalyst and using heterogeneous multi walled carbon nanotubes: Characterization and blending studies”, Egyptian Journal of Petroleum, vol. 26, pp. 125-133, 2017.[Abstract]


The trans-esterification of cottonseed oil using strong alkali catalyst and using multi walled carbon nano tubes as catalyst to produce biodiesel was studied. The interaction effects of various factors such as temperature, amount of alkali used, alcohol to oil ratio and reaction time on yield of biodiesel were studied. The maximum yield of 95% biodiesel was obtained. The biodiesel produced was characterized using FT-IR spectral analysis and GC–MS analysis to ascertain the various functional groups and compounds available in it. The properties of biodiesel using homogeneous alkali catalyst and heterogeneous multi walled carbon nanotubes such as calorific value (36.18&nbsp;MJ/kg, 33.78&nbsp;MJ/kg), flash point (160&nbsp;°C, 156&nbsp;°C) and other properties such as viscosity, cloud point, pour point and density were found to determine the quality of biodiesel produced. The studies were done by blending the biodiesel produced with diesel and properties of blended samples were estimated to ascertain the use of blended samples in internal combustion engines. © 2016 Egyptian Petroleum Research Institute

More »»

2017

Journal Article

Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan and Murali, S. S., “Virtual lab: An adequate multi-modality learning channel for enhancing students’ perception in chemistry”, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol. 574, pp. 419-433, 2017.[Abstract]


This paper investigates the instructional effectiveness of learning modalities towards enhancing learners’ conceptual understanding of crystal field theory (CFT) using a multimedia rich platform such as Virtual Laboratory. The virtual laboratory in the present work has integrated modalities such as graphics, images, animations, videos and simulations for simultaneous demonstration of concepts related to CFT. This study aims to evaluate the impact of these modalities on the learning outcomes of visual, auditory and kinesthetic learners irrespective of their preferred learning modality. A case study of 524 undergraduate chemistry students from four higher educational institutes was carried out as part of the evaluation. Assessment of knowledge, conceptual understanding, application and analysis with and without the virtual lab platform was done using assessment quizzes. Results showed that students that underwent a combination of visual, auditory and kinesthetic learning modalities within virtual lab environment had significantly improved their understanding resulting in better performance. The study also characterizes the effectiveness of integrated modalities on the enhancement of learning amongst the three types of learners. © Springer International Publishing AG 2017.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

M. Remanan, Dr. Kannan M., Rao, R. Subba, Shantanu Bhowmik, Lalit Varshney, Mathew Abraham, and Dr. Jayanarayanan K., “Microstructure Development, Wear Characteristics and Kinetics of Thermal Decomposition of Hybrid Nanocomposites Based on Poly Aryl Ether Ketone, Boron Carbide and Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes”, Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers, pp. 1–15, 2017.[Abstract]


In the present study a high performance polymer poly aryl ether ketone (PAEK) is reinforced with micro and nano boron carbide (B4C) and functionalized multi walled carbon nanotubes (F-MWCNT) to investigate the individual and hybrid effect of the fillers. Optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy suggested the dispersion of micro and nano fillers respectively in PAEK matrix. The inclusion of B4C nano fillers increased the hardness of the composites which aided the wear resistance of the composites. The morphological features of the worn surface of the samples are analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. It is found from the izod impact test analysis that the impact strength of the composite enhanced by the F-MWCNT inclusion. The thermal properties of PAEK in the composites are studied using differential scanning calorimetry and it revealed dominant effect of F-MWCNT influencing the thermal transitions than the B4C particles. The kinetics of thermal degradation of various composites is analyzed using Coats–Redfern method. The positive influence of B4C in the matrix indicates that the thermal degradation is delayed due to the higher activation energy it possesses. The overall results shows that the hybrid nanocomposite exhibits better properties compared to individual micro and nano composites.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

J. Selvaraj, P. Marimuthu, Dr. Sriram Devanathan, and Dr. K. I. Ramachandran, “Mathematical modelling of raw material preheating by energy recycling method in metal casting process”, Pollution Research, vol. 36, pp. 217-228, 2017.[Abstract]


Modern economic development programs critically depend on reliable supply of energy. Energy conservation has become the need of the hour. Metal casting industry in one among the many industries which uses a lot of energy for its production. This paper presents a novel method of energy recycling in the sand casting process, which readily translates into substantial energy conservation in foundries. The heat that is being wasted into sand during the solidification process is used to preheat the raw material that is melted, for the subsequent pouring. The influence of the casting parameters such as, offset distance, moisture content in the molding sand, and the insulator thickness on the temperature gain by the raw material, have been analyzed. A mathematical model was developed via statistical analysis of the experimental data, to predict the amount of heat recovered from the solidifying molten metal, for any specific combination of values for the experimental parameters. The predicted values are in good agreement with the experimental values.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

N. Rasana and Dr. Jayanarayanan K., “Polypropylene/short Glass Fiber/nanosilica Hybrid Composites: Evaluation of Morphology, Mechanical, Thermal, and Transport Properties”, Polymer Bulletin IF:1.430, pp. 1-19, 2017.[Abstract]


In this work, the effect of incorporation of glass fiber and nanosilica separately and in combination in a thermoplastic matrix is investigated. Individual micro, nano, and hybrid multiphase composites based on polypropylene were prepared via twin screw extrusion followed by injection molding. The glass fiber content was maintained at 10&nbsp;wt{%} and nanosilica level was fixed at 4&nbsp;wt{%}. The microstructure of the hybrid composite indicated the presence of nanosilica surrounding the glass fibers. Higher tensile strength and modulus was reported for hybrid composite, followed by micro and nanocomposite. The differential scanning calorimetry studies suggested that the presence of glass fibers could hasten the crystallization of PP in comparison with nanosilica. The thermal degradation studies for hybrid composite exhibited a prominent thermal stability. The delayed diffusion of solvent in hybrid composite was observed due to the confinement regions generated by the combination of micro and nanofillers.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

Nithya K., Sathish, A., Kumar, P. S., and Ramachandran, T., “An insight into the prediction of biosorption mechanism, and isotherm, kinetic and thermodynamic studies for Ni(II) ions removal from aqueous solution using acid treated biosorbent: The Lantana camara fruit”, Desalination and Water Treatment, vol. 80, pp. 276-287, 2017.[Abstract]


The study focuses on exploring the binding mechanisms of Ni(II) ions and determining the maximum uptake capacity of the biosorbent. The fresh biosorbent was subjected to sulfuric acid treatment to enhance the porosity and to introduce the specific sulfonic groups onto the surfaces of the biosorbent. Characterization techniques like scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis were utilized to understand the biosorption mechanisms. The results exhibit the likelihood of both physical and chemical interactions of the biosorbent with the Ni(II) ions. Out of the isotherm models investigated, Langmuir model presented a better fit to the experimental data favoring monolayer adsorption. In addition, intra-particle diffusion model revealed the possibility of both pore and film diffusion. Compared with pseudo–first-order model, pseudo-second-order kinetic model obtained a better fit. The outcome of the thermodynamic studies showed the exothermic nature of the biosorption process with a negative enthalpy value (ΔH°). Additionally, it is also significant to note that the adsorption of Ni(II) ions was favored only at lower temperatures. A maximum removal efficiency of 97% was observed for 25 mg/L Ni(II) solution. Moreover, the results of the desorption studies using 0.3 N HCl were also encouraging, with a removal efficiency of almost 91%. © 2017 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

Nithya K., Sathish, A., P. Kumar, S., and Ramachandran, T., “Functional group-assisted green synthesised superparamagnetic nanoparticles for the rapid removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution”, IET Nanobiotechnology, vol. 11, no. 7, pp. 852-860, 2017.[Abstract]


Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (NPs) prepared using the capping agent derived from the Lantana camara fruit extract were used to study the adsorption of chromium ions. Characterisation techniques such as scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive X-ray, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to study the NP features and adsorption mechanisms. The maximum monolayer adsorption capacity calculated from the Langmuir isotherm was found to be 41 mg/g. The chemical nature of the adsorption is confirmed with the results of Dubinin-Radushkevich model and thermodynamic studies. In addition, thermodynamically favourable and spontaneous adsorption is considered to be a good indication for the removal of metal ions. Out of the kinetic models investigated, the experiments exhibited the best fit to pseudo-second-order model, advocating for surface-based adsorption, involving both physical and chemical interactions. It is also significant to note that 85% of the adsorption occurs in the first 10 min, and hence the selected adsorbent is also claimed for rapid removal of metal ions. The newly synthesised adsorbent hence possesses remarkable properties in terms of simple synthesising technique, low cost, rapid uptake and improved efficiency without generating harmful byproducts. © The Institution of Engineering and Technology 2017.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

N. Rasana, “Effect of compatibilizer and carbon nanotubes on blends of Polypropylene and Nylon 6: Accepted for Publication (Article in Press)”, Materials Today Proceedings (Scopus) , 2017.

2017

Journal Article

Nithya K., Dr. Asha Sathish, P. Kumar, S., and Dr. Ramachandran T., “Fast kinetics and high adsorption capacity of green extract capped superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for the adsorption of Ni(II) ions”, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry (IF – 4.4), 2017.[Abstract]


Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized using co-precipitation technique by dissolving required stoichiometric proportions (1:2) of Fe2+ and Fe3+ salts in water. Lantana camara extract and ammonia solution were used as the stabilizing and precipitating agents, respectively. The prepared particles were characterized using FTIR, TGA, PSA, SEM–EDAX and zeta potential analysis. This material was successfully adopted for the removal of Ni(II) ions from aqueous solution and the process parameters were optimized. The results indicated the faster kinetics and a remarkably higher adsorption capacity of 227.20mg/g at a pH of 6.0 and an adsorbent dose of 0.05g.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

Sindhu S., ,, Suresh, S., and Ramani, P., “Physico-chemical Studies of Amoxycillin Loaded Sulfonated Polymer”, Materials Today Proceedings , 2017.

2016

Journal Article

D. Aravind and Dr. Krishna Prasad R., “Film pore diffusion modeling and contact time optimization for adsorption of distillery spentwash on fly ash”, Desalination and Water Treatment, pp. 1-9, 2016.[Abstract]


The contact time in two batch adsorbers were optimized using unreacted shrinking core model for the adsorption of biopolymeric pigments in distillery spentwash by fly ash adsorbent. The total optimal contact time obtained was 40 min for 3&nbsp;m3 adsorbate volume having initial biopolymer concentration of 1.5&nbsp;mg/dm3. The film pore diffusion model was used to determine the external mass transfer coefficient, effective diffusion coefficient, and bed capacity for continuous adsorption process. The adsorbent bed capacities at different initial biopolymeric concentrations (2,000, 5,500, 8,700, and 12,500&nbsp;mg/ml) are 69.26, 114.41, 143.64, and 172&nbsp;mg/g, respectively. The effective diffusion coefficients at various bed heights were determined for continuous adsorption process. © 2016 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

More »»

2016

Journal Article

Nithya K., Dr. Asha Sathish, Kumar, PcSenthil, and Dr. Ramachandran T., “Biosorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution using raw and acid-treated biosorbent prepared from Lantana camara fruit”, Desalination and Water Treatment, vol. 57, no. 27, pp. 25097-25113, 2016.[Abstract]


The aim of the present investigation was to explore the performance of the acid-treated Lantana camara fruit biosorbent in binding hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions. FTIR studies revealed the contribution of carbohydrates, glycosides, and flavonoids in the biosorbent. EDS analysis exhibited the occurrence of chromium ions after biosorption, whereas SEM image exposed the enhancement of porosity after acid treatment. The isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin–Radushkevich, and Temkin models were studied to depict the mechanism of interaction of the biosorbent with the adsorbate. Besides isotherm models, kinetic studies like pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were also performed to validate the controlling mechanism of biosorption. Langmuir model showed a better fit favoring monolayer adsorption and a high correlation value from the pseudo-second-order model suggests chemisorption. To understand whether the biosorption process releases or absorbs energy, thermodynamic analysis was carried out. The outcome of the findings showed endothermic nature of the process with increased randomness at the solid solution interface. Regeneration studies showed better results with 0.2&nbsp;M NaOH solutions. The obtained maximum uptake capacity of 83&nbsp;mg/g with a minimal biomass dosage proves the credible potential of the selected biosorbent in removing toxic hexavalent chromium. © 2016 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

More »»

2016

Journal Article

E. J. Jelmy, Ramakrishnan, S., and Dr. Nikhil K. Kothurkar, “EMI shielding and microwave absorption behavior of Au-MWCNT/polyaniline nanocomposites”, Polymers for Advanced Technologies, 2016.[Abstract]


Electrically conducting Au-multiwalled carbon nanotube/polyaniline (Au-MWCNT/PANi) nanocomposites were synthesized by two different ways: (1) by direct mixing of MWCNT/PANi and Au nanoparticles (Au-MWCNT/PANi-1) and (2) by in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of both MWCNTs and Au nanoparticles (Au-MWCNT/PANi-2). The higher electrical conductivity of Au-MWCNT/PANi-2 compared with the other samples (PANi, MWCNT/PANi, Au-MWCNT/PANi-1) is supported by the red shifts of the UV-vis bands (polaron/bipolaron), the high value of the -NH+= stretch peak (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies), the high % crystallinity (X-ray diffraction analysis) and more uniform dispersion of the Au NPs in the material. The performance of the samples in electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding and microwave absorption was studied in the X-band (8-12GHz). For all the samples, absorption was the dominant factor contributing toward the EMI shielding. Au-MWCNT/PANi-2 showed the best performance with a total shielding effectiveness of -16dB [averaged over the X-band (GHz)] and a minimum reflection loss of -56.5dB. The higher dielectric properties resulting from the heterogeneities because of the presence of nanofillers and the high electrical conductivity lead to the increased EMI shielding and microwave absorption. The results show the significance of both Au nanoparticles and method of synthesis on the EMI shielding performance of MWCNT/PANi composites.

More »»

2016

Journal Article

N. Sankar, Reddy, M. N., and R. Prasad, K., “Carbon nanotubes dispersed polymer nanocomposites: Mechanical, electrical, thermal properties and surface morphology”, Bulletin of Materials Science, vol. 39, pp. 47-55, 2016.[Abstract]


The various properties and surface morphology of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dispersed polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) matrix were studied to determine their usefulness in various applications. The tensile strength, Young's modulus and electrical breakdown strength of CNT/polymer composites were 0.35 MPa, 1.2 MPa and 8.1 kV, respectively. The thermal conductivity and dielectric constant for the material having 4.28 wt% CNT were 0.225 W m-1 K-1 and 2.329, respectively. The CNT/polymer composites are promising functional composites with improved mechanical and electrical properties. The scanning electron microscope analysis of surface morphology of PDMS/CNT composite showed that the rough surface texture on nanocomposite has large surface area with circular pores. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the functional groups present in polymer nanocomposite. © 2016 Indian Academy of Sciences.

More »»

2016

Journal Article

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Thomas, Sb, and K. Joseph, “Effect of blend ratio on the dynamic mechanical and thermal degradation behavior of polymer–polymer composites from low density polyethylene and polyethylene terephthalate”, Iranian Polymer Journal (English Edition), vol. 25, pp. 373-384, 2016.[Abstract]


Microfibrillar polymer–polymer composites (MFCs) based on low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were prepared by cold drawing-isotropization technique. The weight percentage of PET was varied from 5 to 45 %. Microfibrils with uniform diameter distribution were obtained at 15 to 25 wt% of PET as evident from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results. Dynamic mechanical properties such as storage modulus (E′), loss modulus (E″) damping behavior (tan δ) were examined as a function of blend composition. The E′ values were found to be increasing up to 25 wt% of PET. An effort was made to model the storage modulus and damping characteristics of the MFCs using the classical equations used for short-fiber reinforced composites. The presence of PET microfibrils influenced the damping characteristics of the composite. The peak height at the β-transitions of loss modulus was lower for MFCs with 25 % PET, showing that they had superior damping characteristics. This phenomenon could be correlated with the PET microfibrils morphology. The thermal degradation characteristics of LDPE, neat blends and microfibrillar blends (MFBs) were compared. The determination of activation energy for thermal degradation was carried out using the Horowitz and Metzger method. The activation energy for thermal degradation of microfibrillar blends was found to be higher than that for the corresponding neat blends and MFCs. The long PET microfibrils present in MFBs could prevent the degradation and enhance the activation energy. © 2016, Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute.

More »»

2016

Journal Article

Ra Rajan, Varghese, Sa, Dr. Meera Balachandran, and George, K. Ec, “Response surface methodology: A tool for assessing the role of compounding ingredients in peroxide vulcanization of natural rubber”, Rubber Chemistry and Technology, vol. 89, pp. 211-226, 2016.[Abstract]


Response surface methodology was used for assessing the role of various compounding ingredients, including zinc oxide, antioxidant, coagent, oil, and filler, in peroxide vulcanization of natural rubber. A face-centered central composite design with four factors at three different levels was used to obtain the relationship between vulcanizate properties and the level of ingredients. The four factors selected were filler and oil ratio and the contents of zinc oxide, antioxidant, and coagent. The filler and oil ratio was kept constant throughout the experiment. The vulcanizates were evaluated for their mechanical properties: tensile strength, elongation, modulus (M100), tear strength, hardness, compression set (70 and 100°C), and crosslink density. Regression equations were generated to model the properties of interest, and response surfaces and contour diagrams were plotted. © 2016, Rubber Division of the American Chemical Society. More »»

2016

Journal Article

M. Kumar Pitchan, Shantanu Bhowmik, Dr. Meera Balachandran, and Abraham, M., “Effect of Surface Functionalization on Mechanical Properties and Decomposition Kinetics of High Performance Polyetherimide/MWCNT Nano Composites”, Journal of Composites Part A Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 90, pp. 147-160, 2016.[Abstract]


In this investigation, Polyetherimide (PEI) reinforced with multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) using novel melt blending technique. Surface of MWCNTs are modified by acid treatment as well as by plasma treatment. PEI nano composites with 2 wt % treated MWCNT shows about 15 % improvement in mechanical properties when compared to unfilled PEI. The thermal decomposition kinetics of PEI/MWCNT nano composites has been critically analyzed by using Coats – Redfern model. The increase in activation energy for thermal degradation by 699 kJ /mol for 2 wt% MWCNT implies improvement in the thermal properties of PEI. Studies under Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) depict significant interfacial adhesion with uniform dispersion of MWCNT in polymer matrix due to surface functionalization. 0.5 wt% chemically modified MWCNT shows typical alignment of MWCNT. There is a significant improvement in mechanical properties and thermal properties for surface functionalized MWCNT reinforced. More »»

2016

Journal Article

Y. K. Yasoda, Bobba, K. Naidu, Nedungadi, D., Dutta, D., M. Kumar, S., Kothurkar, N., Dr. Nandita Mishra, and Bhuniya, S., “GSH-responsive biotinylated poly(vinyl alcohol)-grafted GO as a nanocarrier for targeted delivery of camptothecin”, RSC Adv., vol. 6, pp. 62385-62389, 2016.[Abstract]


A water-soluble and biocompatible polymer{,} i.e. biotinylated poly(vinyl alcohol)-grafted graphene oxide (GO){,} was used as a nanocarrier for targeted delivery of anticancer drug camptothecin (CPT). The extent of CPT release in the presence of glutathione (GSH) from GO-biotinPVA-CPT was monitored by the increase in the fluorescence intensity{,} at [small lambda]max = 450 nm. The cell-specific (HeLa) antiproliferative activity of GO-biotinPVA-CPT makes it suitable to be used for targeted delivery of chemotherapeutics to cancerous cells. More »»

2016

Journal Article

M. Remanan, Rao, R. S., Shantanu Bhowmik, Lalit Varshney, Mathew Abraham, and Dr. Jayanarayanan K., “Hybrid Nanocomposites based on poly aryl ether ketone, boron carbide and multi walled carbon nanotubes: Evaluation of thermo mechanical properties”, E-Polymers, vol. 16, pp. 493-503, 2016.[Abstract]


In this study an attempt has been made to incorporate a radiation resistant filler like boron carbide (B4C) nanopowder along with multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in a high performance polymer namely poly aryl ether ketone (PAEK) for potential applications in the nuclear industry. The dispersion of nanofillers in PAEK was established by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Infra red (IR) spectroscopy indicated the interaction between functionalized MWCNT (F-MWCNT) and PAEK. The optimum combination of B4C and F-MWCNT was obtained from the tensile property analysis. It was found from the dynamic mechanical analysis that the storage modulus of the composite at elevated temperature was enhanced by B4C inclusions. Mechanical damping factor spectra showed the shift of PAEK glass transition temperature to higher values due to the presence of B4C and F-MWCNT. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) presented the resistance offered by B4C to the degradation of PAEK especially at elevated temperatures.

More »»

2016

Journal Article

A. Jayakrishnan, Kavitha, D., Arthi, A., Nagarajan, N., and Dr. Meera Balachandran, “Simulation of electric field distribution in nanodielectrics based on XLPE”, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 2381-2386, 2016.[Abstract]


Recently, there has been a growing interest in the use of nano-sized fillers in order to enhance the properties of a material. The mechanical, barrier and electrical properties of polymers can be enhanced by use of nanofillers in appropriate amounts. The tremendous improvement in polymer properties on incorporation of nanoparticles arises from large interfacial area and large interfacial interaction between the nanofiller and the polymer matrix. There is several reported literature on the influence of nanofillers on dielectric properties of polymeric insulators, mainly epoxy resins. Literature on theoretical analysis for determining the influence of fillers and the dependence of its size, shape and composition on the electrical properties of the composite are limited. Cross linked polyethylene (XLPE) is widely used as insulation in underground high tension cables. The life of cables can be extended by delaying the breakdown of insulation. The breakdown of insulation depends on the distribution of electrical stress in insulation. The electric field and stress distribution in polymer insulation can be altered by adding nanoparticles, depending on permittivity of the nanofiller and its weight percentage in the polymer. This paper attempts to simulate the electric field distribution in XLPE and the effect of different kinds of nanofillers, namely nanoclay, nanosilica and nanoclacium carbonate on the same. Simulations were also performed in COMSOL Multiphysics software to evaluate the effect of nanofiller content on electrical field distribution in XLPE. It was found that the composite with the highest difference in the electric field values between the polymer and the nanofiller offers the best resistance against electric field propagation and that the dielectric properties of the nanocomposites become better with increased amount of nanofillers. However, at a very high weight percentage, the properties of the composite deteriorate due to the fact that for higher weight percentage the inter-particle distance reduces allowing for more agglomeration. The nano-filler with the highest difference is found to be nano-silica. More »»

2016

Journal Article

R. Kumar, Kim, E. - J., Han, J., Lee, H., Shin, W. Sup, Kim, H. Min, Bhuniya, S., Kim, J. Seung, and Hong, K. Soo, “Hypoxia-directed and activated theranostic agent: Imaging and treatment of solid tumor.”, Biomaterials, vol. 104, pp. 119-28, 2016.[Abstract]


Hypoxia, a distinguished feature of various solid tumors, has been considered as a key marker for tumor progression. Inadequate vasculature and high interstitial pressures result in relatively poor drug delivery to these tumors. Herein, we developed an antitumor theranostic agent, 4, which is activated in hypoxic conditions and can be used for the diagnosis and treatment of solid tumors. Compound 4, bearing biotin, a tumor-targeting unit, and SN38, an anticancer drug, proved to be an effective theranostic agent for solid tumors. SN38 plays a dual role: as an anticancer drug for therapy and as a fluorophore for diagnosis, thus avoids an extra fluorophore and limits cytotoxicity. Compound 4, activated in the hypoxic environment, showed high therapeutic activity in A549 and HeLa cells and spheroids. In vivo imaging of solid tumors confirmed the tumor-specific localization, deep tissue penetration and activation of compound 4, as well as the production of a strong anticancer effect through the inhibition of tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model validating it as a promising strategy for the treatment of solid tumors. More »»

2016

Journal Article

D. Dutta, Alex, S. M., Bobba, K. Naidu, Maiti, K. Kumar, and Bhuniya, S., “New Insight into a Cancer Theranostic Probe: Efficient Cell-Specific Delivery of SN-38 Guided by Biotinylated Poly(vinyl alcohol)”, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 8, pp. 33430-33438, 2016.[Abstract]


An optically modulated “turn-on” theranostic prodrug TP1 has been explored and formulated with biotinylated poly(vinyl alcohol) (biotinPVA) to obtain desired pharmacokinetics. TP1, consisting of the antineoplastic camptothecin analogue SN-38, and the fluorescent dye rhodol green have been covalently conjugated through a disulfide bond. Glutathione triggering the release of drug and fluorophore has been well established by UV–vis measurements through mass spectral analysis in physiological conditions. The biocompatible biotinPVA formulated prodrug (PTP1) showed remarkably higher stability against blood serum and cell-specific activation in contrast to that of TP1. Significantly, PTP1 permits monitoring of the delivery and release of well-known topoisomerase I inhibitor SN-38 by modulating fluorescence signal at λem 550 nm within intracellular milieus. Moreover, theranostic probe PTP1 exhibited dose-dependent antiproliferative activity against receptor-positive HeLa cells, whereas it did not show such an effect against receptor-negative NIH3T3 cells. Finally, the cell-specific antiproliferative activity of PTP1 via the apoptotic pathway is an efficient approach in cancer theranostics. Thus, futuristic PTP1 could be a promising agent in which diagnostic and prognostic data will be monitored synergistically. More »»

2016

Journal Article

R. Kumar, Kim, E. - J., Han, J., Lee, H., Shin, W. Sup, Kim, H. Min, Bhuniya, S., Kim, J. Seung, and Hong, K. Soo, “Hypoxia-directed and activated theranostic agent: Imaging and treatment of solid tumor”, Biomaterials, vol. 104, pp. 119 - 128, 2016.[Abstract]


Abstract Hypoxia, a distinguished feature of various solid tumors, has been considered as a key marker for tumor progression. Inadequate vasculature and high interstitial pressures result in relatively poor drug delivery to these tumors. Herein, we developed an antitumor theranostic agent, 4, which is activated in hypoxic conditions and can be used for the diagnosis and treatment of solid tumors. Compound 4, bearing biotin, a tumor-targeting unit, and SN38, an anticancer drug, proved to be an effective theranostic agent for solid tumors. \{SN38\} plays a dual role: as an anticancer drug for therapy and as a fluorophore for diagnosis, thus avoids an extra fluorophore and limits cytotoxicity. Compound 4, activated in the hypoxic environment, showed high therapeutic activity in \{A549\} and HeLa cells and spheroids. In vivo imaging of solid tumors confirmed the tumor-specific localization, deep tissue penetration and activation of compound 4, as well as the production of a strong anticancer effect through the inhibition of tumor growth in a xenograft mouse model validating it as a promising strategy for the treatment of solid tumors. More »»

2016

Journal Article

E. - J. Kim, Bhuniya, S., Lee, H., Kim, H. Min, Shin, W. Sup, Kim, J. Seung, and Hong, K. Soo, “In Vivo Tracking of Phagocytic Immune Cells Using a Dual Imaging Probe with Gadolinium-Enhanced MRI and Near-Infrared Fluorescence”, ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, vol. 8, pp. 10266-10273, 2016.[Abstract]


A novel dual imaging probe for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optical imaging was developed by combining gadolinium (Gd)-chelating MR probe and a near-infrared (NIR) fluorophore, aza-BODIPY (AB; BODIPY = boron-dipyrromethene). This aza-BODIPY-based bimodal contrast agent (AB-BCA) showed a significant fluorescence emission around the NIR range and an enhanced longitudinal relaxivity in MR modality. The probe was easily delivered to phagocytic cells of the innate immune system, together with macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), and presented high-performance fluorescence and MR imaging without obvious cytotoxicity. For in vivo visualization of AB-BCA using MRI and optical imaging, bone marrow-derived DCs were labeled and injected into the footpad of mice, and labeled DCs were tracked in vivo. We observed the migration of AB-BCA-labeled DCs into the lymph nodes via lymphatic vessels using NIR fluorescence and T1-weighted MR images. This dual-modality imaging probe was used for noninvasive monitoring of DC migration into lymph nodes and could be useful for investigating advanced cellular immunotherapy. More »»

2016

Journal Article

Mahendra Naktuji Nadanwar and Sanjeev Kumar, “Charge coup de fouet phenomenon in soluble lead redox flow battery”, Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 154, pp. 61 - 71, 2016.[Abstract]


The charge coup de fouet phenomenon, known in the context of lead-acid battery, refers to the presence of a voltage dip shortly after charging of a fully discharged battery begins. While the attempts to relate magnitude of coup de fouet phenomena with the state of health of battery have appeared in the literature, the phenomena continue to be poorly understood. The soluble lead redox flow battery (SLRFB), with potential for energy storage at large scale at low cost, also displays similar features. We report in this work our modeling and experimental efforts aimed at understanding charge coup de fouet phenomenon in natural convection driven SLRFB. We present a model that incorporates the presence of non-conducting PbO in deposits through a percolation type model for conductivity. The associated potential drop across the deposits is incorporated in the model through reduced overpotential available for driving Butler–Volmer kinetics. The complete model with coupled natural convection induced by non-uniform concentration of Pb ions in electrolyte successfully captures charge coup de fouet phenomenon, and explains the measured variation of its magnitude with the depth of discharge in the previous cycle. The model explains our earlier observation that during the discharge process, a receding zone of deposits is seen only on cathode but not on anode. The approach used is applicable to electrochemical systems in which solid conducting matrix evolves to non-conducting or poorly conducting and vice-versa, with a change in composition.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

Sab Ramakrishnan, Pradeep, K. Ra, Raghul, Aa, Senthilkumar, Rab, Rangarajan, Ma, and Kothurkar, N. Kab, “One-step synthesis of Pt-decorated graphene-carbon nanotubes for the electrochemical sensing of dopamine, uric acid and ascorbic acid”, Analytical Methods, vol. 7, pp. 779-786, 2015.[Abstract]


Platinum nanoparticle-decorated graphene and carbon nanotube (Pt-Gr-CNT) nanocomposites were synthesized by radio frequency chemical vapor deposition (RF-CVD) from ethanol, using a Pt/MgO catalyst. Morphological analysis showed Pt nanoparticles decorating graphene sheets and double-walled and multiwalled carbon nanotubes. It was observed that, upon encountering Pt nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes unravelled into graphene sheets. This may be due to graphitic carbon atoms from growing CNTs forming bonds with carbon atoms from other CNTs, particularly at the site of another Pt NP. The Pt-Gr-CNT-modified GCE showed high electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of ascorbic acid (AA), dopamine (DA) and uric acid (UA) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0) in cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) studies. CV showed well-separated oxidation peaks of AA (-99 mV), DA (121 mV) and UA (261 mV). In DPV studies, the peak separation between AA-DA, DA-UA and AA-UA was 210 mV, 140 mV and 360 mV respectively. The simultaneous detection of AA, DA and UA using DPV, in respective concentration ranges of 200-900 μM, 0.2-30 μM, 0.1-50 μM, showed good linearity and sensitivities of 0.186 μA μM-1 cm-2 (AA), 9.199 μA μM-1 cm-2 (DA) and 9.386 μA μM-1 cm-2 (UA) respectively. The Pt-Gr-CNT/GCE was evaluated for the simultaneous detection of the three biomolecules in real sample solutions of a vitamin C tablet, human serum and urine. It showed recoveries in the range of 93-101%, indicating that it is a promising platform for further biosensor development. This journal is

More »»

2015

Journal Article

D. Mani, Shanmugam23, R., Srinivasan, V., Kothurkar23, N. K., Rangarajan, M., and Raju, V., “Carbonization of Electrospun Polyimide/f-Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Nanofiber Webs by RF-Induction Heating”, 2015.[Abstract]


This study reports carbonization of electrospun polyimide nanofiber webs reinforced with acid-functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes, and the effect of carbonization and CNTreinforcements on their electrical conductivity. Pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA), 4,4 -Oxydianiline (ODA) and 4,4 -(4,4 -isopropylidene diphenyl-1,1 -diyl dioxy) dianiline (IDDA) were copolymerized in Dimethyl formamide (DMF) solvent to form a viscous poly (amic acid) (PAA) solution. The PAA solutions were prepared with incorporation of acid functionalized MWCNTs (0, 1 and 2 wt%). The PAA solution was electrospun into nanofiber web and was heated up to 300 C for imidization to form polyimide (PI) nanofiber web. In this study, radio-frequency induction heating method was utilized to carbonize the nanofiber web by heat treatment at 900 and 1000 C under nitrogen atmosphere and the yield decreased from 54% at 900 C to 51% at 1000 C. The carbonized nanofiber (CNF) webs were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer and scanning electron microscopy. The tensile strength of PI/f-MWCNT (2 wt%) nanofiber web increased twice of neat PI nanofiber web. The electrical conductivity of CNF webs increased mildly with increasing heat treatment temperature, viz., 2.21 and 2.28 S/cm, for CNF at 900 and 1000 C respectively. This conductivity increased to 5.73 and 16.90 S/cm for CNF with 1% f-MWCNT and CNF 2% f-MWCNT at 1000 C respectively. Keywords:&nbsp;

More »»

2015

Journal Article

A. Vadivaambigai, Senthilvasan, P. Anandh, Kothurkar, N., and Rangarajan, M., “Graphene-Oxide-Based Electrochemical Sensor for Salicylic Acid”, Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Letters, vol. 7, pp. 140–146, 2015.[Abstract]


This paper reports a voltammetric sensor for salicylic acid based on graphene-oxide-modified glassy carbon electrode (GO-GCE). Graphene oxide has been synthesized by a modified Hummers method, and shows predominantly hydroxyl, carbonyl, and epoxy groups. The oxidation of salicylic acid has been studied on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and GO-GCE, and is found to be an irreversible reaction with a peak potential at 0.79–0.82 V (vs. saturated calomel electrode). The prepared GO-GCE has 2.19 times more surface area than bare GCE, and behaves as a reversible redox platform for the ferricyanide system. The increased area of the electrode, along with the interactions with the functional groups on GO, results in higher currents for the oxidation of salicylic acid. Both GCE and GO-GCE show linear increase of peak current with respect to salicylic acid concentration in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) studies. The glassy carbon electrode exhibits a linear range of 25 to 1400 μM with a sensitivity of 0.321 μA/μM-cm2, while the GO-modified GCE exhibits a wider linear range of 25 to 2250 μM with a higher sensitivity of 0.396μA/μM-cm2 and a detection limit of 10 μM. Interference studies have been conducted with ascorbic acid and uric acid, and clear peak separation is observed.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

V. S, M, D., R, V., R, R. A., Dr. Murali Rangarajan, and Tsuzuki, T., “Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles from Co-precipitation: Composition, Size, and Magnetization”, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 15(6), pp. 3870-3878, 2015.

2015

Journal Article

N. Subash and R. Prasad, K., “Kinetics and mass transfer models for sorption of titanium industry effluent in activated carbon”, Desalination and Water Treatment, 2015.[Abstract]


The batch adsorber data obtained for removal of dissolved solids in titanium industry effluent by sorption in activated carbon was found to fit Freundlich, Langmuir, and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm models and the various non-linear error functions evaluated have low error values for these adsorption models. The applicability of pseudo-second-order models in adsorption kinetics has been explained and the predictive models at various dilutions were obtained. The external mass transfer coefficient obtained from various models, such as Mathews–Weber and Furusawa–Smith, was used to calculate the Biot number. The Biot number values were less than 100, which suggest that the external film coefficients control the adsorption process. The change in enthalpy of the adsorption process was −48 kJ mol−1, suggesting the release of exothermic heat during the sorption process. The analysis of various functional groups in the effluent was done using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. © 2015 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

N. Rajeev, Dr. Krishna Prasad R., and Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula, “Process Simulation and Modeling of Fluidized Catalytic Cracker Performance in Crude Refinery”, Petroleum Science and Technology, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 110–117, 2015.[Abstract]


The simulation of fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC) process was performed using Aspen HYSYS. The effect of crude flow rate on naphtha flow, coke yield, and catalyst to oil ratio in FCC were simulated. The interaction effects of riser height, inlet crude flow rate and operating temperature on naphtha mass flow, catalyst to oil ratio, and coke yield were studied by Box-Behnken design. The maximum yield of naphtha (100000 kg/h) was obtained for FCC operating temperature within 520–600°C and riser height greater than 30 m. The catalyst to oil ratio of above 12 was obtained for operating temperature beyond 590°C for the entire riser height variation of 10 to 60 m in FCC. The increase in riser height resulted in increase production of naphtha, but beyond 60 m of riser height secondary cracking occurs resulting in reduction in yield of naphtha.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Sabu Thomas, and Kuruvilla Joseph, “Effect of compatibilizer on the morphology development, static and dynamic mechanical properties of polymer-polymer composites from LDPE and PET”, International Journal of Plastics Technology, pp. 1–22, 2015.[Abstract]


The morphology development and mechanical properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/ poly ethylene terephthalate (PET) blends and microfibrillar composites (MFC) at varying concentrations of a compatibilizer polyethylene grafted with maleic anhydride (PE-g-MA) were analyzed in this study. The microstructure of the microfibrillar blends (MFBs) and composites during the various stages of their preparation was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The aspect ratio of the PET microfibrils was found to increase with compatibilizer loading up to an optimum level. The presence of 4 wt% PE-g-MA affected the dimensions of the PET fibrils differently in 75/25 and 85/15 w/w% microfibrillar blends. The variation in the length of the microfibrils was found to influence the static and dynamic mechanical properties of the microfibrillar composites. The studies pointed towards the necessity of optimizing the compatibilizer concentration to achieve enhanced properties for the MFCs.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula and R., K. Prasad, “Simulation and Optimization of Ethanolamine production, Manuscript under preparation”, 2015.

2015

Journal Article

Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula, Dutta, S., and Jennings, P., “Ignition time delay in hypergolic gel bipropellant combustion”, 2015.

2015

Journal Article

Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula, Dutta, S., and Jennings, P., “Direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide in a microchannel reactor/heat exchanger”, 2015.

2015

Journal Article

M. Nithya, Dr. Murali Rangarajan, S. Anandh, P., Devi, T., and Rani, P. R. Janci, “Reduced Graphene Oxide-based Electrochemical Sensor for Vitamin C (Under Review)”, Analytica Chimica Acta , 2015.

2015

Journal Article

Dr. Murali Rangarajan, Jelmy, E. J., S. Raj, M., Rajamani, A. R., Kothurkar, N., and Dr. Duraisamy Kumaresan, “Highly Solution Processable Camphor Sulfonic Acid-Doped Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube/Polyaniline Composite and Its Uses in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (Under Review)”, Journal of Polymer Science B: Polymer Physics, 2015.

2015

Journal Article

Dr. Murali Rangarajan, Rajamani, A. R., S., P. Anandh, Nair, V. S., and Vasu, V., “Electrodeposition of Eutectic Tin-Bismuth Alloys: Mechanism and Evolution of Morphology (Under Review)”, Journal of Applied Electrochemistry , 2015.

2015

Journal Article

M. R. Subramaniam and Dr. Duraisamy Kumaresan, “CdSe Quantum Dots and N719-Dye Decorated Hierarchical TiO² Nanorods for the Construction of Efficient Co-Sensitized Solar Cells”, ChemPhysChem, vol. 16, pp. 2543-2548, 2015.[Abstract]


Three-dimensional hierarchical TiO2 nanorods (HTNs) decorated with the N719 dye and 3-mercaptopropionic or oleic acid capped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in photoanodes for the construction of TiO2 nanorod-based efficient co-sensitized solar cells are reported. These HTN co-sensitized solar cells showed a maximum power-conversion efficiency of 3.93, and a higher open-circuit voltage and fill factor for the photoanode with 3-mercaptopropionic acid capped CdSe QDs due to the strong electronic interactions between CdSe QDs, N719 dye and HTNs, and the superior light-harvesting features of the HTNs. An electrochemical impedance analysis indicated that the superior charge-collection efficiency and electron diffusion length of the CdSe QD-coated HTNs improved the photovoltaic performance of these HTN co-sensitized solar cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

Dr. Kannan M., K. Joseph, and S. Thomas, “Dynamic mechanical properties of nanoclay filled TPU/PP blends with compatibiliser”, Plastics, Rubber and Composites, vol. 44, pp. 245-251, 2015.[Abstract]


Blends of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and polypropylene (PP) are highly incompatible because of large differences in polarities and high interfacial tensions. On one hand, PP is added to TPU to improve TPU's thermal stability, chemical properties, mechanical properties (modulus, strength and hardness) and processing performance and to reduce TPU's cost. On the other hand, TPU is blended with PP to improve PP's properties (e.g. abrasion, flexibility, tear strength, shock absorbing capabilities, impact strength, adhesion and paintability/printability). Earlier works in polyurethane/organoclay nanocomposites, PP/organoclay nanocomposites and TPU/PP blends were studied. In our experimental work, both ester and ether based TPU nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending using 3 wt-% Cloisite 10A (organically modified montmorillonite clay) as the nanoscale reinforcement and blended with PP with/without PP-graft-maleic anhydride as the compatibiliser. Blends of nanoclay filled TPU/PP were evaluated for dynamic mechanical properties such as storage modulus E′, loss modulus E″ and dissipation factor tanδ. © Institute of Materials, Minerals and Mining 2015.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

S. C.S., P.S., S., and Dr. Krishna Prasad R., “Grinding kinetics, modeling, and subsieve morphology of ball mill grinding for cement industry ingredients”, Particulate Science and Technology, pp. 1-8, 2015.[Abstract]


The dependence and interactions of various factors affecting the ball mill grinding like diameter of ball, particle size, and time of grinding on 80% passing size of product d80 was studied for cement industry raw materials of lime stone and sand using Box–Behnken design of response surface experiments. The bond grindability index and work index of ball mill were determined for different feed characteristics by varying the number of balls involved in grinding operation in the ball mill. The higher specific rate of breakage was obtained for new or smooth surfaced balls than old or rough surfaced balls. The reduction in size due to ball mill grinding was found to be better for wet grinding than dry grinding based on specific rate of breakages obtained. The subsieve morphology of particles in sieve pan for sand for both dry and wet grinding were analyzed using scanning electron microscopic observations to determine the breakage characteristics. 2016 Copyright © Taylor &amp; Francis Group, LLC

More »»

2015

Journal Article

M. S. Lee, D. Goswami, Y., Kothurkar, N., and Stefanakos, E. K., “Development and evaluation of calcium oxide absorbent immobilized on fibrous ceramic fabrics for high temperature carbon dioxide capture”, Powder Technology, vol. 274, pp. 313-318, 2015.[Abstract]


Calcium oxide is an effective carbon dioxide absorbent, but the cyclic lifetime and durability of the absorbent are key issues for its practicability. When used as pellets, pore plugging and sintering of particles have been found to be the major causes of the degradation of the absorption capacity in cyclic operation. In order to minimize these adverse effects, a simple and effective immobilization technique of the calcium oxide on fibrous ceramic-based fabrics (alumina and yttria) was developed. The prepared samples were characterized and evaluated by various analytical and experimental tools comprehensively. For a sample with 23wt.% calcium oxide on the alumina fabric, continuous cyclic carbonation conversions of about 75% were achieved over 13 carbonation-calcination cycles under mild calcination condition at 750°C and no CO2 in N2. Under more severe calcination condition at 850°C and 20wt.% CO2 in N2, the yttria fabric proved superior to alumina as a substrate of calcium oxide for carbon dioxide capture and the reactivity of the calcium oxide absorbent using the yttria fabric was maintained at the same level for 12cycles. © 2014.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

D. Kavitha, NAMBIAR, T. N. P., Dr. Meera Balachandran, and SINDHU, T. K., “Modeling of Electric Field Distribution and Electric Tree Propagation in Epoxy Nanocomposites using Finite Element Method”, Journal of Electrical Engineering, 2015.[Abstract]


Electrical treeing gets initiated from voids or impurities present in the volume of the solid insulating material where partial discharge occurs due to the enhanced stress. Breakdown of the insulation can be delayed if the insulation gives higher resistance to the propagation of the discharge in the form of an electrical tree. It is well understood from some of the reported experimental results that addition of nanoparticles improves the electrical properties of a base insulating material. The shape, size and percentage loading etc. of the nanoparticles play a good role in deciding the properties of the nanocomposites. Theoretical analysis for determining the influence of fillers and the dependence of its size, shape and composition on the electrical properties of the composite is limited in the literature. In this work, the electric field stress of different nanocomposites at different points in the matrix is found using Finite Element Method (FEM). From the determined stress, the propagation of electrical treeing is analysed for different nanocomposites and the properties of the fillers required for enhanced resistance to electrical treeing is identified

More »»

2015

Journal Article

D. Susan, .E, P., Vishvanathan, R., and Dr. Meera Balachandran, “Carving of Idly from the batter”, Trends in Biosciences , vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 2631-2637, 2015.

2015

Journal Article

D. Susan, Vishvanathan, R., .E, P., and Dr. Meera Balachandran, “Kodo Idly – Inside Out”, Trends in Biosciences, vol. 8, no. 10, pp. 2638-2646, 2015.

2015

Journal Article

Nithya K., Sathish, A., and Ramachandran, T., “Batch, kinetic and equilibrium studies of biosorption of chromium (VI) From aqueous phase using activated carbon derived from Lantana camara fruit”, Oriental Journal of Chemistry, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 2319-2326, 2015.[Abstract]


Batch experiments have been conducted to determine the maximum adsorption capacity of activated carbon derived from Lantana camara fruit to remove hexavalent chromium from aqueous solution. The removal efficiency and uptake capacity of the biosorbent were determined by varying several batch level parameters. Highest removal efficiency of the biosorbent was found to be almost 99% under optimal conditions. Maximum monolayer adsorption capacity was determined to be 86 mg/g. The experimental data best fitted with Langmuir adsorption isotherm and pseudo second order model. These findings conclude that the selected biosorbent has more promising features in binding hexavalent chromium in aqueous media.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

M. R. Subramaniam and Dr. Duraisamy Kumaresan, “CdSe Quantum Dots and N719‐Dye Decorated Hierarchical TiO2 Nanorods for the Construction of Efficient Co‐sensitized Solar Cells”, ChemPhysChem, vol. 16, no. 12, pp. 2543-8, 2015.[Abstract]


Three-dimensional hierarchical TiO2 nanorods (HTNs) decorated with the N719 dye and 3-mercaptopropionic or oleic acid capped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in photoanodes for the construction of TiO2 nanorod-based efficient co-sensitized solar cells are reported. These HTN co-sensitized solar cells showed a maximum power-conversion efficiency of 3.93 %, and a higher open-circuit voltage and fill factor for the photoanode with 3-mercaptopropionic acid capped CdSe QDs due to the strong electronic interactions between CdSe QDs, N719 dye and HTNs, and the superior light-harvesting features of the HTNs. An electrochemical impedance analysis indicated that the superior charge-collection efficiency and electron diffusion length of the CdSe QD-coated HTNs improved the photovoltaic performance of these HTN co-sensitized solar cells.

More »»

2014

Journal Article

Ma Dhakshnamoorthy, Ramakrishnan, Sb, Vikram, Sa, Kothurkar, N. Kb, Rangarajan, Ma, and Vasanthakumari, Ra, “In-situ preparation and characterization of acid functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes with polyimide nanofibers”, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 14, pp. 5011-5018, 2014.[Abstract]


Nanofiber composites (Polyimide/f-SWCNT) of Pyromellitic dianhydride, 4,4'-Oxydianiline, and 4,4'- (4,4'-isopropylidene diphenyl-1,1'-diyl dioxy) dianiline (PMDA-ODA/IDDA) and surface-functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (f-SWCNT) were made by electrospinning a solution of poly(amic acid) (PAA) containing 0-2 wt% f-SWCNT followed by thermal imidization. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra verified the oxidation of SWCNT surface after acid treatment, and indicated possible hydrogen bonding interactions between the f-SWCNTs and polyamic acid. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy images showed the average diameter of nanofibers to be below 150 nm, and transmission electron microscopy images showed that SWCNTs were aligned inside the polymer nanofiber. In thermogravimetric analysis, all composites showed increased thermal stability with increasing f-SWCNT content compared to neat PI. Storage modulus also increased from 124 MPa to 229 MPa from neat PI to 2% f-SWCNT composite. Copyright © 2014 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

More »»

2014

Journal Article

M. Raj Subramaniam, Dr. Sriram Devanathan, and Dr. Duraisamy Kumaresan, “Synthesis of micrometer-sized hierarchical rutile TiO2 flowers and their application in dye sensitized solar cells”, Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) Advances, vol. 4, pp. 36791–36799, 2014.[Abstract]


Cactus-like hierarchical rutile TiO2 flowers and three dimensional (3D) highly branched rutile TiO2 nanorods with sizes measuring up to 5 microns were synthesized on conductive substrates by a facile hydrothermal route without the presence of a surfactant or template. These samples with different morphologies and microstructures were studied by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). We also studied the photovoltaic performances of these samples by using them as photoanodes in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The highly branched TiO2 nanorod based photoanode in DSSCs showed a power conversion efficiency of 3.07% which was significantly higher than that of the cactus TiO2 flower based (2.66%) photoanode. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analysis of the interfacial charge transfer kinetics in these photoanodes in DSSCs showed higher recombination resistance (R2) and longer electron lifetime in highly branched nanorods. The enhancement of the efficiency of the highly branched TiO2 nanorod photoanode based DSSC compared to that of cactus TiO2 flower DSSC is mainly attributed to the superior light scattering capability, fast electron transfer and longer electron lifetime with suppressed recombination.

More »»

2014

Journal Article

Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula, Rangarajan, M., and S.R, S., “MODELING AND SIMULATION OF MIXED-LIGHT PARAFFIN DEHYDROGENATION IN MULTI-TUBULAR FIXED BED REACTOR”, 2014.[Abstract]


Fluidized Catalytic Cracking (FCC) units convert high molecular compounds (from atmospheric distillation and vacuum distillation units) to light gases. The major compounds in the light gases are methane, ethane, propane and butane. These light gases are then converted to highly reactive propylene (raw material for polypropylene) and butylene (raw material for butadiene and polybutadiene) via dehydrogenation. Propane and butane are always available as mixture along with traces of methane and ethane. In any commercial dehydrogenation process, the propane and butane are separated first and then dehydrogenated separately. This certainly leads to high fixed and operating costs. In this study, mixed-feed dehydrogenation of propane and butane is proposed. An isothermal model for a multi-tubular fixed bed reactor using PtSn/Al2O3 as a catalyst for the dehydrogenation of mixed-paraffin feed is developed considering the axial and radial variation of concentration (2D model). The 2D model is solved using central difference scheme. The simulations were carried out using MATLAB and the developed model is tested for the effect of space velocity, reactor temperature, reactor pressure, and propane to butane ratio in the feed on total paraffin conversion and olefin yield.

More »»

2014

Journal Article

S. Ramakrishnan, E Jelmy, J., Dhakshnamoorthy, M., Rangarajan, M., and Kothurkar, N., “Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes from Ethanol Using RF-CCVD and Fe–Mo Catalyst”, Synthesis and Reactivity in Inorganic, Metal-Organic, and Nano-Metal Chemistry, vol. 44, pp. 873–876, 2014.[Abstract]


Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized by RF (radio frequency) heating at 850°C using an MgO-supported bimetallic Fe–Mo catalyst. Ethanol was used as the carbon source. The MWCNTs were tested using Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). HRTEM studies show nanotubes with an average diameter of 16.0 ± 3.5&nbsp;nm. In Raman spectroscopy, the ratios of intensities of the G and D band and the 2D and G bands were 0.90 and 0.47, respectively. These ratios are generally indicative of high crystallinity and purity of the MWCNTs. The purity of MWCNTs was calculated from TGA analysis.

More »»

2014

Journal Article

Dr. Kannan M., Bhagawan, S. S., Sabu Thomas, and Kuruvilla Joseph, “Studies on electrical properties of nanoclay filled thermoplastic polyurethane/polypropylene blends”, Polymer Composites, vol. 35, pp. 1671–1682, 2014.[Abstract]


The electrical properties of ester/ether-based thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and polypropylene (PP) blends are presented in this article. Special attention has been paid to analyze the effect of blend ratio, compatibilization, and effect of nanoclay on the electrical properties of TPU/PP blends. The electrical properties measured were dielectric constant (ε′), volume resistivity (ρυ), loss factor (ε″), and dissipation factor (tan δ). Addition of PP into TPU increases the volume resistivity and reduces the dissipation and loss factor due to the decrease in the overall polarity of the system. Further addition of compatibilizer and nanoclay to this system reduced the dissipation factor and loss factor with increased volume resistivity. Compared with the ether-TPU based blend nanocomposites, the ester-TPU blends show better compatibility as confirmed by analysis.

More »»

2014

Journal Article

Dr. Krishna Prasad R., “Removal of Biopolymer in Distillery Spentwash using Iridium Oxide Coated Titanium Mesh Anode and Polyaluminum Chloride: Optimization and Sequential Studies”, Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, vol. 13, pp. 29–35, 2014.[Abstract]


The purpose of the undertaken research work is to degrade the biopolymeric pigments present in the distillery spentwash. This is done by direct electro-oxidation using iridium oxide coated titanium mesh as catalytic anode. The effects of current intensity, dilution, pH and time of electro-oxidation were studied. The combined effects were analyzed using Box-Behnken design for optimization and statistical analysis. The rate constant for first order electrochemical kinetics relating the rate constant and current density for decolorization is proposed as kIr = 0.00109 (Id)
1.7244. The power consumption at different current intensities was found based on chemical oxygen demand reduction. The optimal parameters obtained were current intensity (1.3A), dilution (10%) and electrolysis time of 3 hours for 90% target color removal. The actual color removal at optimal conditions is 88% color removal, which confirms close to statistical analysis. The sequential treatment with polyaluminum chloride coagulant was studied to develop an optimized solution for complete degradation of biopolymers.

More »»

2014

Journal Article

P. Ramesh, Dr. Krishna Prasad R., and Baskar, R., “Enzymatic and Chemical Delignification of Kraft Wood Pulp: Optimization & Sequential Studies (Accepted)”, Environmental Engineering and Management Journal, 2014.[Abstract]


The delignification of wood pulp using hydrogen peroxide and Xylanase enzyme in an ultrasonicator was studied at different process conditions. The factors influencing the chemical delignification were studied simultaneously using the Box-Behnken design of experiments. The mathematical model for Kappa reduction as functions of consistency of the pulp, concentration of peroxide and the temperature of delignification was developed. The response optimization studies for minimizing the Kappa number using chemical delignification provides the optimal conditions of 11% consistency of pulp, 3% concentration of peroxide and 50oC temperature with Kappa reduction to 15 as optimum value for the range of variables studied. The sequential delignification using enzyme followed by peroxide treatment was found effective with maximum reduction in Kappa number was achieved.

More »»

2014

Journal Article

Dr. Krishna Prasad R., “Impacts of Human Farm Activities on Tropical Deforestation and Climate Change: Interactive Statistical Models (Accepted)”, International Journal of Global Warming, 2014.

2014

Journal Article

R. DEVI, PRABHAVATHI, G., Dr. Yamuna R., Ramakrishnan, S., and KOTHURKAR, N. I. K. H. I. L. K., “Synthesis, characterization and photoluminescence properties of graphene oxide functionalized with azo molecules”, Journal of Chemical Sciences, vol. 126, pp. 75–83, 2014.[Abstract]


Two different azo molecules functionalized graphene oxide (GO) through an ester linkage have been synthesized for the first time. Chemical structure of the azo-GO hybrids was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and UV-visible spectroscopy. The GO functionalized with 5-((4-methoxyphenyl)azo)-salicylaldehyde was further characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The SEM studies demonstrated that the morphology of the azo-GO hybrid was found to be similar to the GO sheets but slightly more wrinkled. Further, TEM image of azo-GO indicates some dark spots on the GO sheets due to azo functionalization. AFM results also reveal that the azo functionalization increases the thickness of GO sheet to 4–5 nm from 1.2–1.8 nm. Both the azo-hybrids show absorption band around 379 nm due to the $π$–$π$* transition of the trans azo units. Photoluminescence spectra of azo-GO hybrids show a strong quenching compared with azo molecules due to the photoinduced electron or energy transfer from the azo chromophore to the GO sheets. It also reveals strong electronic interaction between azo and GO sheets. More »»

2014

Journal Article

La Srikanth and Rao, R. M. V. G. Kb, “Strength and stiffness behaviour of braided and filament wound glass epoxy composites - Simultaneous studies and comparison”, Journal of Composite Materials, vol. 48, pp. 407-414, 2014.[Abstract]


Investigations were carried out on glass-epoxy composite specimens with varied fibre orientations (±2 to ±88 ), prepared by both braided and filament winding techniques. The experimental strength and stiffness of these composites while exhibiting similar trends, correlated well with those predicted by classical laminate theory. The filament wound composites exhibited (20-40%) initial higher properties vis-a-vis the braided composites, while a correlation index between the experimental and theoretical values has been evolved. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

More »»

2014

Journal Article

A. Nikhil, Thomas, D. A., Amulya, S., S. Raj, M., and Dr. Duraisamy Kumaresan, “Synthesis, characterization, and comparative study of CdSe-TiO2 nanowires and CdSe-TiO2 nanoparticles”, Solar Energy, vol. 106, pp. 109-117, 2014.[Abstract]


Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots in selective size were prepared by using inverse micelle technique without the presence of trioctylphosphine (TOP) and characterized by UV-visible absorption, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopic studies. The UV-visible absorption and PL studies showed strong quantum confinement effect and bandgap energy about 2.1eV in CdSe quantum dots. Particle size and electron diffraction analyses in high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) confirmed the formation of CdSe crystalline particles in the range of 3.1-3.9nm. These wide bandgap CdSe quantum dots were used for the preparation of CdSe-TiO2 nanocomposites of TiO2 nanoparticles and TiO2 nanowires. HRTEM images of the CdSe-TiO2 nanowires (CdSe-TNW) and the CdSe-TiO2 nanoparticles (CdSe-TNP) composites revealed the uniform, layered distribution of CdSe quantum dots on TiO2 nanoparticles and on TiO2 nanowires in different dimensions. Further, the differences in the dimensional distributions and optical properties of CdSe-TNW and CdSe-TNP nanocomposites were investigated for their applications to TiO2 sensitized solar cells. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

More »»

2014

Journal Article

A. R. Rajamani, Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula, Kothurkar, N., and Rangarajan, M., “Nano- and micro-hexagons of bismuth on polycrystalline copper: Electrodeposition and heavy metal sensing”, CrystEngComm, vol. 16, pp. 2032-2038, 2014.[Abstract]


Hexagon-shaped bismuth nano- and micro-architectures have been electrodeposited onto polycrystalline copper electrodes from a nitrate bath at both constant current and constant potential conditions. Hexagonal geometries of varying sizes are obtained by tuning the deposition rate vis-à-vis that of a competing reaction, nitrate reduction. Nano-hexagons (100 nm to 1 μm) are obtained at 10 mA cm-2 when the HNO3 concentration is 0.2 M or less, and with 0.4 M HNO3, hexagons of sizes up to 20 μm are deposited. The obtained hexagons are polycrystalline. Further increase in nitric acid concentration results in fused sheet-like morphologies. Increasing bismuth concentration or reducing current density results in large crystallites. The ability of the obtained bismuth morphologies to detect ultratrace levels of lead has been studied. Only the nanohexagons and crystallites are able to detect lead at 1 ppb. The nanohexagons show good sensitivity to the detection of lead (LoD: 0.05 ppb or 0.24 nM; sensitivity:  0.75 μA ppb-1) using Square-Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (SWASV), and clearly distinct peaks for Pb2+, Zn2+, and Cd2+, indicating the potential for this morphology as an electrocatalytic material. More »»

2014

Journal Article

Mahendra Naktuji Nadanwar and Sanjeev Kumar, “Modelling of effect of non-uniform current density on the performance of soluble lead redox flow batteries”, Journal of the Electrochemical Society , vol. 161, no. 10, pp. A1602-A1610, 2014.[Abstract]


Soluble lead acid redox flow battery (SLRFB) offers a number of advantages. These advantages can be harnessed after problems associated with buildup of active material on electrodes (residue) are resolved. A mathematical model is developed to understand residue formation in SLRFB. The model incorporates fluid flow, ion transport, electrode reactions, and non-uniform current distribution on electrode surfaces. A number of limiting cases are studied to conclude that ion transport and electrode reaction on anode simultaneously control battery performance. The model fits the reported cell voltage vs. time profiles very well. During the discharge cycle, the model predicts complete dissolution of deposited material from trailing edge side of the electrodes. With time, the active surface area of electrodes decreases rapidly. The corresponding increase in current density leads to precipitous decrease in cell potential before all the deposited material is dissolved. The successive charge-discharge cycles add to the residue. The model correctly captures the marginal effect of flow rate on cell voltage profiles, and identifies flow rate and flow direction as new variables for controlling residue buildup. Simulations carried out with alternating flow direction and a SLRFB with cylindrical electrodes show improved performance with respect to energy efficiency and residue buildup.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

Ma Kannan, Bhagawan, S. Sa, Thomas, Sb, and K. Joseph, “Studies on electrical properties of nanoclay filled thermoplastic polyurethane/polypropylene blends”, Polymer Composites, 2013.[Abstract]


The electrical properties of ester/ether-based thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) and polypropylene (PP) blends are presented in this article. Special attention has been paid to analyze the effect of blend ratio, compatibilization, and effect of nanoclay on the electrical properties of TPU/PP blends. The electrical properties measured were dielectric constant (ε'), volume resistivity (ρυ), loss factor (ε″), and dissipation factor (tan δ). Addition of PP into TPU increases the volume resistivity and reduces the dissipation and loss factor due to the decrease in the overall polarity of the system. Further addition of compatibilizer and nanoclay to this system reduced the dissipation factor and loss factor with increased volume resistivity. Compared with the ether-TPU based blend nanocomposites, the ester-TPU blends show better compatibility as confirmed by analysis. © 2013 Society of Plastics Engineers.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

Dr. Suneesh P. V., Chandhini, K., Ramachandran, T., Dr. Bipin G. Nair, and Babu, T. G. Satheesh, “Tantalum oxide honeycomb architectures for the development of a non-enzymatic glucose sensor with wide detection range”, Biosensors and Bioelectronics, vol. 50, pp. 472 - 477, 2013.[Abstract]


Abstract Tantalum oxide honeycomb nanostructures (THNS) were fabricated by electrochemical anodisation of tantalum in H2SO4–HF medium. \{XRD\} analysis showed that annealing of \{THNS\} at 400 °C improves the crystallinity. \{HRSEM\} and \{AFM\} results illustrated that nanopores with an average diameter of 30 nm were uniformly distributed and the pore size reduced to 24 nm and 18 nm during subsequent electrodeposition of Pt and CuO. Electrodeposited Pt and CuO exhibited face centered cubic (fcc) and monoclinic crystal structure respectively. Cyclic voltammetric studies revealed that, on the hybrid material electrooxidation of glucose occurs at a lower potential (0.45 V). The sensor exhibited linear response to glucose up to 31 mM, fast response time (&lt;3 s) and a low detection limit of 1 μM (S/N=3). The sensor is free of interference from ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine and acetaminophen. Sensor was used to analyze glucose in blood serum samples.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

Pa Ramesh, Baskar, Rb, and Gaanappriya, Mc, “Extraction of xylan degrading enzyme from Trichoderma harzianum MTCC 10730”, Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences, vol. 15, pp. 487-490, 2013.[Abstract]


Cellulase free xylanase has been isolated from microorganisms and tested for bleaching activity, giving rise to a new approach in biobleaching. In this aspect, the present study aims to check the tolerance of Trichoderma harzianum species, a biological controlling agent, in the production of xylanase enzyme. The strains were isolated from the environmental samples taken from pulp and paper industry effluent at Srivari paper boards, Gobi, Tamilnadu, India. The organisms were subjected to growth at various pH conditions. The resistant strain, T-1 to a different pH was further isolated and grown on selective xylan-agar medium. The isolated strain was characterized as Trichoderma harzianum MTCC 10730. Maximum growth of the organism was found at 48 h under submerged condition in medium enriched with xylan. The organism produces an extra cellular xylanase that had a low molecular weight and optimal working temperatures. Enzyme assays were carried out optimizing the pH, temperature and carbon sources for the enzyme production. Further proposed studies include the bleaching activity of the enzyme and comparison of the industrial application with the commercially available enzymes. These trials may also be carried out in paper processing industry and the bleaching sequences may be analyzed for the efficacy of bleaching and pre bleaching. © Global Science Publications.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

E. J. Jelmy, Ramakrishnan, S., Dr. Sriram Devanathan, Dr. Murali Rangarajan, and Dr. Nikhil K. Kothurkar, “Optimization of the conductivity and yield of chemically synthesized polyaniline using a design of experiments”, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 130, pp. 1047-1057, 2013.[Abstract]


<p>The electrical conductivity and yield of polyaniline (PANi) were optimized using a design of experiments (DOE). PANi samples were synthesized by the chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline using methane sulfonic acid as the dopant acid and ammonium persulfate as the oxidant. The main factors in the synthesis of PANi that can affect the conductivity were identified as (i) the concentration of dopant acid, (ii) oxidant-to-monomer ratio, and (iii) the addition rate of oxidant to monomer. Using a Box-Behnken DOE method the regression equation, main effects plots, contour plots, and optimization plots for conductivity and yield were generated and analyzed. Under the optimized conditions of dopant acid concentration of 0.9M, an oxidant addition rate of 30 mL/h and an OM ratio of 0.9, PANi with a conductivity of 1.95 S/cm and yield of 95% was obtained. The observed trends in the four-point probe conductivity measurements were correlated with the polymer structure using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction studies, and scanning electron microscopy. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p>

More »»

2013

Journal Article

Dr. Kannan M., Bhagawan, S. S., Sabu Thomas, and Kuruvilla Joseph, “Nanoclay effect on transport properties of thermoplastic polyurethane/polypropylene (TPU/PP) blends”, Journal of Polymer Research, vol. 20, pp. 1–15, 2013.[Abstract]


In this paper the diffusion of water through the nanoclay filled TPU/PP blends was investigated at various temperatures. The effect of blend ratio, compatibilisation and nanoclay addition on the transport properties was studied in detail. Special attention has been given to study the mechanism of diffusion. Thermodynamics and Arrhenius parameters were evaluated from the diffusion data. The various parameters such as diffusion coefficient (D), permeation coefficient (P), sorption coefficients (S) were evaluated at different diffusion conditions. Attempts were made to correlate the observed morphology of the blends with transport properties. Addition of PP into TPU decreases water sorption of the system due to the decrease in overall polarity of the system and further reduced by addition of compatibiliser and nanoclay into the system. Compared to the ether-TPU based blend nanocomposites, the ester-TPU blends show better compatibility as confirmed by analysis.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

Dr. Kannan M., Bhagawan, S. S., Thomasb, S., and Kuruvilla Joseph, “Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetric studies on nanoclay-filled TPU/PP blends”, Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, vol. 112, pp. 1231-1244, 2013.[Abstract]


Thermal stability of ester-thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/polypropylene (PP) and ether-TPU/PP blends was evaluated by thermogravimetric studies. Thermal studies were made as a function of blend ratio. Effects of compatibilization using MA-g-PP and nanoclay addition on thermal stability were evaluated. Mass loss at 400 C was found to decrease with increasing PP content were determined. Finally the compatibility and crystallization behavior of the blends were studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Compared to the ether-TPU blend nanocomposites, the ester-TPU blends showed better compatibility and thermal stability. © 2012 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

S. Sathiyan, Rangarajan, M., and Ramachandran, S., “Heat transfer to immiscible liquid mixtures in a spiral plate heat exchanger”, Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 30, pp. 311–321, 2013.[Abstract]


This work presents new predictive correlations for heat transfer to immiscible liquid-liquid mixtures in a spiral plate heat exchanger. Liquid-liquid heat transfer studies were carried out in spiral plate heat exchangers for the water-octane, water-kerosene, and water-dodecane systems. For each composition of the mixture, the mass flow rate of the cold fluid was varied, keeping that of the hot fluid and the fluid inlet temperatures constant. Two-phase cold flow rates were in the laminar range, while the hot fluid flow was turbulent. Calculations of the LMTD (log mean temperature difference) correction factor showed that the flow was countercurrent. Heat transfer coefficients of the two-phase liquids were found to be strongly dependent on the composition of the liquid mixture and exhibited abrupt transitions as a function of the compositions. Given the absence of predictive correlations in the literature that sufficiently capture this composition dependence, new empirical correlations were developed using part of the experimental data, with the composition of the cold fluid as an explicit variable. Statistical analysis of the regression yielded satisfactory results. The correlations were tested against the rest of the experimental data and were found to predict heat transfer coefficients within ± 15%. These preliminary studies should be useful in designing compact exchangers for handling two-phase water-organics mixtures.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

Pa Manivel, Ramakrishnan, Sb, Kothurkar, N. Kb, Ponpandian, Na, Mangalaraj, Da, and Viswanathan, Ca, “Graphene nanosheets by low-temperature thermal reduction of graphene oxide using RF-CVD”, Journal of Experimental Nanoscience, vol. 8, pp. 311-319, 2013.[Abstract]


A novel technique for synthesis of thin-layered graphene sheets (GNS) were established by hydrogen-induced reduction of graphene oxide at low temperature of 200°C, using radio frequency chemical vapour deposition. The functional group and microstructures of the prepared GNS were characterised by various techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and particle-size analyser. Further the as-prepared GNS with an average diameter of 528.8 nm was confirmed by particle-size analyser. This GNS-generation process is rapid with high efficiency of exfoliation process, non-toxic, environmental friendly and ideal for large-scale production for industrial applications. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

Ka Solanki, Subramanian, Sb, Basu, Sa, and Sindhu S., “Microbial fuel cells for azo dye treatment with electricity generation: A review”, Bioresource Technology, vol. 131, pp. 564-571, 2013.[Abstract]


A microbial fuel cell (MFC) has great potential for treating wastewater containing azo dyes for decolourization, and simultaneous production of electricity with the help of microorganisms as biocatalysts. The concept of MFC has been already well established for the production of electricity; however, not much work has been published regarding dye decolourization with simultaneous electricity generation using MFCs. This paper reviews the performance limitations, future prospects, and improvements in technology in terms of commercial viability of azo dye decolourization with electricity generation in MFC. The major limitation identified is the high cost of cathode catalyst. Therefore, there is need of developing inexpensive cathode catalysts. Biocathode is one such option. Moreover, enhanced performance can be obtained by photo-assisted electrochemical process like rutile coated cathode. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

E. J. Jelmy, Ramakrishnan, S., Rangarajan, M., and Dr. Nikhil K. Kothurkar, “Effect of different carbon fillers and dopant acids on electrical properties of polyaniline nanocomposites”, Bulletin of Materials Science, vol. 36, pp. 37-44, 2013.[Abstract]


Electrically conducting nanocomposites of polyaniline (PANI) with carbon-based fillers have evinced considerable interest for various applications such as rechargeable batteries, microelectronics, sensors, electrochromic displays and light-emitting and photovoltaic devices. The nature of both the carbon filler and the dopant acid can significantly influence the conductivity of these nanocomposites. This paper describes the effects of carbon fillers like carbon black (CB), graphite (GR) and muti-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) and of dopant acids like methane sulfonic acid (MSA), camphor sulfonic acid (CSA), hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) on the electrical conductivity of PANI. The morphological, structural and electrical properties of neat PANI and carbon-PANI nanocomposites were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), UV-Vis spectroscopy and the four-point probe technique, respectively. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were also conducted for different PANI composites. The results show that PANI and carbon-PANI composites with organic acid dopants show good thermal stability and higher electrical conductivity than those with inorganic acid dopants. Also, carbon-PANI composites generally show higher electrical conductivity than neat PANI, with highest conductivities for PANI-CNT composites. Thus, in essence, PANI-CNT composites prepared using organic acid dopants are most suitable for conducting applications. © Indian Academy of Sciences.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

Pa Manivel, Ramakrishnan, Sb, Kothurkar, N. Kb, Balamurugan, Aa, Ponpandian, Na, Mangalaraj, Da, and Viswanathan, Ca, “Optical and electrochemical studies of polyaniline/SnO2 fibrous nanocomposites”, Materials Research Bulletin, vol. 48, pp. 640-645, 2013.[Abstract]


Polyaniline (PANI)/tin oxide (SnO2) fibrous nanocomposites were successfully prepared by an in situ chemical polymerization method with suitable conditions. The obtained composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy, photoluminescence (PL), electrical conductivity and cyclic voltammetry studies (CV). The XRD pattern of the as-prepared sample shows the presence of tetragonal SnO2 and the crystalline structure of SnO 2 was not affected with the incorporation of PANI. The FTIR analysis confirms the uniform attachment of PANI on the surface of SnO2 nanostructures. SEM images show a fibrous agglomerated structure of PANI/SnO2. The PL emission spectra revealed that the band from 404 and 436 nm which is related with oxygen vacancies. The electrochemical behavior of the PANI/SnO2 composite electrode was evaluated in a H 2SO4 solution using cyclic voltammetry. The composite electrode exhibited a specific capacitance of 173 F/g at a scan rate 25 mV/s. Thus the as-prepared PANI/SnO2 composite shows excellent electrochemical properties, suggesting that this composite is a promising material for supercapacitors. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

Dr. Yamuna R., Ramakrishnan, Sb, Dhara, Ka, Devi, Ra, Kothurkar, N. Kb, Kirubha, Ec, and Palanisamy, P. Kc, “Synthesis, characterization, and nonlinear optical properties of graphene oxide functionalized with tetra-amino porphyrin”, Journal of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 15, 2013.[Abstract]


The synthesis of a porphyrin-graphene oxide hybrid (GO-TAP) was carried out by covalently functionalizing graphene oxide (GO) with 5,10,15,20 mesotetra (4-aminophenyl) porphyrin (TAP) through an amide linkage. The GO-TAP hybrid has been characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy. The peak intensity of the Soret band of the material was suppressed compared to neat TAP. This indicates a strong interaction between the electronic energy level of TAP and GO in the GO-TAP hybrid. The functionalization of GO with TAP significantly improved its solubility and dispersion stability in organic solvents. Scanning electron micrographs reveal that the hybrid was found to be similar to the unmodified GO but slightly more wrinkled. Transmission electron micrographs also demonstrate that GO sheet in the hybrid is more wrinkled with some dark spot due to functionalization. Atomic force microscopy results also reveal that the TAP functionalization increases the thickness of GO sheet to 2.0-3.0 nm from 1.2 to 1.8 nm. We observed improved nonlinear optical and optical limiting properties for the hybrid compared to both graphene oxide and porphyrin. GO-TAP shows fluorescence quenching compared with porphyrin, indicating excellent electron and/or energy transfer to GO from TAP. Thermogravimetric analysis confirms that the GO-TAP hybrid has outstanding thermal stability. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

M. Dhakshnamoorthy, Ramakrishnan, S., Vikram, S., Vasanthakumari, R., and Kothurkar, N. K., “Effect of surface-functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes on the thermal and mechanical properties of electrospun polyimide nanofiber composites”, Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, vol. 14, pp. 5011-5018, 2013.

2013

Journal Article

P. Ash, Chandran, S., A. Bist, N. K. Kothurkar, and D. Sullivan, “Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC); IEEE: Silicon Valley”, IEEE: Silicon Valley, p. 452, 2013.

2012

Journal Article

Dr. Meera Balachandran and Bhagawan, S. S., “Mechanical, thermal, and transport properties of nitrile rubber-nanocalcium carbonate composites”, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 126, pp. 1983-1992, 2012.[Abstract]


The article describes the properties of acrylonitrile butadiene copolymer (NBR)-nanocalcium carbonate (NCC) nanocomposites prepared by a two-step method. The amount of NCC was varied from 2 phr to 10 phr. Cure characteristics, mechanical properties, dynamic mechanical properties, thermal behavior, and transport properties of NBR-NCC composites were evaluated. For preparing NBR nanocomposites, a master batch of NBR and NCC was initially made using internal mixer. Neat NBR and the NBR-NCC masterbatch was compounded with other compounding ingredients on a two roll mill. NCC activated cure reaction upto 5 phr. The tensile strength increased with the nanofiller content, whereas NBR-NCC containing 7.5 phr exhibited the highest modulus. The storage modulus (E') increased up to 5 phr NCC loading; the reinforcing effect of NCC was seen in the increase of modulus which was more significant at temperatures above T g. The effect of nanofiller content and temperature on transport properties was evaluated. The solvent uptake decreased with NCC content. The mechanism of diffusion of solvent through the nanocomposites was found to be Fickian. Transport parameters like diffusion, sorption, and permeation constants were determined and found to decrease with nanofiller content, the minimum value being at 7.5 phr. Thermodynamic constants such as enthalpy and activation energy were also evaluated. The dependence of various properties on NCC was supported by morphological analysis using transmission electron microscopy. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2012 Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

Dr. Kannan M., Bhagawan, S. S., Sabu Thomas, and Kuruvilla Joseph, “Comparison of theory with experimental data for nanoclay-filled TPU/PP blend”, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 51, pp. 13379-13392, 2012.[Abstract]


The mechanical properties of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/polypropylene (PP) blends were investigated with special reference to the effect of type of polyurethane (ester- or ether-based), blend ratio, compatibilizer, and sequence addition of nanoclay. Tensile strength, stress at different elongations, flexural modulus, and abrasion resistance were analyzed and correlated with morphology. Blends of nanoclay filled thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/polypropylene (PP) of various compositions were evaluated by dynamic mechanical properties such as storage modulus (E'), loss modulus (E''), and dissipation factor (tan δ), at a frequency of 10 Hz over a temperature range from -100 to 200 °C. Finally different theoretical models were used to compare the experimental results with theoretical predictions. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

LaUma Devi, Bhagawan, S. Sb, and Thomas, Sa, “Polyester composites of short pineapple fiber and glass fiber: Tensile and impact properties”, Polymer Composites, vol. 33, pp. 1064-1070, 2012.[Abstract]


The tensile and impact performance of intimately mixed (IM) hybrid composites based on glass fiber (GF) and pineapple leaf fiber (PALF) was investigated. The composite was fabricated at constant volume fraction of fiber 0.3 V f (fiber 0.3 and matrix 0.7). Keeping the volume fraction of matrix a constant (0.7 V f), we have varied the PALF/GF ratio from 0 to 1. Incorporation of 0.1 volume fraction of GF increases the tensile strength of the hybrid composite by about 28%. The tensile strength showed a further increase when the volume fraction is changed to 0.7 and 0.9 V f of GF. Intimately mixed hybrid composites exhibited higher impact strength than the individual fiber composites; the composite of PALF/GF ratio 70:30 showed maximum impact strength of 1203 J/m. A positive hybrid effect is observed for impact properties. Scanning electron micrographs of the fractured surfaces were examined to understand the fiber-matrix adhesion. Copyright © 2012 Society of Plastics Engineers.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

Dr. Rajathilagam B., Rangarajan, M., and Soman, K. P., “Frequency analysis of signals and images using G-Lets”, International Journal of Imaging and Robotics, vol. 8, pp. 30-48, 2012.[Abstract]


This paper presents a method of frequency analysis for discrete signals using G-lets. From a group of transformations and representation theory, a finite basis of the signal space is obtained. The projections of the signal onto this basis are called G-lets. G-lets, due to the nature of transformations used, contain oscillations in such a manner that the difference between consecutive G-let coefficients is proportional to the local frequency. The signal frequency, in turn, is proportional to the difference in amplitude of the signal at any point. A dilation operation is defined to capture the frequencies without use of a windowing function, by highlighting the highest frequency of the existing signal in a G-let. Considering features of a signal as a combination of frequencies, feature extraction of 1-D signals and images are examined. The beginning and end of each feature are identified by the spread of low frequencies in the neighborhood of a high frequency. Results are demonstrated using dihedral groups, for simple 1-D signals, an ECG signal, and 'Lena' image. A qualitative comparison is provided with wavelets and Fourier analysis. © 2012 by IJIR (CESER Publications).

More »»

2012

Journal Article

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Thomas, Sb, and K. Joseph, “Effect of blend ratio on the mechanical and sorption behaviour of polymer-polymer microfibrillar composites from low-density polyethylene and polyethylene terephthalate”, Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, vol. 31, pp. 549-562, 2012.[Abstract]


The morphology of the neat blends, microfibrillar blends and the corresponding microfibrillar composites based on low-density polyethylene and polyethylene terephthalate was analyzed. As the polyethylene terephthalate concentration increased, an increase in the diameter of polyethylene terephthalate spheres/fibrils was observed. The fibrils with relatively uniform diameter distribution were obtained in the range of 15-25 wt% polyethylene terephthalate concentration. The tensile properties of the blends and microfibrillar composites increased with polyethylene terephthalate concentration up to an optimum level. The neat blends exhibited inferior tensile properties in comparison with the microfibrillar composites. As the polyethylene terephthalate concentration increased, the solvent uptake reduced. The diffusivity and permeability of the microfibrillar composites were lower than the corresponding blends. The solvent uptake was found to be lowest for the composite with 25 wt% polyethylene terephthalate concentration. The polyethylene terephthalate microfibrils in the microfibrillar composites offered a tortuous path for the diffusion of the solvent. © The Author(s) 2012.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

Dr. Meera Balachandran, Dr. Sriram Devanathan, Muraleekrishnan, Rb, and Bhagawan, S. Sa, “Optimizing properties of nanoclay-nitrile rubber (NBR) composites using Face Centred Central Composite Design”, Materials and Design, vol. 35, pp. 854-862, 2012.[Abstract]


<p>The properties of acrylonitrile butadiene copolymer (NBR)-nanoclay composites were modelled using response surface methodology (RSM). A Face Centred Central Composite Design (FCCD) with four factors and three levels was used to obtain the relationship between nanocomposite properties and levels of ingredients. The factors considered in the design were silica content, nanoclay content, vulcanization system and dicumyl peroxide content. The nanocomposites were evaluated for tensile strength, modulus, elongation at break, oxygen permeation rate and effect of oil ageing on mechanical properties. Regression equations were generated to model the properties of interest and generate response surfaces and contour plots. The predicted properties of the nanocomposites were in good agreement with the experimental results. The contour plots were overlaid within the applied constraints to identify the combination of factor ranges that gives the optimal performance of the nanocomposites for application in control system bladders for launch vehicle applications. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.</p>

More »»

2012

Journal Article

Dr. Meera Balachandran and Bhagawan, S. S., “Mechanical, thermal and transport properties of nitrile rubber (NBR)-Nanoclay composites”, Journal of Polymer Research, vol. 19, pp. 1-10, 2012.[Abstract]


The article describes the properties of nitrile rubber (NBR)-nanoclay composites prepared by a two-step method. viz. preparation of a 3:1 [by weight] masterbatch of NBR and nanoclay followed by compounding on a two roll mill and molding at 150 °C and 20 MPa pressure. The tensile strength, elongation at break, modulus, storage modulus (E') and loss modulus (E") increased with the nanofiller content, reached the maximum value at 5 phr and decreased thereafter. The solvent uptake, diffusion, sorption and permeation constants decreased with nanoclay content with the minimum value at 5 phr nanoclay. The mechanism of solvent diffusion through the nanocomposites was found to be Fickian. Thermodynamic constants such as enthalpy and activation energy were also evaluated. The dependence of various properties on nanoclay content was correlated to the morphology of the nanocomposites. supported by morphological analysis. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

G. George, E Jose, T., Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Nagarajan, E. R., Skrifvars, M., and K. Joseph, “Novel Bio-commingled Composites Based on Jute/polypropylene Yarns: Effect of Chemical Treatments on the Mechanical Properties”, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 43, pp. 219-230, 2012.[Abstract]


<p>This paper mainly investigates the fabrication process of jute yarn reinforced, bidirectional thermoplastic commingled composites (both untreated and treated). Commingling method was used to prepare the composites wherein the Polypropylene yarn (PP yarn) and jute yarn were wound together onto a metal plate in a particular configuration and then compression moulded. The mechanical properties of the composites prepared from chemically treated jute yarn were found to increase substantially compared to those of untreated ones. The surface morphologies of the fracture surfaces of the composites were recorded using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The SEM micrographs reveal that interfacial bonding between the treated jute yarn and the matrix has improved significantly by chemical treatments. The various chemical treatment mechanisms have been supported by FT-IR spectra. Theoretical modelling was used to predict the tensile properties and was found to be in accordance with the experimental results. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p>

More »»

2012

Journal Article

S. Pramod Upadyayula and Rangarajan, M., “Actin-based motility propelled by molecular motors”, Applied Nanoscience, vol. 2, pp. 333–338, 2012.[Abstract]


Actin-based motility of Listeria monocytogenes propelled by filament end-tracking molecular motors has been simulated. Such systems may act as potential nanoscale actuators and shuttles useful in sorting and sensing biomolecules. Filaments are modeled as three-dimensional elastic springs distributed on one end of the capsule and persistently attached to the motile bacterial surface through an end-tracking motor complex. Filament distribution is random, and monomer concentration decreases linearly as a function of position on the bacterial surface. Filament growth rate increases with monomer concentration but decreases with the extent of compression. The growing filaments exert push–pull forces on the bacterial surface. In addition to forces, torques arise due to two factors—distribution of motors on the bacterial surface, and coupling of torsion upon growth due to the right-handed helicity of F-actin—causing the motile object to undergo simultaneous translation and rotation. The trajectory of the bacterium is simulated by performing a force and torque balance on the bacterium. All simulations use a fixed value of torsion. Simulations show strong alignment of the filaments and the long axis of the bacterium along the direction of motion. In the absence of torsion, the bacterial surface essentially moves along the direction of the long axis. When a small amount of the torsion is applied to the bacterial surface, the bacterium is seen to move in righthanded helical trajectories, consistent with experimental observations. More »»

2012

Journal Article

M. V and Dr. Murali Rangarajan, “Model-Based Composition Control of Binary Batch Distillation Column”, International Journal of Chemical Engineering Research, vol. 4(2), pp. 99-109, 2012.

2012

Journal Article

Dr. Rajathilagam B., Dr. Murali Rangarajan, and P, S. K., “G-Lets: A New Signal Processing Algorithm”, International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 37 , no. 6, pp. 1-7, 2012.[Abstract]


Different signal processing transforms provide us with unique decomposition capabilities. Instead of using specific transformation for every type of signal, we propose in this paper a novel way of signal processing using a group of transformations within the limits of Group theory. For different types of signal different transformation combinations can be chosen. It is found that it is possible to process a signal at multiresolution and extend it to perform edge detection, denoising, face recognition, etc by filtering the local features. For a finite signal there should be a natural existence of basis in it’s vector space. Without any approximation using Group theory it is seen that one can get close to this finite basis from different viewpoints. Dihedral groups have been demonstrated for this purpose.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

Dr. Duraisamy Kumaresan, “Photophysical Studies on Terpyridyl Platinum(II) Chromophore-Electron Acceptor Dyads for the Photocatalytic Hydrogen Generation from Water ”, ACS Division of Fuel Chemistry, vol. 57, pp. 66-68, 2012.

2012

Journal Article

Dr. Sriram Devanathan, “Is Sustainable Development an Oxymoron?”, International Conference on Renewable Energy Resources for 21st Century, 2012.

2011

Journal Article

Dr. Meera Balachandran, Bhagawan, S. Sa, and Muraleekrishnan, Rb, “Modeling and optimizing properties of nanoclay-nitrile rubber composites using box-behnken design”, Rubber Chemistry and Technology, vol. 84, no. 4, pp. 455-473, 2011.[Abstract]


The mechanical behavior of acrylonitrile butadiene copolymer (NBR)-organomodified layered silicate (nanoclay) was modeled using design of experiments approach. A Box-Behnken design with three factors and three levels was used to model the relationship between properties of NBR nanocomposites and the ingredients. The factors considered in the design were silica content, nanoclay loading, and dicumyl peroxide content. The nanocomposites were evaluated for tensile strength, modulus, elongation at break, oxygen permeation rate, and effect of oil and heat aging on mechanical properties. Regression equations were generated to model the properties of interest and generate response surfaces and contour plots. The predicted properties of the nanocomposites were in good agreement with the experimental results. The contour plots were overlaid within the applied constraints to identify the combination of factor ranges that gives the optimal performance of the nanocomposites for application as control system bladders in satellite launch vehicles.

More »»

2011

Journal Article

B. Suresh, Maruthamuthu, S., Khare, A., Palanisamy, N., Muralidharan, V. S., Ragunathan, R., Dr. Kannan M., and Pandiyaraj, K. N., “Influence of Thermal Oxidation on Surface and Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Polyethylene”, Journal of Polymer Research, vol. 18, pp. 2175-2184, 2011.[Abstract]


Blown low density polyethylene (LDPE) films added with oxo-biodegradable additive containing pro-oxidant were subjected to thermo-oxidation in an oven at 70 °C for varying time periods. The changes in mechanical and surface properties were studied using tensile strength, elongation at break, wettability, surface morphology using SEM, surface topology by AFM, functional groups by FTIR spectroscopy, absorbance spectra by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The thermally aged films with pro-oxidant additive added polyethylene (PE) exhibited a higher level of oxidation as revealed by increase in their carbonyl index than the pristine PE. In addition to it, the DSC melting behavior showed a slight increase in crystallinity (%C) and melting temperature (Tm) of the polymer containing oxo-biodegradable additive. The SEM micrograph reveals the increase in the size of cracks and grooves, according to the increase in the concentration of pro-oxidant additive. The surface roughness also supports the same through AFM image. The increase in the wettability and surface free energy of the thermally aged samples were attributed to the formation of hydrophilic groups on the polymer surface by thermo-oxidation. The pro-oxidant additive offers a new insight into the thermo-oxidation strategy for PE and can be widely used in packaging industry. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

More »»

2011

Journal Article

Dr. Meera Balachandran and Bhagawan, S. S., “Studies on acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer (NBR) layered silicate composites: Mechanical and viscoelastic properties”, Journal of Composite Materials, vol. 45, no. 19, pp. 2011-2022, 2011.[Abstract]


Nanocomposites were obtained from a masterbatch of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymer (NBR; nitrile rubber) and organomodified layered silicate (nanoclay) prepared in an internal mixer followed by mixing with neat NBR and other compounding ingredients on a two-roll mill. Addition of nanoclay reduced the cure time and the vulcanization kinetics closely fitted a first-order model. The morphology was investigated by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The tensile strength, modulus (M100), and storage modulus (E′) increased up to 5-phr nanoclay content and thereafter showed a decline. The effect of temperature and frequency on E′ and loss tangent was also investigated. © 2011 The Author(s).

More »»

2011

Journal Article

S. Sathiyan, Dr. Murali Rangarajan, and Ramachandran, S., “Studies of Heat Transfer for Water-diesel Two-phase System in a Spiral Heat Exchanger”, Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Quarterly, vol. 25, pp. 195-201, 2011.[Abstract]


<In the present study, the main objective is to evolve a correlation to predict liquid-liquid two-phase heat transfer coefficients in a spiral plate heat exchanger. Experimental studies were conducted in a spiral plate heat exchanger using the liquid-liquid two-phase system of water-diesel in different volume fractions and flow rates as the cold fluid. Experiments were conducted by varying the volumetric flow rate and temperature, keeping the volumetric flow rate of hot fluid constant. The two-phase heat transfer coefficients were correlated with Reynolds number, Prandtl number and volume fraction in the form Nu = a (Re) b (Pr) c (φ) d. The data obtained from fresh experiments were compared with the predictions of the obtained correlation. The predicted coefficients showed a spread of ± 12 % in the laminar range, indicating the potential use for practical applications

More »»

2011

Journal Article

L. U. Devi, Bhagawan, S. S., Nair, K. C. M., and S. Thomas, “Water Absorption Bhavior of PALF/GF Hybrid PolyesterComposites”, Polymer Composites, vol. 32, pp. 335-346, 2011.[Abstract]


The water absorption characteristics of pineapple leaf fiber (PALF)/glass fiber (GF) hybrid polyester(PER) composites, and chemically modified PALF/polyester composites were evaluated by immersion in distilled water at 28, 60, and 90°C. The diffusion properties of the intimately mixed (IM) and the layered hybrid composite GPG (Glass skin and PALF core) of different PALF/GF ratio at the three temperatures were compared in order to identify the environmental ageing mechanism at different temperatures. The effect of temperature on the kinetics and thermodynamics of diffusion were also examined. The water uptake of both IM and GPG hybrid composites was decreased with increase in glass fiber content; the lowest water uptake was observed for 0.46 V f GF hybrid composite. Among the chemically modified composites, vinyl tri 2-methoxy ethoxy silane treated composites showed the lowest water uptake. Finally, parameters like diffusion, sorption, and permeability coefficients were determined. It was observed that equilibrium water uptake is dependent on the nature of the composite and temperature. Experimental results were also compared with theoretical predictions.

More »»

2011

Journal Article

S. Balachander, Muraleekrishnan, R., and Bhagawan, S. S., “Modelling and Optimizing Properties of NBR Composites Using Box-Behnken Design”, Rubber Chemistry and Technology, vol. 84, no. 4, 2011.

2011

Journal Article

B. Suresh, Maruthamuthu, S., Kannan, M., and Chandramohan, A., “Mechanical and Surface Properties of Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) Film Modified by Photo-Oxidation”, Polymer Journal, vol. 43, 2011.

2011

Journal Article

K. P, P, V., P, A., ,, and Varughese, S., “Surface Energy Characteristics and Proton Conductivity”, Journal of Power Sources, vol. 196, no. 3, 2011.

2010

Journal Article

T. Ea Jose, Thomas, P. Ca, Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Mathew, Jc, and Joseph, Kd, “Solvent uptake and accelerated solar aging studies of cotton - Polypropylene commingled composite systems”, Polymers and Polymer Composites, vol. 18, pp. 103-112, 2010.[Abstract]


Natural fibre-reinforced thermoplastic composites have a significant role in non-structural applications. Natural fibres are biodegradable, renewable and of low cost, high toughness and possess good thermal properties. This work involved the study of solvent absorption of cotton/polypropylene (PP) side-by-side commingled composites in different solvents, its variation by chemical treatments, temperature, fibre content etc., the extent of tensile property deterioration by solar radiation in a solar light concentrator and by water diffusion. It was observed that though cotton is highly hydrophilic, the diffusion was a matrix-dominated phenomenon. The extent of moisture absorption increased with the fibre content but decreased on treatment with maleic anhydride-modified PP. The former added a greater number of hydrophilic hydroxyl groups while the latter consumed them and enhanced the fibre-matrix interfacial adhesion. Increase in temperature accelerated the rate of moisture absorption and reduced the time required for equilibrium swelling. Exposure to sunlight in solar concentrator deteriorated mechanical properties such as tensile strength and tensile modulus by weakening the fibre-matrix interfacial adhesion and by chain scission. © Smithers Rapra Technology, 2010.

More »»

2010

Journal Article

S. Balachander, Stanly, L. P., Mulaleekrishnan, R., and Bhagawan, S. S., “Modeling NBR- layered silicate nanocomposites: A DoE approach”, Journal of Applied Polymer Science, vol. 118, pp. 3300-3310, 2010.[Abstract]


Abstract The mechanical behavior of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) – organo modified layered silicate was modeled using Design of Experiments (DoE). Response surface methodology (RSM), a DoE tool was used to optimize the formulations for optimal performance of the nanocomposites. A Box-Behnken design with three factors and three levels was used to model the relationship between mechanical properties and levels of ingredients. The factors studied for the design are silica content, nanoclay loading and vulcanization system. The nanocomposites were evaluated for tensile strength, modulus, elongation at break and hardness. The effect of heat aging on mechanical properties was also studied. The predicted properties of the nanocomposites are in good agreement with the experimental results, which confirmed the prognostic ability of response surface methodology. The model equations were used to generate response surfaces and contour plots to study the interaction between the variables. The contour plots were overlaid within the applied constraints to identify the required combination of variables that gives the optimum performance for the nanocomposites.

More »»

2010

Journal Article

E. Ja Tomlal, Thomas, P. Ca, George, K. Ca, Dr. Jayanarayanan K., and K. Joseph, “Impact, tear, and dielectric properties of cotton/polypropylene commingled composites”, Journal of Reinforced Plastics and Composites, vol. 29, pp. 1861-1874, 2010.[Abstract]


Natural fibers can be used as reinforcements in thermoplastic non-structural applications. Commingling them with matrix fibers lowers the melt flow distance of molten matrix during the processing. In this study, polypropylene (PP) and textile cotton fibers were commingled and fabricated to composite laminates. Process variables like temperature, pressure, and holding time affect the mechanical properties like impact strength and tear resistance. Fiber content and winding pattern or fiber orientation were also important for the optimization of the mechanical properties. The modification of the interface by chemical treatments of the matrix or reinforcement with reagents like potassium permanganate, benzoyl peroxide, and maleic anhydride modified PP enhances some mechanical properties like tear strength of cotton fiber-reinforced PP commingled composite systems. Fiber content, treatments, and moisture also varies dielectric constant and volume resistivity. © The Author(s), 2010.

More »»

2010

Journal Article

Dr. Kannan M., Bhagawan, S. Sa, Jose, Tb, Thomas, Sc, and Joseph, Kd, “Effect of sequence of nanoclay addition in TPU/PP blends: Thermomechanical properties”, Journal of Materials Science, vol. 45, pp. 1078-1085, 2010.[Abstract]


Nanoclay filled thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)/polypropylene (PP) blends compatibilized with maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MA-g-PP) have been studied with emphasis on sequence of nanoclay addition. In sequence I [TPU(nano)/PP/MA-g-PP], nanoclay was first added to TPU and this nano composite was blended with PP, using MA-g-PP as compatibilizer. In the case of sequence II [TPU/PP(nano)/MA-g-PP], nanoclay was added first to PP and blended with TPU, using MA-g-PP as compatibilizer. These blend systems were evaluated by DSC, FTIR, DMA, SEM, XRD and tensile properties. The results indicated that sequence I imparted greater compatibility to the polymers and better nanoclay dispersion than sequence II. Overall the TPU(nano)/PP/MA-g-PP blend system shows better dispersion than TPU/PP(nano)/MA-g-PP. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

More »»

2010

Journal Article

Dr. Krishna Prasad R., “Degradation of biopolymeric pigments in distillery spentwash by electrocoagulation using copper anodes: statistical and canonical analysis”, Environmental Chemistry Letters, vol. 8, pp. 149-155, 2010.[Abstract]


The electrocoagulation studies of distillery spentwash using copper anodes were utilized to demonstrate the usefulness of Box–Behnken experimental design of response surface analysis to derive a statistical model and the optimum parameters for color removal. The current intensity (1.5 A), dilution (10%) and time of electrolysis (5 h) had been found to be the optimum conditions for maximum 77.11% color removal. The actual color removal at optimized conditions was found to be 78.26%, which is to the predicted response using response surface methodology. The energy consumption and current efficiency were determined from reduction in chemical oxygen demand. More »»

2010

Journal Article

S. .S.Bhagawan, Sabu Thomas, Kuruvilla Joseph, and Dr. Kannan M., “Characterization of nanoclay filled polymer blends”, SPE Plastics research: Online: Plastics Nanotechnology, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

K. M. Tarquinio, Kothurkar, N. K., and Goswami, D. Y., “Bactericidal effects of silver plus titanium dioxide‐coated endotracheal tubes on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus”, International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 5, p. 177‐183, 2010.

2010

Journal Article

P. Kannan, Biernacki, J. J., and Visco, D. P., “Fast Pyrolysis of Expandable Polystyrene Beads”, AICHE Journal, vol. 56, no. 6, p. 1569‐1577, 2010.

2009

Journal Article

K. R. Prasad and Srivastava, S. N., “Sorption of distillery spent wash onto fly ash: Kinetics, mechanism, process design and factorial design”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 161, pp. 1313 - 1322, 2009.[Abstract]


Batch and continuous experiments were performed for the sorption of distillery spent wash onto fly ash particles. The Freundlich and pseudo-second order equation were found to fit the equilibrium data perfectly. The Weber–Morris intraparticle diffusion isotherm equation was used to predict the sorption mechanism and the predicted equation for 10% dilution of spent wash sorption is qt = 1.1344t0.5 + 33.304. The optimization using 23 factorial design of experiments provides optimal removal of color of 93% for dilution (5%), dosage of adsorbent (10 g) and temperature (293 K). The actual color removal at optimal conditions was 92.24%, confirms close to the factorial design results. The complete error analysis using six non-linear error functions: Chi-square (χ2); sum of square errors (SSE); composite fractional error function (HYBRD); derivative of Marquardt's percent standard deviation (MPSD); average relative error (ARE); sum of absolute errors (EABS) were calculated. Free energy of adsorption at 293 K (ΔG0 = −1574.67 J), enthalpy change (ΔH0 = −32.5487 KJ) and entropy change (ΔS0 = 105 J/K) were calculated to predict the nature of adsorption. Adsorption studies in a packed column were evaluated using Bed depth service time model, Thomas model and Adams–Bohart model. More »»

2009

Journal Article

K. R. Prasad and Srivastava, S. N., “Electrochemical degradation of distillery spent wash using catalytic anode: Factorial design of experiments”, Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 146, pp. 22 - 29, 2009.[Abstract]


In the present study, electrochemical degradation experiments were conducted to degrade distillery spent wash. It was performed with ruthenium oxide coated titanium mesh acting as anode and stainless steel as cathode. The effects of current density, dilution, electrolysis time and pH on the degradation rate were investigated. Increasing the initial pH and dilution decreases the decolorization efficiency. At the same time, increasing the chloride concentration and increasing the current density increased the color removal. The combined effects of these factors were optimized using factorial design of experiments for color removal and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal. Regression models were developed to study the interaction among the variables for both the color removal and COD reduction. The optimal removal of color of 83.31% and COD degradation of 39.66% was obtained for current density (14.285 mA/cm2), electrolysis time of 3 h and at dilution of 10% distillery spent wash at slightly acidic pH 5.5. The actual color removal and COD degradation at optimal conditions are 81% and 37%, respectively, which confirms close to factorial design results. More »»

2009

Journal Article

K. R. Prasad and Srivastava, S. N., “Sorption of distillery spent wash onto fly ash: Kinetics and mass transfer studies”, Chemical Engineering Journal, vol. 146, pp. 90 - 97, 2009.[Abstract]


Adsorption studies for sorption of distillery spent wash onto fly ash particles were studied in both batch and packed column. Equilibrium data were fitted to the Sips, Elvoich and Dubinin–Radushkevich, Redlich–Peterson, Langmuir four types and Ho's four types of pseudo-second-order kinetic models. The complete error analysis was done to determine the best isotherm model using six different non-linear error functions: chi-square (χ2), sum of square errors (SSEs), composite fractional error function (HYBRD), derivative of Marquardt's percent standard deviation (MPSD), average relative error (ARE), sum of absolute errors (EABS) and linear regression correlation coefficient (r2). The Biot number was determined using internal mass transfer coefficient and the external mass transfer coefficient estimated using Mathews and Weber model and Furusawa and Smith model. The Biot number estimated provides that external film transfer controls the mechanism of sorption of spent wash onto fly ash. Packed column adsorption was analyzed using Thomas model and Adams–Bohart model for different flow rates of studies. More »»

2009

Journal Article

K. R. Prasad, “Color removal from distillery spent wash through coagulation using Moringa oleifera seeds: Use of optimum response surface methodology”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 165, pp. 804 - 811, 2009.[Abstract]


The effects of dosage, pH and concentration of salts were investigated for an optimized condition of color removal from the distillery spent wash. The optimization process was analyzed using custom response surface methodology (RSM). The design was employed to derive a statistical model for the effect of parameters studied on removal of color using Moringa oleifera coagulant (MOC). The dosage (20 and 60 ml), pH (7 and 8.5) and concentration of 0.25 M had been found to be the optimum conditions for maximum 56% and 67% color removal using sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) salts respectively. The actual color removal at optimal conditions was found to be 53% and 64% respectively for NaCl and KCl salts which confirms close to RSM results. The effects of storage duration and temperature on MOC studied reveal that coagulation efficiency of MOC kept at room temperature was effective for 3 days and at 4 °C it performed coagulation up to 5 days. More »»

2009

Journal Article

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Sabu Thomas, and Kuruvilla Joseph, “Dynamic mechanical analysis of in situ microfibrillar composites based on PP and PET”, Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, vol. 48, pp. 455–463, 2009.[Abstract]


Microfibrillar composites (MFCs) based on polypropylene and poly (ethylene terephthalate) were prepared by a three step process namely blending (extrusion), fibrilization (drawing) and isotropization, using different draw ratios (viz. 2, 5, 8 and 10). The drawn (stretched) blend was injection moulded at a temperature between the melting points of the two polymers, leading to isotropization. During this step PET microfibrils got randomly distributed in an isotropic PP matrix to complete the formation of microfibrillar in situ composites. The dynamic mechanical properties such as storage modulus (E′), loss modulus (E″) and mechanical loss factor (tan δ) of PP, neat blend and in situ composites were investigated. The E′ values were found to increase up to a stretch ratio of 8. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of PP in the MFC was found to shift to higher values with an increase in stretch ratio. The presence of microfibrils showed a positive effect on the modulus at temperatures above Tg of PP, especially for the samples drawn at stretch ratio 5 and 8. The tan δ and E″ modulus spectra indicated a strong influence of the microfibrils on the magnitude of α and β relaxations of PP. The effect of test frequency on storage modulus, loss modulus and tan δ was studied.

More »»

2009

Journal Article

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Jose, T., Sabu Thomas, and Kuruvilla Joseph, “Effect of draw ratio on the microstructure, thermal, tensile and dynamic rheological properties of insitu microfibrillar composites”, European Polymer Journal, vol. 45, pp. 1738–1747, 2009.[Abstract]


Microfibrillar composites (MFCs) were prepared using different draw/stretch ratios [viz. 2, 5, 8 and 10] from polypropylene/polyethylene terephthalate (PP/PET) blends. Scanning electron microscopy [SEM] images revealed that PET microfibrils were highly oriented after melt blending and drawing. After the conversion of drawn (stretched) blends to MFCs the PET microfibrils were found to be randomly distributed in the PP matrix. The tensile strength and modulus of the MFCs were found to be higher for the samples drawn at stretch ratios 5 and 8 on account of the long PET microfibrils they possessed. The non isothermal crystallization behaviour of the neat blend (as extruded), stretched blend and the MFC was compared. The oriented PET fibrils in the stretched blend were found to have a greater nucleating effect for the crystallization of PP than the spherical PET particles in the neat blend and randomly oriented short PET fibrils in the MFC. Dynamic rheology studies indicated the storage modulus and loss modulus of MFCs were enhanced as draw ratio increases up to an optimized level beyond which they decrease. When the draw ratio increased up to the optimized level the MFCs tended to be more viscous, especially at low frequency, whereas further increasing the draw ratio resulted in a decrease in the complex viscosity. The microfibrils of PET in the MFC were found to perturb the relaxation of molten PP matrix. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

More »»

2009

Journal Article

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., George, G., Sabu Thomas, and Kuruvilla Joseph, “Morphology Development of Normal Blends, Microfibrillar Blends and Composites from LDPE and PET”, SB Academic Review, vol. XVI, pp. 66-76, 2009.[Abstract]


In this work, the morphology of the normal blends, microfibrillar blends and the corresponding microfibrillar composites based on low density polyethylene and poly ethylene terephthalate was analysed. The effect of poly ethylene terephthalate concentration on the size of the dispersed phase was studied. With the increase in PET concentration an increase in the diameter of poly ethylene terephthalate spheres/ fibrils was observed. The poly ethylene terephthalate fibrils with relatively uniform diameter distribution was obtained for 85/15 and 75/25 w/w% blends. The increase in poly ethylene terephthalate concentration developed co continuous morphology in the case of normal blends. The fibrillar morphology of poly ethylene terephthalate was perturbed at its higher concentrations in the case of microfibrillar composites.

More »»

2009

Journal Article

Dr. Kannan M., Bhagawan, S. S., Kuruvilla Joseph, and Sabu Thomas, “Mechanical properties and morphology of nanoclay-filled different TPU/PP blends”, Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering, vol. 48, pp. 871–876, 2009.[Abstract]


Thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) (based on ether and ester polyols) were blended with nonpolar material of PP. Nanoclay was used to reduce the surface energy of the TPU hard segments and makes them more compatible with the non-polar PP. More compatible blends have been obtained by using MA-g-PP as the compatibiliser. Blends were produced by melt mixing using a twin crew extruder. Compared to the ether-TPU based blend nano- composites, the ester-TPU blends show better compatibility as con- firmed by DMA, Tensile strength, XRD, SEM, and AFM analysis.

More »»

2009

Journal Article

Dr. Kannan M., Bhagawan, S. S., Kuruvilla Joseph, and Sabu Thomas, “Mechanical Properties and Morphology of Nanoclay Filled Different TPU/PP Blend Nanocomposites: Structure-Property Relations”, Journal of composite materials, vol. 43, no. 18, pp. 1915-1926, 2009.[Abstract]


Thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) (based on ether and ester polyols) were blended with nonpolar polypropylene (PP). Nanoclay was used to reduce the surface energy of the TPU hard segments and make them more compatible with the nonpolar PP. More compatible blends were obtained by using MA-g-PP as the compatibilizer. Blends were produced by melt mixing using a twin screw extruder. Compared to the ether-TPU-based blend nanocomposites, the ester-TPU blends show better compatibility as confirmed by DMA, Tensile strength, XRD, SEM, and AFM analysis

More »»

2009

Journal Article

Y. Senzaki, Okuyama, Y., Kim, G., Kim, H. Young, Barelli, C., Lindner, J., Karim, Z., and Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, “Highly Conformal ALD of ZrO2 at Higher Process Temperatures than the Conventinal TEMAZr-Based Process”, ECS Transactions, vol. 25, pp. 201–209, 2009.[Abstract]


An alternative Zr source to tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)zirconium (TEMAZr) was evaluated in this study to develop more thermally robust 300mm ZrO2 ALD process. It was observed that a transition from ALD to CVD takes place at approximately 340åC susceptor temperature. This temperature is significantly higher than that for the commonly used TEMAZr-based ALD process by approximately 40åC. Excellent step coverage of near 100% of ALD ZrO2 has been achieved in 40:1 aspect ratio structures using this new ZrO2 ALD process. ZrO2 ALD films of 5.5nm thickness demonstrated a low leakage current of 2x10-9A/cm2 at 1.2V. More »»

2009

Journal Article

Dr. Duraisamy Kumaresan, Thummel, R., Bura, T., Ulrich, G., and Ziessel, R., “Colour Tuning in a Novel Metal-free Organic Sensitizer (Bodipy) for Dye-sensitized Solar Cells”, Chemistry: A European Journal, vol. 15, pp. 6335-6339, 2009.[Abstract]


Fun in the sun! A strategy has been devised for functionalizing and solubilizing boron dipyrromethene (Bodipy) dyes at the central boron atom and changing the color by increasing delocalization on the central core. This approach leads to the formation of stable BC≡C and pyrroleCC linkages suitable for use in TiO2‐sensitized devices (see figure).

More »»

2009

Journal Article

Dr. Duraisamy Kumaresan, Lebkowsky, K., and Schmehl, R. H., “Synthesis, Photophysics and Gel Formation of Terpyridyl Platinum(II) Complexes Covalently Linked to a Naphthalene Diimide”, J. Photochem. Photobio. A: Chemistry, vol. 207, pp. 86-93, 2009.

2008

Journal Article

Dr. Kannan M., Bhagawan, S. Sa, Joseph, Kb, and Thomas, Sc, “Thermomechanical behavior of nanoclay filled TPU/PP blends”, E-Polymers, 2008.[Abstract]


Both ester- and ether- based thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanocomposites were prepared by melt blending, using 3 wt % Cloisite 10A (organically modified montmorillonite clay) as the nano scale reinforcement. The nanocomposites were subsequently melt-blended with polypropylene (PP) using maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MA-g-PP) as a compatibilizer (in the ratio of 70/30- TPU nano/PP, 70/25/5-TPU nano/PP/MA-g-PP). Besides giving substantial increase in modulus, tensile strength and other properties organoclay reinforcement functions as a surface modifier for TPU hard segment. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that compatibilization is further improved by introducing functionalized PP (MA-g-PP) in the organoclay containing blends. The blend system was evaluated by DSC, DMA, SEM, mechanical properties and X-ray diffraction. The results indicate that the ester- TPU exhibited greater miscibility than ether-TPU. Abrasion resistance and water absorption were also better for compatibilised ester- TPU blends as compared to the ether-TPU materials.

More »»

2008

Journal Article

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Sabu Thomas, and Kuruvilla Joseph, “Mechanical and thermal properties of microfibrillar polymer-polymer composites”, Journal of Polymer Materials, vol. 25, pp. 381–386, 2008.[Abstract]


Microfibrillar polymer-polymer composites were prepared by melt blending of polypropylene (PP) and poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET). The blending of the polymers was carried out in a single screw extruder, followed by continuous drawing at a stretch (draw) ratio 5. The stretched blend was converted into polymer-polymer composite by injection moulding carried out at temperatures between the melting points of PP and PET. Morphology analysis revealed that the extruded neat blend was isotropic, whereas the stretched blend possessed highly oriented fibrils generated in situ during drawing. The PET fibrils were found to be randomly distributed in the PP matrix of the polymer-polymer composite obtained. The mechanical properties of the injection moulded neat blend and polymer-polymer composite were compared. The tensile and impact properties of the composite were found to be considerably higher than that of the neat blend. The non isothermal crystallization behaviour of the neat blend, stretched blend and the polymer-polymer composite was compared. The oriented PET fibrils in the stretched blend were found to have a greater nucleating effect for the crystallization of PP than the spherical PET particles in the neat blend and randomly oriented short PET fibrils in the polymer-polymer composite.

More »»

2008

Journal Article

Dr. Krishna Prasad R., R. Kumar, R., and Srivastava, S. N., “Design of Optimum Response Surface Experiments for Electro-Coagulation of Distillery Spent Wash”, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, vol. 191, pp. 5-13, 2008.[Abstract]


Electro-coagulation (EC) of a distillery spent wash has been optimized by Box–Behnken design of surface response analysis in terms of color removal. The design was employed to derive a statistical model for the effect of parameters studied on removal of color using iron anodes. The current density (31 mA/cm2), dilution (17.5%) and time of electrolysis (4 hours) had been found to be the optimum conditions for maximum 95% color removal. The actual color removal at optimized conditions was found to be 93.5% which confirms close to the predicted response using response surface methodology. More »»

2008

Journal Article

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Sabu Thomas, and Kuruvilla Joseph, “Morphology, static and dynamic mechanical properties of in situ microfibrillar composites based on polypropylene/poly (ethylene terephthalate) blends”, Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, vol. 39, pp. 164–175, 2008.[Abstract]


In situ composites based on blends of polypropylene (PP) and poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET), were prepared by melt extrusion, followed by continuous drawing and isotropization. The blending of the mixture was carried out in a single screw extruder and the isotropization of the stretched blend was achieved by injection moulding. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that the extruded blends were isotropic, but both phases became highly oriented after drawing (stretching). The stretched blends were converted into in situ composites after injection moulding at temperatures below the melting point of PET. The size of the PET fibrils generated decreased with increasing stretch ratio. The tensile and impact properties were found to be higher for the samples drawn at stretch ratios 5 and 8. Dynamic mechanical properties such as the storage modulus (E′), loss modulus (E″) damping behavior (tan δ) and static mechanical properties were investigated as a function of stretch ratio. The E′ values were found to be increasing up to a stretch ratio 8. The tan δ and E″ modulus spectra showed a strong influence of the microfibrils on the α and β relaxation of PP. Finally, the tensile properties obtained experimentally were compared with those determined using theoretical equations.

More »»

2008

Journal Article

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Bhagawan, S. S., Thomas, S., and K. Joseph, “Morphology development and non isothermal crystallization behaviour of drawn blends and microfibrillar composites from PP and PET”, Polymer Bulletin, vol. 60, pp. 525–532, 2008.[Abstract]


Microfibrillar composites (MFC) were prepared from the blends of polypropylene (PP) and poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) at a fixed weight ratio of 85/15. The blending of the mixture was carried out in a single screw extruder, followed by continuous drawing at a stretch (draw) ratio 5. The stretched blends were converted into MFC by injection moulding. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that the extruded blends were isotropic, but both phases possessed highly oriented fibrils in the stretched blends, which were generated insitu during drawing. The PET fibrils were found to be randomly distributed in the PP matrix after injection moulding. The non isothermal crystallization behaviour of the as extruded blend, stretched blend and MFC was compared. The analysis of the crystallization temperature and time characteristics revealed that the PET fibrils in the stretched blend had a greater nucleating effect for the crystallization of PP than the spherical PET particles in the as extruded blend and short PET fibrils in the MFC.

More »»

2008

Journal Article

Mahendra Naktuji Nadanwar and Sanjeev Kumar, “A new discretization of space for the solution of multi-dimensional population balance equations: Simultaneous breakup and aggregation of particles”, Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 63, no. 15, pp. 3988 - 3997, 2008.[Abstract]


n this work, we show that straight forward extensions of the existing techniques to solve 2-d population balance equations (PBEs) for particle breakup result in very high numerical dispersion, particularly in directions perpendicular to the direction of evolution of population. These extensions also fail to predict formation of particles of uniform composition at steady state for simultaneous breakup and aggregation of particles, starting with particles of both uniform and non-uniform compositions. The straight forward extensions of 1-d techniques preserve 2n properties of non-pivot particles, which are taken to be number, two masses, and product of masses for the solution of 2-d PBEs. Chakraborty and Kumar [2007. A new framework for solution of multidimensional population balance equations. Chemical Engineering Science 62, 4112–4125] have recently proposed a new framework of minimal internal consistency of discretization which requires preservation of only (n+1) properties. In this work, we combine a new radial grid [proposed in 2008. part I, Chemical Engineering Science 63, 2198] with the above framework to solve 2-d PBEs consisting of terms representing breakup of particles. Numerical dispersion with the use of straight forward extensions arises on account of formation of daughter particles of compositions different from that of the parent particles. The proposed technique eliminates numerical dispersion completely with a radial distribution of grid points and preservation of only three properties: number and two masses. The same features also enable it to correctly capture mixing brought about by aggregation of particles. The proposed technique thus emerges as a powerful and flexible technique, naturally suited to simulate PBE based models incorporating simultaneous breakup and aggregation of particles.

More »»

2008

Journal Article

Mahendra Naktuji Nadanwar and Sanjeev Kumar, “A new discretization of space for the solution of multi-dimensional population balance equations”, Chemical Engineering Science, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 2198 - 2210, 2008.[Abstract]


In this work, a novel radial grid is combined with the framework of minimal internal consistency of discretized equations of Chakraborty and Kumar [2007. A new framework for solution of multidimensional population balance equations. Chemical Engineering Science 62, 4112–4125] to solve n-dimensional population balance equations (PBEs) with preservation of (n+1) instead of 2n properties required in direct extension of the 1-d fixed pivot technique of Kumar and Ramkrishna [1996a. On the solutions of population balance equation by discretization-I. A fixed pivot technique. Chemical Engineering Science 51, 1311–1332]. The radial grids for the solution of 2-d PBEs are obtained by intersecting arbitrarily spaced radial lines with arcs of arbitrarily increasing radii. The quadrilaterals obtained thus are divided into triangles to represent a non-pivot particle in 2-d space through three surrounding pivots by preserving three properties, the number and the two masses of the species that constitute the newly formed particle. Such a grid combines the ease of generating and handling a structured grid with the effectiveness of the framework of minimal internal consistency. A new quantitative measure to supplement visual comparison of two solutions is also introduced. The comparison of numerical and analytical solutions of 2-d PBEs for a number of uniform and selectively refined radial grids shows that the quality of solution obtained with radial grids is substantially better than that obtained with the direct extension of the 1-d fixed pivot technique to higher dimensions for both size independent and size dependent aggregation kernels. The framework of Chakraborty and Kumar combined with the proposed 2-d radial grid, which offers flexibility and achieves both reduced numerical dispersion and the ease of implementation, appears as an effective extension of the widely used 1-d fixed pivot technique to solve 2-d PBEs.

More »»

2007

Journal Article

J. Dalton, Kim, H. Young, Zhang, Z., Seidel, T., Karim, Z., and Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, “High Performance ALD Reactor for High-k Films”, ECS Transactions, vol. 3, pp. 27–36, 2007.[Abstract]


In this work we discuss the design requirements for achieving higher productivity ALD solutions and we present a single-wafer reactor design that incorporates improvement elements. The effectiveness of this approach is evaluated by examining the improved step coverage, saturation, uniformity and electrical properties of ZrO2 high-k films deposited using this reactor system. More »»

2006

Journal Article

Dr. Kannan M., Bhagawan, S. S., Kuruvilla Joseph, and Sabu Thomas, “Thermoplastic polyurethane based blends and nanocomposites: Structure - properties relations”, International Journal of Plastic Technology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 575-585, 2006.

2006

Journal Article

Z. Karim, Biossiere, O., Lohe, C., Zhang, Z., Park, W., Manke, C., Baumann, P. K., Dalton, J., Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, Lindner, J., and , “Advanced Metal Gate Electrode Options Compatible with ALD and AVD® HfSiOx-based Gate Dielectrics”, ECS Transactions, vol. 3, pp. 363–374, 2006.[Abstract]


We have investigated metal gate electrodes for use with high k HfSiOx gate dielectric films using AVD® and ALD technology. First, we report on the characterization of the AVD® and ALD deposition techniques where both HfO2 and SiO2 are combined for the formation of HfSiOx. Nitrogen is then incorporated using both in-situ and ex-situ methods to form HfSiON and the resulting film properties are compared. Using an AVD process a work-function of >4.7eV for Ru and RuO2 gate electrode metals in combination with HfSiOx was obtained. A TaN-based metal gate was also characterized to target a promising pMOS solution using different compositions. Together with its high flexibility and composition control, both ALD and AVD® can become key processes for advanced high-k dielectrics as well as compatible CMOS metal electrodes. More »»

2005

Journal Article

Dr. Sriram Devanathan, Vardeman, S. B., and Rollins, D. K., “Likelihood and Bayesian Methods for Accurate Identification of Measurement Biases in Pseudo Steady-State Processes”, Chemical Engineering Research and Design, vol. 83, pp. 1391–1398, 2005.[Abstract]


Two new approaches are presented for improved identification of measurement biases in linear pseudo steady-state processes. Both are designed to detect a change in the mean of a measured variable leading to an inference regarding the presence of a biased measurement. The first method is based on a likelihood ratio test for the presence of a mean shift. The second is based on a Bayesian decision rule (relying on prior distributions for unknown parameters) for the detection of a mean shift. The performance of these two methods is compared with that of a method given by Devanathan et al. (2000). For the process studied, both techniques were found to have higher identification power than the method of Devanathan et al. and appears to have excellent but sightly lower type I error performance than the Devanathan et al. method.

More »»

2005

Journal Article

X. Liu, Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, Longdergan, A., Srivastava, A., Lee, E., Seidel, T. E., Barton, J. T., Pang, D., and Gordon, R. G., “ALD of Hafnium Oxide Thin Films from Tetrakis (ethylmethylamino) Hafnium and Ozone”, Journal of The Electrochemical Society, vol. 152, pp. G213–G219, 2005.[Abstract]


Hafnium oxide (HfO2)(HfO2) thin films were deposited from tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)hafnium (TEMAH) and ozone (O3)(O3) by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on 200 mm silicon wafers. The O3O3 half-reaction shows good saturation behavior. However, gradual surface saturation is observed for the TEMAH half-reaction. Within wafer non-uniformity of less than 1% and step coverage of about 100% were achieved for trenches with aspect ratio of around 40:1. The film thickness increased linearly as the number of cycles increased. From susceptor temperatures of 160-420°C, the lowest deposition rate (Å/cycle) and the highest refractive index is observed at 320°C. The atomic ratio of hafnium to oxygen determined by Rutherford backscattering is 1:2.04 for the films deposited at 320°C. The carbon and hydrogen content determined by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) decreased as the susceptor temperature increased from 200 to 320°C. Lower carbon and hydrogen levels were obtained in the control films made with H2OH2O than the films made with O3.O3. A reaction mechanism of the TEMAH+O3TEMAH+O3 ALD process is discussed. The results show that an O3O3 -based ALD HfO2HfO2 deposition is promising for microelectronic applications. © 2005 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

More »»
PDF iconald-of-hafnium-oxide-thin-films-from-tetrakis-ethylmethylamino-hafnium-and-ozone.pdf

2004

Journal Article

K. R. Prasad and Srivastava, S. N., “Role of Amines & Polymeric Membranes in CO2 separation”, Pollution Research, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 223-227, 2004.

2004

Journal Article

K. R. Prasad and Srivastava, S. N., “Recovery of Spent Solvent using Tea Waste”, Pollution Research, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 543-547, 2004.

2002

Journal Article

D. K. Rollins, Dr. Sriram Devanathan, and Bascuñana, M. Victoria B., “Measurement bias detection in linear dynamic systems”, Computers & chemical engineering, vol. 26, pp. 1201–1211, 2002.[Abstract]


A new method to detect the existence of biased measured variables in dynamic processes is presented. Hence, this work presents a new Dynamic Global Test (DGT) and test procedure for dynamic gross error detection (GED) that brings to light certain of its attributes which have not hitherto (to our knowledge) been presented in GED literature. Recognition of these attributes leads to a scheme that enables identification of the type of biased measurement (e.g. flow or level). This approach is not computationally intensive and is applicable in the case of process leaks and multiple biased variables. Simulation results for the identification of the type of biased measurement (e.g. flow or level) and the estimation of the time of occurrence (ETOC) are given. The performance study in this work specifically varied the size of measurement bias (δi), the bias location (i), the bias true time of occurrence (TTOC), the significance level (α), and the sample size (N). This study shows the proposed approach to be accurate in identifying the type of biased variable and its TTOC. The performance of the proposed scheme improves as N and δi increase.

More »»

2002

Journal Article

A. R. Londergan, Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, Vu, K., Rassiga, S., Hiznay, R., Winkler, J., Velasco, H., Matthysse, L., Seidel, T. E., Ang, C. H., and , “Process Optimization in Atomic Layer Deposition of High-K Oxides for Advanced gate Stack Engineering”, Rapid Thermal and Other Short-Time Technologies III, ECS, Pennington, pp. 163 - 176, 2002.

2000

Journal Article

Dr. Sriram Devanathan, Rollins, D. K., and Vardeman, S. B., “A new approach for improved identification of measurement bias”, Computers & Chemical Engineering, vol. 24, pp. 2755–2764, 2000.[Abstract]


This work presents a technique that can completely and accurately identify measurement bias in cases where it is not possible
to use the method of Rollins and Davis (1992, 1993) and where the method of Narasimhan and Mah (1987) fail to perform
accurately. This technique makes use of information contained in the relationship between individual measurements and the
corresponding nodal imbalance. The performance of this method is demonstrated on a problem from the literature that has been
difficult for other methods to handle. In addition, this article discusses how the new technique can be used as a visual monitoring
tool for identifying biased measured variables.

More »»

1999

Journal Article

S. T. Oyama, C. Yu, C., and Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, “Transition Metal Bimetallic Oxycarbides: Synthesis, Characterization, and Activity Studies”, Journal of Catalysis, vol. 184, pp. 535 - 549, 1999.[Abstract]


A new family of bimetallic oxycarbide compounds MI–MII–O–C (MI=Mo, W; MII=V, Nb, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni) has been synthesized by carburizing bimetallic oxide precursors using a temperature-programmed method. The oxide precursors are prepared by conventional solid-state reaction between two appropriate monometallic oxides. The synthesis involves passing a 20 mol% \{CH4\} in \{H2\} mixture over the oxide precursors while raising the temperature at a linear rate of 8.3×10−2 K s−1 (5 K/min) to a final temperature (Tmax) which is held for a period of time (thold). The synthesis, chemisorption properties, and reactivation of the materials indicate that the compounds can be divided into two groups of different reducibility (high and low). Their surface activity and surface area are evaluated based on \{CO\} chemisorption and \{N2\} physisorption measurements. It is found that the \{CO\} number density correlates with the reducibility of the compounds. The catalysts were evaluated for hydroprocessing in a three-phase trickle-bed reactor operated at 3.1 \{MPa\} and 643 K. The feed was a model liquid mixture containing 3000 ppm sulfur (dibenzothiophene), 2000 ppm nitrogen (quinoline), 500 ppm oxygen (benzofuran), 20 wt% aromatics (tetralin), and balance aliphatics (tetradecane). The bimetallic oxycarbides had moderate activity for \{HDN\} of quinoline, with Nb–Mo–O–C showing higher \{HDN\} than a commercial sulfided Ni–Mo/Al2O3 catalyst tested at the same conditions. X-ray diffraction of the spent catalysts indicated that the oxycarbides of the early transition metals were tolerant of sulfur, while those involving the late transition metals showed bulk sulfide phases. More »»

1998

Journal Article

C. C. Yu, Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, and Oyama, S. T., “New Catalysts for Hydroprocessing: Bimetallic Oxynitrides MI–MII–O–N (MI, MII=Mo, W, V, Nb, Cr, Mn, and Co): Part I. Synthesis and Characterization”, Journal of Catalysis, vol. 173, pp. 1 - 9, 1998.[Abstract]


A new family of bimetallic oxynitride compounds, MI–MII–O–N (MI, MII=Mo, W, V, Nb, Cr, Mn, and Co), has been synthesized by nitriding bimetallic oxide precursors with ammonia gas via a temperature programmed reaction. The oxide precursors are prepared by conventional solid state reaction between two appropriate monometallic oxides. The synthesis involves passing NH3gas over the oxide precursors at a flow rate of 6.80×102μmol s−1(1000 cm3/min) and raising the temperature at a heating rate of 8.3×10−2K s−1(5 K/min) to a final temperature (Tf) which is held constant for a short period of time (thold). The oxynitrides thus obtained are pyrophoric and need to be passivated before exposing them to air. All these new bimetallic oxynitrides have a face centered cubic crystal structure and high values of surface area. The surface reactivation and the thermal stability of the materials are studied by temperature programmed reduction and this indicates that the compounds can be divided into three groups of different reducibility (high, medium, and low). Their surface activity and surface area are evaluated based on CO chemisorption and N2physisorption measurements. It is found that the chemisorbed CO number density correlates with the reducibility of the compounds.

More »»

1998

Journal Article

B. Dhandapani, Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, Yu, C. C., Frühberger, B., Chen, J. G., and Oyama, S. T., “Synthesis, Characterization, and Reactivity Studies of Supported Mo2C with Phosphorus Additive”, Journal of Catalysis, vol. 176, pp. 61 - 67, 1998.[Abstract]


The effect of phosphorus on Mo2C supported on γ-Al2O3and activated carbon was studied. The catalysts were characterized by \{CO\} chemisorption, \{BET\} surface area measurements, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure, and tested for their reactivity for hydroprocessing reactions, particularly hydrogenation, hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), using model liquid compounds. The P-containing catalysts had higher reactivity for \{HDN\} than those without P. \{HDS\} was higher when the Mo2C was synthesized on γ-Al2O3previously treated with P than when the Mo component and P were added together on γ-Al2O3. Postreaction characterization indicates that the catalysts were tolerant of sulfur. More »»

1998

Journal Article

Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, Oyama, S. T., and C., C., “New Catalysts for Hydroprocessing: Bimetallic Oxynitrides MI-MII-O-N (MI, MII= Mo, W, V, Nb, Cr, Mn, and Co) Part II: Reactivity Studies”, Journal of Catalysis, pp. 10-16, 1998.[Abstract]


Bimetallic oxynitrides of the typeMIMIIOxNywere used as catalysts in hydrotreating reactions at 3.1 MPa and 643 K. The catalysts were prepared by nitriding bimetallic oxide precursors, where MoO3or WO3was one of the components, as described in the companion paper. The reactions were studied in a three-phase trickle-bed reactor operated at 3.1 MPa and 643 K. The feed was a model liquid mixture containing 3000 ppm sulfur (dibenzothiophene), 2000 ppm nitrogen (quinoline), 500 ppm oxygen (benzofuran), 20 wt% aromatics (tetralin), and balance aliphatics (tetradecane). The activities of the bimetallic nitrides were compared to a commercial sulfided Ni–Mo/Al2O3catalyst tested at the same conditions. The bimetallic oxynitrides were active for HDN of quinoline with V–Mo–O–N showing higher HDN activity than the commercial sulfided Ni–Mo–S/Al2O3catalyst. The HDS activity of the bimetallic oxynitrides ranged from 9 to 37% with Co–Mo–O–N showing the highest HDS activity among the oxynitrides tested. X-ray diffraction analysis of the spent catalysts indicated that the oxynitrides consisting of early transition metals (Group 4–Group 6) were tolerant of sulfur, while catalysts involving metals of Group 7 and Group 8 showed bulk sulfide phases. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of the catalysts before and after the reaction indicated the incorporation of sulfur on the surface of the catalysts after prolonged exposure to the reactants.

More »»

1997

Journal Article

C. C. Yu, Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, Dhandapani, B., Chen, J. G., and S. Oyama, T., “Bimetallic Nb−Mo Carbide Hydroprocessing Catalysts:  Synthesis, Characterization, and Activity Studies”, The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 101, pp. 512-518, 1997.[Abstract]


A series of Nb1.0MoxOC (x = 0.67−2.0) catalysts were prepared by a temperature-programmed reaction technique. The catalysts were synthesized from oxide precursors in a flow of 20% CH4/H2 reactant gas mixture, while the temperature was increased linearly at 5 K/min (8.3 × 10-2 K s-1). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), elemental analysis, CO chemisorption, surface area measurements, and temperature-programmed reduction. XRD patterns of the fresh catalysts indicated that Nb1.0Mo1.5OC and Nb1.0Mo1.75OC consisted of pure bimetallic carbide phases, while the other compositions showed impurity phases of NbO2 or Mo2C at high concentrations of Nb and Mo, respectively, in the starting oxide. The hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) activity of these materials was studied in a high-pressure reactor system. The reactions were carried out at 3.1 MPa and 643 K using model liquid compounds containing moderate concentrations of sulfur, nitrogen, oxygen, and aromatics. All the catalysts were found to be active for quinoline HDN, and the activity did not show much variation with changes in the ratio of the two metals (Mo/Nb). However, the HDS activity was found to be more sensitive to the composition (Mo/Nb) and Nb1.0Mo1.75OC showed the highest HDS activity among the catalysts tested. The bimetallic compounds showed enhancement in the activity and stability compared to the corresponding monometallic carbides. X-ray diffraction patterns of the spent catalysts did not show any sulfide, oxide, or metal peaks, indicating that the catalysts were stable and tolerant of sulfur. More »»

1996

Journal Article

D. K. Rollins, Cheng, Y., and Dr. Sriram Devanathan, “Intelligent selection of hypothesis tests to enhance gross error identification”, Computers & chemical engineering, vol. 20, pp. 517–530, 1996.[Abstract]


The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a new technique to identify systematic measurement errors (i.e. biases) in process variables. This technique obtains high identification accuracy and computational speed by efficiently selecting a small subset of statistical hypothesis tests from a very large set using new selection criteria developed in this work. In this article the proposed technique is also evaluated and compared to a well known method in a fairly extenisve Monte Carlo simulation study. The proposed technique was found to be computationally faster and, as the variances of measurement errors decreased, significantly more accurate in identifying systematic errors.

More »»

1995

Journal Article

Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan and Oyama, S. T., “New Catalysts for Hydroprocessing: Transition Metal Carbides and Nitrides”, The Journal of Physical Chemistry, vol. 99, pp. 16365-16372, 1995.

1993

Journal Article

D. K. Rollins and Dr. Sriram Devanathan, “Unbiased estimation in dynamic data reconciliation”, AIChE journal, vol. 39, pp. 1330–1334, 1993.[Abstract]


A computationally fast technique accurately estimates process variables when conditions are dynamic due to changes in steady states. The process variable estimators are unbiased and have known distributions. Thus, confidence intervals for true values of process variables are provided. The formulation of this technique was motivated by a recursive, dynamic data reconciliation technique that obtains very accurate estimators. These two techniques are compared in terms of computational speed and accuracy of estimators. The proposed technique is computationally faster, but not as accurate when variances of process measurements are large. However, the accuracy of the proposed estimators is shown to approach that of the recursive technique by iteratively recalculating estimates and when measurement variances decrease.

More »»

Publication Type: Book Chapter

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2017

Book Chapter

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Rasana, N., and Mishra, R. Kumar, “Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis of Polymer Nanocomposites”, in Thermal and Rheological Measurement Techniques for Nanomaterials Characterization- (3 volume series) (Scopus), edited by Sabu Thomas, Raghvendra kumar Mishra ,Raju Thomas and Ajesh K. Zachariah, Elsevier Publications, 2017, pp. 123–157.[Abstract]


The objective of this chapter is to establish the use of dynamic mechanical thermal analysis in characterizing polymer nanocomposites. Dynamic mechanical analysis is a powerful tool employed to comprehend thermal transitions of viscoelastic materials by characterizing the evolution of their macromolecular relaxation as a function of temperature and loading frequency. The presence of nanofillers perturbs the relaxation of the polymer chains affecting the stiffness, rigidity, and energy absorbing capability of polymeric materials. The modifications in the viscoelastic behavior of the polymers with the inclusion of nanofillers can be effectively studied from the storage/loss moduli and damping factor spectra obtained from this analysis. In this chapter, the potential of dynamic mechanical thermal analysis is assessed by focusing on the ability of the technique to offer information not only on the viscoelastic performance of filled thermoplastic, thermosets, and elastomeric materials, but also on the miscibility and interface strengthening of polymer blends with nanoinclusions. The various theoretical equations used for modeling dynamic mechanical properties of polymer nanocomposites are discussed in detail.

More »»

2017

Book Chapter

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Thomas, S., Joseph, K., and Mishra, R. K., “Preparation, morphology, static and dynamic mechanical properties, and application of polyolefins and poly(ethylene terephthalate) based microfibrillar and nanofibrillar composites”, in Micro and Nano Fibrillar Composites (MFCs and NFCs) from Polymer Blends (A volume in Woodhead Publishing Series in Composites Science and Engineering), Elsevier Inc., 2017, pp. 183–211.[Abstract]


This chapter discusses the properties of micro and nanofibrillar composites prepared from blends of polyolefins and polyethylene terephthalate by a three-step protocol, namely melt extrusion, continuous drawing of extruded strands, followed by isotropization (annealing). These composites are unique in nature as the reinforcing fibrils are formed in situ during the melt blending process. The morphology development of the blends during each stage of preparation is analyzed by microscopic techniques. The static mechanical properties such as tensile strength, tensile modulus, elongation at break are examined. Dynamic mechanical properties analysis carried out gives information on the storage modulus, loss modulus, damping factor, and transition temperatures of in situ microfibrillar composites. The effect of draw ratio and blend ratio on the microstructure development is discussed in detail. The consequence of compatibilizer addition on the various properties of the in situ composites is reported. It is observed that an optimum draw ratio and blend ratio is imperative for maximizing the aspect ratio of the micro/nanofibrils which controls the strength and stiffness of the composite.

More »»

2017

Book Chapter

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Mishra, R. K., .Abraham, J., Joseph, K., and Thomas, S., “Conducting Polyurethane Composites”, in Polyurethane Polymers: Composites and Nanocomposites, Elsevier Inc., 2017, pp. 365–399.[Abstract]


Conducting polyurethane-based nanocomposites have been identified as one of the promising class of materials which find considerable attractive applications in various fields, such as construction, packaging, automotive, aerospace, military, medical, and electrical and electronics. In this chapter various aspects of conducting polyurethane nanocomposites are addressed, starting with their fabrication and ending with their applications. This chapter discusses various conducting polyurethane nanocomposites reinforced with various conducting fillers, such as carbon black, carbon nanotube, and graphene and also discusses a large variety of applications of composites which include shape memory, actuator sensors, and electromagnetic interference shielding fields.

More »»

2017

Book Chapter

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Mishra, R. K., .Abraham, J., Joseph, K., and Thomas, S., “Conducting Polyurethane Blends: Recent Advances and Perspectives”, in Polyurethane Polymers: Blends and Interpenetrating Polymer Networks, Elsevier Inc., 2017, pp. 203–231.[Abstract]


Polyurethane (PU) is a very important material with versatile properties. Melt blending of polyurethane with an intrinsic conducting polymer can improve the polyurethane properties such as electrical conductivity, corrosion protection, and electromagnetic shielding. The properties of blends are dependent upon the compatibility of the blend constituents. The main aim of this chapter is to explain the various properties and application of conducting polyurethane blends which are produced by mixing conducting polymers such as polyaniline, polypyrrole, or polythiophene with polyurethane. The rapid development of the new generation of electronic devices such as power sources, displays, and sensors requires intensive research on conducting polymer blends to improve the conductivity of insulating polymers and hence a wider application in fields such as electronics, electrical, automotive, aerospace, and the military.

More »»

2017

Book Chapter

M. K. Jinesh, Jayaraman, B., and Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, “Dynamic Constrained Objects for Vehicular Network Modeling”, in Formal Methods for Safety and Security: Case Studies for Aerospace Applications, M. Nanda and Jeppu, Y. Singapore: Springer Singapore, 2017, pp. 41–52.[Abstract]


We present a paradigm called dynamic constrained objects for a declarative approach to modeling complex systems. In the basic paradigm of constrained objects, the structure of a complex system is specified through objects (as in object-oriented languages), while the behavior of a complex system is specified declaratively through constraints (as in constraint languages). The emergent behavior of such a complex system is deduced through a process of constraint satisfaction. Our focus in this paper is on systems whose states change with time. Such time-varying behaviors are fundamental in many domains, especially in mission and safety-critical applications. We present an extension of constrained objects with special metric temporal operators over time-series data, and we discuss their properties. We refer to the resulting paradigm as dynamic constrained objects and we illustrate their use for vehicular network modeling. Here, the network of roads and the roadside infrastructure are specified through objects, and the movement of vehicles and associated safety and liveness conditions are specified through time-series variables and metric temporal operators. The paper presents a language called DCOB, for dynamic constrained objectsConstraint object, and examples of its use for vehicular network modeling.

More »»

2012

Book Chapter

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., “Microfibrils Reinforced Composites Based on PP and PET: Effect of Draw Ratio on Morphology, Static and Dynamic Mechanical Properties, Crystallization and Rheology”, in Synthetic Polymer–Polymer Composites, Edited by: Debes Bhattacharyya and Stoyko Fakirov , Munich, Germany: Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH & Co, 2012, pp. 437-461.[Abstract]


Microfibrillar composites (MFCs) are novel type of materials in which the reinforcing elements are polymer microfibrils of one or more homopolymers distributed anisotropically in an isotropic polymer matrix. The conspicuous feature of these types of composites is that both the matrix and the reinforcing phase are constituted by thermoplastic materials, which form partners to produce immiscible, fiber forming crystallizable microfibrillar blends (MFBs). Considering the size of the reinforcing elements, MFCs have an intermediate position between conventional fiber reinforced composites and molecular composites. In these types of blends, the required properties could be achieved by the careful selection of the component polymers (matrix and reinforcing elements) and their blend ratios. Fakirov, Evstatiev and coworkers [1–10] reported the pioneering work on this new type of polymeric materials. They made use of this technique: melt blending by extrusion, fibrillization of the blends by zone drawing and isotropization by annealing between the melting temperatures of the polymers involved to prepare polymer-polymer composites. Later on, Fakirov [11] introduced the concept of extrusion, on line drawing and isotropization using compression or injection molding to prepare MFCs. This technique was then used by several research groups [12–17] with their own variations in the drawing methodology adopted... More »»

2008

Book Chapter

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., “Compression, Transfer and Injection Moulding”, in Polymer Processing Technology, Editor: B.R.Gupta, 1st ed., New Delhi : Asian Books, 2008, pp. 16.1-16.37.

Publication Type: Conference Proceedings

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2017

Conference Proceedings

Nithya K., Sathish, A., and Sanganathan, A., “Plant extract capped magnetite nanoparticles for the rapid removal of Ni (II) ions from aqueous solution”, 2nd International Conference on Recent Advancements in Chemical, environmental and Energy Engineering ( RACEEE 2017). SSN College of Engineering, Chennai, Tamilnadu, p. 35, 2017.

2016

Conference Proceedings

A. Suresh, Pattath, K., Mohammed, A. C., and Dr. Meera Balachandran, “Simulation studies on Electric field propogation in cross-linked Polyethylene Nanosilica Composites”, Proceedings of International Conference on Macromolecules: Synthesis, Morphology, Processing, Structure, properties and Applications ICM 2016 . International Unit on Macromolecular Science and Engineering (IUMSE), Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, India, 2016.

2016

Conference Proceedings

Sindhu S., A, B., ,, and Ramani, P., “Physico-chemical Studies of Amoxycillin Loaded Sulfonated Polymer”, International Conference on Material Sciences SCICON’16, (Scopus). Amrita School of Engineering, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore , 2016.[Abstract]


This study involves in the selection of polymer, poly etherether ketone (PEEK), and its modification to serve the purpose of drug carrier. The polymer is sulfonated to increase the hydrophilic character, thereby making it feasible for functioning as a drug carrier. A blend of sulphonated PEEK and drug was made into thin membrane and characterized using FT-IR and surface morphology studies. Physico-chemical properties such as partition coefficient, permeability coefficients and diffusivity constant were measure for the sulphonated PEEK membranes.

More »»

2015

Conference Proceedings

C. Karthik, Rameshwar, V., Swati, A., Murali, R., and Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula, “Modeling of Drying Stage in a Bubbling Fluidized Bed Coal Gasifier”, AIChE Annual Meeting. Salt Lake City, UT, 2015.[Abstract]


Coal is one of the world's main sources of power, providing a quarter of primary energy and more than 40% of electricity. Clean coal technology using gasification is a promising alternative to meet the global energy demand. In gasification, coal is converted to synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, which is further converted to liquid fuels via Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. A typical Fischer-Tropsch synthesis accepts the synthesis gas at definite hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio. Coal gasifiers consist of two stages namely, drying zone and gasification / reaction zone. Coal enters reaction zone after getting dried in the drying zone. Moisture level varies from 2-8% for medium and high-grade coals, and is the key for a) Temperature of the reaction zone b) Efficiency of the gasifier c) Hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio of synthesis gas. Drying stage of a bubbling fluidized bed gasifier using hot air is modeled and simulated for 2 kg/hr of coal feed for various parameters including, initial moisture content, particle diameter, air superficial velocity, relative humidity and feed air temperature. The effect of above parameters on entry temperature of reaction zone and final moisture content in air are investigated.

More »»

2015

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Rajathilagam B., Murali, R., and Balaji, B., “Dynamic Context-specific User Profiles by Regression Modelling”, Proceedings of GSTF CGAT. 2015.

2015

Conference Proceedings

A. Jayakrishnan, D, K., A, A., Nagarajan, N., and Dr. Meera Balachandran, “Simulation of electric field distribution in nanodielectrics based on XLPE”, Proceedings of International Conference on Recent Advances in Nano Science and Technology 2015 (RAINSAT-2015). Sathyabama University in association with CSIR – Central Leather Research Institute at Sathyabama University, Chennai, p. 54, 2015.

2014

Conference Proceedings

P. E.R, Dr. Prasanna Ramani, Arun M, R, A. Swaminatha, S.M, M. Vishwanath, Rangarajan, M., and Kothurkar, N., “Synthesis of zeolites using polyethylene glycol as binder for biological applications”, Emerging Trends in Drug Discovery – AICADD 2014. Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore, 2014.

2014

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula, S.R., S., and Rangarajan, M., “Mixed-Light Paraffin Dehydrogenation in a Catalytic Multi-Tubular Reactor: Modeling and Simulation”, American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Annual Meeting. 2014.[Abstract]


Petrochemicals such as polypropylene and polybutadiene are priced much higher than the petroleum refinery produts. Petroleum refinery units try to maximize their profits by bottom of the barrel upgradation using fluidized catalytic cracking (FCC), which converts the heavier hydrocarbons into lighter ones namely liquified petroleum gas (LPG), which predominantly contains propane and butane. The light gases (propane and butane) are feedstock for petrochemical production. These light gases are converted (dehydrogenated) to highly reactive propylene and butylene (the chief raw materials for the above mentioned petrochemicals). Propane and butane are always available as mixture along with trace quantities of methane and ethane. In any commercial process, the propane and butane are separated first and then dehydrogenated in separate reactors. This may probably lead to high fixed and operating costs. Current study proposes a process intensification method via mixed-feed dehydrogenation in a multi-tubular fixed bed catalytic reactor with Pt-Sn suppoted on γ-Al2O3. The dehydrogenation takes place at 500- 800°C and is highly endothermic. The fixed bed dehydrogenation reactor was modeled for the mixed feed of propane and butane. The reactor is simualted for various parameters under isothermal as well as adiabatic operating conditions, and the results between the two processes were compared.

More »»

2014

Conference Proceedings

Nithya K., .Ramachandran, T., and .Asha, S., “A review on biosorption of hexavalent chromium”, Proceedings, National Conference on Recent Advances in Water and Wastewater Treatment ( RAWWT 2014), . The Gandhigram Rural Institute, Deemed University, Dindigul ,Tamil Nadu, p. 63, 2014.

2014

Conference Proceedings

B. K. V, .S.Rajni, K., .Ramachandran, T., Biswas, S., and J, A., “Extraction And Absorption Study Of Natural Plant Dyes For Dssc”, International Conference on Sustainable Energy Technologies ICSET-2014. PSG tech, 2014.[Abstract]


The absorption spectrum of sensitizer plays an important role in the conversion efficiency of DSSC. It is noted that a minimum gap of 0.2eV from the HOMO level of TiO2 is necessary to provide the electron injection from the dye to TiO2 layer conduction band. One of the basic requirements is the dye absorption on the nonporous TiO2 layer which is indicated by VU absorption spectrum. In the present work dyes extracted from beetroot, pomegranate using water and yellow bell flower (Thanga arali) using hot water and the wavelength of light absorption is found out with UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The absorption peak was found to be 516 to 528 nm, for beetroot dye with pH ranges from 7.43 to 8.28 and 322nm for pomegranate with pH 6.99 and for yellow bell flower the peak position was found to be at 308 and 205nm. From the absorption spectrum the band gap of the dye and the extinction coefficient is also calculated. More »»

2013

Conference Proceedings

Sindhu S., Kavitha, V., ,, ,, and Rangarajan, M., “Porous Hydroxyapatite and Poly(methyl methacrylate)-hydroxyapatite Composite Scaffolds”, International Conference on Biotechnology for Innovative Applications - Amrita Bio Quest 2013. School of Biotechnology, Amrita University, 2013.

2013

Conference Proceedings

S. S. Ashok, Krishnan, H., K.E., J., T., M., and Dr. Jayanarayanan K., “Mechanical and Sorption Behaviour of Sisal/Glass Reinforced Epoxy Hybrid Composites”, National conference on Recent Trends in Materials Science and technology (NCMST 2013). Thiruvananthapuram, pp. 122-124, 2013.

2013

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, “Atomic Layer Deposition of Materials for Alternate Non-Volatile Memory Technologies”, Invited Talk at the 13th Atomic Layer Deposition Conference, American Vacuum Society. 2013.

2013

Conference Proceedings

Nithya K. and Nagendran, R., “Sustainable Tourism Plan for Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary”, Proceedings of National Conference on Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Silver Jubilee Celebration ( NBRSJC). Department of Zoology & Wildlife Biology, Government Arts College, Udhagamandalam, Tamilnadu, p. 119, 2013.

2013

Conference Proceedings

E. J. Jelmy, Mohanraj, S., Rajamani, A. R., Kumaresan, D., and Kothurkar, N. K., “Secondary Doped Polyaniline as Counter Electrode in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells FAPS-MACRO-2013”, IISc Bangalore. 2013.

2012

Conference Proceedings

M. Rangarajan, “Actin-based motility of Listeria: Right-handed helical trajectories”, SOLID STATE PHYSICS: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 56TH DAE SOLID STATE PHYSICS SYMPOSIUM 2011, vol. 1447. AIP Publishing, pp. 165-166, 2012.[Abstract]


Bacteria such as&nbsp;<em>Listeria monocytogenes</em>&nbsp;recruit cellular machinery to move in and between cells. Understanding the mechanism of motility, including force and torque generation and the resultant displacements, holds keys to numerous applications in medicine and biosensing. In this work, a simple back-of-the-envelope calculation is presented to illustrate that a biomechanical model of actin-based motility of a rigid surface through persistently attached filaments propelled by affinity-modulated molecular motors can produce a right-handed helical trajectory consistent with experimental observations. The implications of the mechanism to bacterial motility are discussed.

More »»

2012

Conference Proceedings

S. Ramakrishnan, Jelmy, E. J., Baladandapani, A., Rangarajan, M., and Kothurkar, N. K., “Synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotubes using RF-CCVD and a bimetallic catalyst”, SOLID STATE PHYSICS: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 56TH DAE SOLID STATE PHYSICS SYMPOSIUM 2011, vol. 1447. AIP Publishing, pp. 275-276, 2012.[Abstract]


Multiwalled carbon nanotubes with high crystallinity and purity were synthesized with acetylene as the carbon source using radio frequency catalytic chemical vapor deposition method (RF-CCVD) and a bimetallic Fe-Co catalyst supported on CaO at 720°C. The sample obtained was tested using Raman spectroscopy, high resolution transition electron microscopy (HRTEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The Raman spectra revealed G to D band and 2D to G band intensity ratios of 0.90 and 0.54 respectively. A purity of 90% was obtained from the TGA studies. HRTEM studies further showed that the nanotubes had an average diameter of 14.7 ± 4.76nm.

More »»

2012

Conference Proceedings

S. S. Bhagawan and Dr. Meera Balachandran, “Nanocomposites : Property Dependence on Filler Shape and Content”, 3rd Int Conf on Natural Polymers, Bio-polymers, Bio-Materials, their composites, Blends, IPNs & Gels Polyelectrolytes & Gels: Macro to Nano Scales, by Centre for Nanoscience & Nanotechnology at M.G. Univ & Beijing Univ of Chemical Technology, China. Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, p. 27, 2012.

2012

Conference Proceedings

V. S, M, D., R, R. A., R, V., and Rangarajan, Ma, “Synthesis of SPION: Composition, Size Distribution, and Magnetic Properties”, BIND 2012, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, December 9-11, 2012 (Best Presentation Award). 2012.

2012

Conference Proceedings

L. Yang, Weber, U., Maumann, P. K., Karim, Z., Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, Lu, B., Czubatyj, W., Hudgens, S., and Lowrey, T., “Deposition and Electrical Characterization of ALD GexSbyTez for Future Applications”, 12th International Conference on Atomic Layer Deposition, American Vacuum Society. 2012.

2012

Conference Proceedings

M. S, Ramakrishnan, S., Kumaresan, D., and N. K. Kothurkar, “TiO2 Nanoparticle–Graphene Nanocomposite Photoanode for Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Applications”, 4th International Conference on Advanced Materials. 2012.

2012

Conference Proceedings

D. Kumaresan, “Design and Development of Efficient Photosensitizers for the Dye Sensitized Solar Cells”, ISAMPE. 2012.

2011

Conference Proceedings

B. Lu, Karim, Z., and Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, “Material and Tool Design Challenges for Taking ALD to High Volume Production Beyond 30nm Node”, Symposium on Manufacturing and Technology Section MS2, American Vacuum Society. 2011.

2011

Conference Proceedings

L. Yang, Weber, U., Baumann, P. K., Mack, J., Karim, Z., Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, and Lu, B., “Atomic Layer Deposition of Smooth Phase Change GexSbyTez Layers on Planar and 3D Structures”, International Conference on Atomic Layer Deposition, American Vacuum Society. 2011.

2010

Conference Proceedings

S. S. Bhagawan and Dr. Meera Balachandran, “Approaches in Modeling Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites”, Proceedings of Second International Conference on Natural Polymers, Bio-polymers, Bio-Materials, their composites, Blends, IPNs and Gels Polyelectrolytes and Gels: Macro to Nano Scales (ICNP-2010). Centre for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, Kerala, pp. 35-36, 2010.

2010

Conference Proceedings

S. S. Bhagawan and Dr. Meera Balachandran, “Elastomer Based Composites”, Proceedings of International Conference on Latest in Polymers – 2010. J.J. Murphy Research Centre, Rubber Park India (P) Ltd., Kochi, Kerala, p. 11, 2010.

2010

Conference Proceedings

S. S. Bhagawan and Dr. Meera Balachandran, “Role of DoE [Design of Experiments] in Development of Nanoclay – Nitrile Rubber Composites”, Proceedings of International Conference on Manufacturing Science and Technology (ICMST 2010). Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology and Materials Research Society of India, Thiruvananthapuram, pp. 8.4 – 8.5, 2010.

2010

Conference Proceedings

P. P. Sairam, R, S. M., Dr. Ajith Ramesh, and Dr. Meera Balachandran, “Mechanical And Visco-Elastic Properties Of Silicone Rubber – Nanoclay Composites And Its Application In Vibration Damper”, Proceedings of International Conference on Manufacturing Science and Technology (ICMST 2010). Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology and Materials Research Society of India, Thiruvananthapuram, 2010.

2010

Conference Proceedings

S. S. Bhagawan and Dr. Meera Balachandran, “Elastomer-based nanocomposites : Trends and Challenges”, Proceedings of National conference on "Frontiers in Polymer Nanomaterials and Composites. B S Abdur Rahman University, Chennai, 2010.

2010

Conference Proceedings

S. S. Bhagawan and Dr. Meera Balachandran, “Nitrile rubber nanocomposites for control bladders : Application of DoE technique”, International Multicomponent Polymer Conference IMPC2012 organised by Institute of Macromolecular Science & Engineering,School of Applied Sciences, Engineering & Health, RMIT University, Australia & Centre for Nanoscience & Nanotechnology, M.G. University. Kottayam, p. 48, 2010.

2010

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Thomasb, S., and Josephc, K., “Influence of cold drawing on the properties of microfibrillar structured insitu composites from PP and PET.”, International Conference on Advances in Polymer Technology (APT-10). Kochi, pp. 253-255, 2010.

2010

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Thomasb, S., and Kuruvilla Joseph, “Influence of blend ratio on the mechanical and sorption behaviour of polymer - polymer microfibrillar composites from LDPE and PET”, International Conference on Recent Trends in Materials Science and Technology (ICMST-2010). Thiruvananthapuram, 2010.

2010

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Geetha Srikanth, Nithya K., and , “Antibacterial Potential of Aquous Extract of Coleus Ambonicus Against Selected Pathogens”, Proceedings of 2nd National Conference on Current Scenario in Microbial Biotechnology (CSMB-2010). Department of Biotechnology, K. S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode, Tamilnadu, pp. 112-117, 2010.

2010

Conference Proceedings

P. Lehnen, Weber, U., Baumann, P. K., Senzaki, Y., Karim, Z., Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, Lu, B., Reed, J., Czubatyj, W., Hudgens, S., and Dennison, C., “Void Free Gapfill and Phase Change Memory Device Characterization of GeSbTe Films Deposited Using Atomic Vapor Deposition”, 10th Atomic Layer Deposition Conference, American Vacuum Society. 2010.

2009

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Meera Balachandran, Muraleekrishnan, R., and Bhagawan, S. S., “Optimizing the Properties of Nanoclay – Nitrile Rubber Composites using Box-Behnken Design”, Proceedings of ISAMPE National Conference 2009(INCCOM-8) “Emerging Trends in Composite Materials and Technology”. Thiruvananthapuram, pp. 147-153, 2009.

2009

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Meera Balachandran, J. Ganesh, A., Varshan, A. V. R., Sriram, D., and Bhagawan, S. S., “Process parameter optimisation in automobile component manufacture using Design of Experiments”, National Conference on Quality Improvement Concepts and their Implementation in Higher Educational Institutions. Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore, pp. 25-26, 2009.

2009

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Kuruvilla Joseph, and Saritha, A., “Advances in polymer based micro and nano composites”, International conference on Innovative Technologies (ICIT-09). Haryana, pp. 30-39, 2009.

2009

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Sabu Thomas, Kuruvilla Joseph, Dhivya, R., Archana, R., Monikumar, S., and Abirami, V., “Morphology and mechanical properties of in situ microfibrillar composites from LDPE and PET”, ISAMPE National Conference 2009 (INCCOM-8) Emerging Trends in Composite Materials and Technology. Thiruvananthapuram, pp. 74-81, 2009.

2009

Conference Proceedings

Z. Karim, Senzaki, Y., . Y Kim, G., Barelli, C., Okuyama, Y., Kim, H. Y., Lu, B., Lindner, J., and Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, “Needs for Next Generation Memory and Enabling Solutions based on Advanced Vaporizer Technology”, 9th Atomic Layer Deposition Conference, American Vacuum Society. 2009.

2009

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, “Development of Next Generation High-k Filmss – Challenges and Solutions”, European Materials Research Society Spring Meeting. France, 2009.

2009

Conference Proceedings

C. Barelli, . Y Kim, H., . Y Kim, G., Senzaki, Y., Okuyama, Y., Mack, J., Lindner, J., Lu, B., Karim, Z., and Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, “Highly Conformal ALD of LaOx and La-based High-k Dielectric Films Using Novel Vaporizer Technology”, Materials Research Society Spring Meeting. 2009.

2009

Conference Proceedings

Sindhu S. and Aravindakshan, M., “Comparative Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties of few Tropical Fruits and Vegetables”, International Conference on Challenges in Biotechnology and Food Technology. Annamalai University,Chidambaram, 2009.[Abstract]


Many tropical fruits and vegetables are known to possess antioxidant properties. .Antioxidants help in lowering incidence of degenerative diseases especially associated with old age. These antioxidants suppress oxidative damages to lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. In this paper a comparative assessment of antioxidant properties of orange, guava, banana, mango, carrot and tomato have been compared from the studies conducted in India and other countries. From the data available it will be seen that tomato has the maximum content of total phenols and ascorbic acid, while in terms of antioxidant activity other fruits and vegetables are better than tomato. It shows that there is a necessity for detailed studies in all tropical fruits and vegetables. Several ayurvedic medicinal plants have nutraceutical and antioxidant properties which need detailed studies.

More »»

2008

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Meera Balachandran, Stanly, L. P., Muraleekrishnan, R., and Bhagawan, S. S., “Design of Experiments for Optimizing NBR Nanocomposite Formulations”, International conference on Advances in Polymer Technology. Cochin, p. 82, 2008.

2008

Conference Proceedings

S. Ramachandran, Ramachandran, T., Dr. Satheesh Babu T. G., and Nithya K., “Comparative Study of Removal of Fluoride from Ground Water by Bio-sorption using Fresh Water Algae based BioMass and Surface Modified Activated Carbon”, Proceedings of International Conference CHEMCON 2008, Green Technology and Sustainable Development, 61st Annual Session of IIChE . Panjab University, Chandigarh, p. 137, 2008.

2008

Conference Proceedings

C. Choi, Ando, T., Karim, Z., and Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, “Modulating Work Function for pFET with AVD Ru-based and TaN-based Gate Electrodes”, 39th IEEE Semiconductor Interface Specialist Conference. 2008.

2008

Conference Proceedings

Sindhu S., “Purification of Recombinant Lipase produced from Pichia pastoris by Aqueous Two Phase Extractions”, AICTE sponsored National Conference on Recent Trends in Chemical Engineering. St. Peters University, Chennai, 2008.

2007

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Meera Balachandran and Bhagawan, S. S., “Short natural fibre reinforced polyester composites : Property Optimization using DoE”, Proceedings of Innovations in Composites for the New Century, International and INCOMM-6 Conference on Future trends in Composite Materials and Processing. IIT Kanpur, pp. 307 – 310, 2007.

2007

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Sabu Thomas, and Kuruvilla Joseph, “Microfibrillar In Situ Composites from Polymer Blends Morphology and Mechanical Properties Evaluation”, International and INCCOM-6 Conference Future Trends in Composite Materials and Processing. Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur, pp. 122-127, 2007.

2006

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Meera Balachandran and Bhagawan, S. S., “Mechanical behaviour of nanoclay–NBR composites”, Proceedings of Asia Rub Tech Expo. Cochin, India. p. 64, 2006.

2006

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Meera Balachandran, Lakshmi, K., and Saravanan, R., “Studies on Novel Polythiourea and its Composites For Conducting Applications”, National Conference on Recent Trends in Polymer Science and Technology. PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore, 2006.

2006

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Bhagawan, S. S., Karthick, H. S., Suganya, V., and Shivashankari, A. L., “Optimization of Process Parameters of an Injection Moulded Gear Using Taguchi Method”, Annual Technical Conference (ANTEC 2006) organized by Society of Plastics Engineers. Charlotte, North Carolina, USA, pp. 1088-1092, 2006.[Abstract]


This paper suggests a systematic approach to reduce defects in injection moulded components. The component taken for analysis was an injection molded gear made of Stanyl (Nylon 4, 6)-15% Carbon Filled, used in an automobile. The analysis applies Taguchi Methodology to investigate the effects of process conditions on the shrinkage and warpage characteristics of the product made from a two cavity injection mould. The effect of seven process parameters on the Shrinkage and Warpage of the component were analyzed. An L18 standard orthogonal array (seven parameters with three levels) was chosen. The samples selected at random from each experiment were measured for warpage and shrinkage. The data thus obtained were analyzed with quality control tools like ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and Factor Plots. Based on the results from ANOVA, the parameters which have significant effect on the quality of the product were identified. The factor plots gave information regarding the optimum levels of parameters to be maintained . The optimum levels of the parameters were used for conducting confirmatory experiments, which gave products with shrinkage and warpage within acceptable limits.

More »»

2006

Conference Proceedings

Kuruvilla Joseph, Sabu Thomas, and Dr. Jayanarayanan K., “Development of In situ Composites from Polypropylene/Poly ethylene Terephthalate blends”, International Conference and Exhibition on Reinforced Plastics ICERP-2006. Chennai, 2006.

2006

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Shivashankari, A. L., Suganya, V., Karthick, H. S., and Bhagawan, S. S., “Optimisation of Process Parameters of an Injection Moulded Gear Using Taguchi Methodology”, International Conference on Resource Utilisation and Intelligent Systems INCRUIS-2006. Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode, pp. 3-7, 2006.

2006

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Kuruvilla Joseph, Sabu Thomas, and A., V., “Morphology and Thermal Properties of Microfibrillar Composites”, Annual Technical Conference (ANTEC 2006) organized by Society of Plastics Engineers. Charlotte, North Carolina, USA , pp. 200-203, 2006.

2005

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Meera Balachandran, Kutty, S. K. N., and Bhagawan, S. S., “Transport Properties And Mechanical Behaviour Of Nitrile Rubber / Polychloroprene Rubber Blends”, National Conference on Polymers. SJCE, Mysore, 2005.

2005

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., S. Selvan, A., and Kumar, P. V. Rajesh, “Design Validation of Injection Moulded Automotive Plastic Part using Moldflow Analysis”, National seminar Advances in Engineering Design-2005. Bannari Amman Institute, Sathyamangalam, pp. 515-521, 2005.

2005

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Jayanarayanan K. and Bhagawan, S. S., “Design of Experiments in Polymer Technology”, 19th Rubber Conference. Mumbai, pp. 42-50, 2005.

2005

Conference Proceedings

H. J. Lim, Kim, Y. S., Jung, H. S., Han, S. K., Kim, M. J., Lee, J. H., Lee, N. I., Chung, Y., Kim, H. Y., Lee, N. K., Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, Seidel, T. E., and Boleslawski, M., “Evaluation od ALD Hafnium Silicate and Improvement of Reliability Characteristics”, Atomic Layer Deposition Conference. 2005.

2004

Conference Proceedings

K. S. Rajan, Dr. Krishna Prasad R., Ponnusami, V., Rajamanickam, V., and Srivastava, S. N., “Ilmenite to Synthetic Rutile - Trends in Value Addition”, National Workshop and Seminar on Sustainable Development of Coastal Placer Minerals: Placer-2004. New Delhi , pp. 235-239, 2004.[Abstract]


This paper discuss briefly about the various process related to the conversion of ilmenite to compared. Based on the review of the literature suggestions have been made for certain modifications in the existing processes. Among the existing processes, ERMS seems to be better and modifications may be incorporated to improve Benlelite process for which an improved flow sheet is discussed in the chapter.

More »»

2004

Conference Proceedings

Kim G. Y., Srivastava A., D., F., A., L., Z., K., Seidel T. E., and Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, “A High Deposition Rate Process Using Limited Optimized Reaction ALD”, Atomic Layer Deposition Conference”, Atomic Layer Deposition Conference, American Vacuum Society. pp. 1308-1311, 2004.

2004

Conference Proceedings

X. Liu, Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, Lee, E., and Seidel, T. E., “Atomic Layer Deposition of Aluminum Nitride Thin Films from Trimethyl Aluminum (TMA) and Ammonia”, MRS Proceedings. Cambridge Univ Press, pp. 11-18, 2004.[Abstract]


luminum nitride (AlN) thin films were deposited from trimethyl aluminum (TMA) and Ammonia (NH3) by thermal atomic layer deposition (thermal ALD) and plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) on 200 mm silicon wafers. For both thermal ALD and PEALD, the deposition rate increased significantly with the deposition temperature. The deposition rate did not fully saturate even with 10 seconds of NH3 pulse time. Plasma significantly increased the deposition rate of AlN films. A large number of incubation cycles were needed to deposit AlN films on Si wafers. 100% step coverage was achieved on trenches with aspect ratio of 35:1 at 100 nm feature size by thermal ALD. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data showed that the AlN films deposited from 370 °C to 470 °C were polycrystalline. Glancing angle X-ray reflection (XRR) results showed that the RMS roughness of the films increased as the film thickness increased.

More »»
PDF iconatomic-layer-deposition-of-aluminum-nitride-thin-films-from-trimethyl-aluminum-tma-and-ammonia.pdf

2003

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Krishna Prasad R., Srivastava, S. N., Pitchumani, B., and Rajan, K. S., “Study of Heat Transfer during gas-solid flows”, Indian Society of Mechanical Engineering Conference, ISME – 2003. IIT - Roorkee, 2003.

2003

Conference Proceedings

A. R. Londergan, Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, Winkler, J., Seidel, T. E., Gutt, J., Brown, G., and Murto, R. W., “PATHWAYS FOR ADVANCED TRANSISTORS USING HAFNIUM–BASED OXIDES BY ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION”, Electrochemical Society. pp. 243-264, 2003.

2002

Conference Proceedings

Dr. Jayanarayanan K. and S., A. Selvan, “Flow Analysis of an Automotive Component using Mold flow”, International Conference Advances in Polymer Technology. Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin, pp. 145-151, 2002.

2002

Conference Proceedings

J. H. Lee, J., K., S., K. Y., S., J. H., Lee, N. I., Kang, H. K., Suh, K. P., Jeong, M. M., Hyun, K., Baik, H. S., Chung, Y. S., Liu, X., Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, Seidel, T. E., Winkler, J., Londergan, A., Kim, H. Y., M., J., and Lee, N. K., “Mass Production Worthy HfO2-Al2O3 Laminates Capacitor Technology using Hf Liquid Precursor for sub-100 nm DRAMS”, Techincal Digest, International Electron Devices Meeting. pp. 221-224, 2002.

Publication Type: Patent

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2015

Patent

Dr. Madhav Datta, Emory, D., Joshi, S. M., Menezes, S., and Suh, D., “Copper-containing C4 ball-limiting metallurgy stack for enhanced reliability of packaged structures and method of making same”, U.S. Patent US 12/655,9752015.[Abstract]


The invention relates to a ball-limiting metallurgy stack for an electrical device that contains at least one copper layer disposed upon a Ti adhesion metal layer. The ball-limiting metallurgy stack resists Sn migration toward the upper metallization of the device.

More »»

2015

Patent

W. PARK, Jang, Y. J., Kim, G. Y., Lu, B., Siu, G., Silva, H., and Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, “Method for forming TiSiN thin film layer by using atomic layer deposition”, U.S. Patent US 14/391,2942015.[Abstract]


There is disclosed a method for forming a TiSiN thin film on a substrate according to ALD including a first process of preheating a substrate while supplying Ar or N2 containing inert gas to a chamber, after disposing a substrate in a chamber; a second process of forming a TiN film on the substrate by repeating at least one time a process of purging over-supplied Ti containing gas after supplying Ti containing gas and inert gas after that and a process of purging residual product after supplying N containing gas and inert gas after that; a third process of forming a SiN film by repeating at least one time a process of purging over-supplied Si containing gas after supplying Si containing gas on the TiN film and supplying inert gas after that and a process of purging residual product after supplying N containing gas and supplying inert gas after that; and a fourth process of forming a TiSiN film having a desired thickness by repeating the second and third processes at least one time, a partial pressure range of the gas used in forming the TiSiN thin film is Ti containing gas: 9×10−3 Torr or less, Si containing gas: 1×10−3˜3×10−1 Torr and N containing gas: 7×10−3˜6×10−1 Torr, and a pressure range of the gas is 500 mTorr˜5 Torr and the Si content of the formed TiSiN thin film is 20 atom % or less.

More »»
PDF iconmethod-for-forming-tisin-thin-film-layer-by-using-atomic-layer-deposition.pdf

2015

Patent

S. R. Rao, “A Novel High Efficiency and Cost Effective Heat Sink”, U.S. Patent 2919/CHE/20152015.

2014

Patent

D. Murali Rangarajan and Badrinath, K., “Discrete Variable Flow Valve”, U.S. Patent 1300/CHE/20142014.

2014

Patent

S. R. Rao, “Carbon Fibre Reinforced Matrix Materials”, U.S. Patent 6335/CHE/20142014.

2013

Patent

Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula, “A Protable Microchannel Reactors for the Conversion of Biomass Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels”, 2013.

2013

Patent

S. R. Rao, “Graphene Production Method”, U.S. Patent 4024/CHE/2013, PCT/IB2014/0643812013.

2012

Patent

Dr. Madhav Datta, Leong, B., and McMaster, M., “Microheat exchanger for laser diode cooling”, U.S. Patent US 12/536,3612012.[Abstract]


A microheat exchanging assembly is configured to cool one or more heat generating devices, such as integrated circuits or laser diodes. The microheat exchanging assembly includes a first ceramic assembly thermally coupled to a first surface, and in cases, a second ceramic assembly thermally coupled to a second surface. The ceramic assembly includes one or more electrically and thermally conductive pads to be thermally coupled to a heat generating device, each conductive pad is electrically isolated from each other. The ceramic assembly includes a ceramic layer to provide this electrical isolation. A top surface and a bottom surface of the ceramic layer are each bonded to a conductive layer, such as copper, using an intermediate joining material. A brazing process is performed to bond the ceramic layer to the conductive layer via a joining layer. The joining layer is a composite of the joining material, the ceramic layer, and the conductive layer.

More »»

2012

Patent

Dr. Madhav Datta and McMaster, M., “Bonded metal and ceramic plates for thermal management of optical and electronic devices”, U.S. Patent US 12/536,4022012.[Abstract]


A ceramic assembly includes one or more electrically and thermally conductive pads to be thermally coupled to a heat generating device, each conductive pad is electrically isolated from each other. The ceramic assembly includes a ceramic layer to provide this electrical isolation. The ceramic layer has high thermal conductivity and high electrical resistivity. A top surface and a bottom surface of the ceramic layer are each bonded to a conductive layer, such as copper, using an intermediate joining material. A brazing process is performed to bond the ceramic layer to the conductive layer via a joining layer. The joining layer is a composite of the joining material, the ceramic layer, and the conductive layer. The top conductive layer and the joining layer are etched to form the electrically isolated conductive pads. The conductive layers are bonded to the ceramic layer using a bare ceramic approach or a metallized ceramic approach.

More »»

2011

Patent

Kim G. Y., Srivastava A., Seidel T. E., Londergan A. R., and Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, “Transient Enhanced Atomic layer Deposition”, U.S. Patent 79814732011.[Abstract]


A method of enhanced atomic layer deposition is described. In an embodiment, the enhancement is the use of plasma. Plasma begins prior to flowing a second precursor into the chamber. The second precursor reacts with a prior precursor to deposit a layer on the substrate. In an embodiment, the layer includes at least one element from each of the first and second precursors. In an embodiment, the layer is TaN. In an embodiment, the precursors are TaF5 and NH3. In an embodiment, the plasma begins during the purge gas flow between the pulse of first precursor and the pulse of second precursor. In an embodiment, the enhancement is thermal energy. In an embodiment, the thermal energy is greater than generally accepted for ALD (>300 degrees Celsius). The enhancement assists the reaction of the precursors to deposit a layer on a substrate.

More »»
Binary Data

2010

Patent

Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula, Whitlow, J., Dutta, S., Wright, H., and Elrod, E., “CVD technique for the preparation/deposition of cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst”, 2010.

2008

Patent

S. Dutta, Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula, Whitlow, J., and Wright, H., “A New Microchannel Reactor design for efficient production of jet fuels”, 2008.

2006

Patent

J. Puchacz, Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, Reyes, M., and Seidel, T., “Multi-single Wafer Processing Apparatus”, U.S. Patent US 11/224,7672006.[Abstract]


A wafer processing apparatus includes one or more processing modules, each having multiple, distinct, single-wafer processing reactors configured for semi-independent ALD and/or CVD film deposition therein; a robotic central wafer handler configured to provide wafers to and accept wafers from each of said wafer processing modules; and a single-wafer loading and unloading mechanism that includes a loading and unloading port and a mini-environment coupling the loading and unloading port to the robotic central wafer handler. The wafer processing reactors may be arranged (i) along axes of a Cartesian coordinate system, or (ii) in quadrants defined by said axes, one axis being parallel to a wafer input plane of the at least one of the process modules to which the single-wafer processing reactors belong. Each processing module can include up to four single-wafer processing reactors, each with an independent gas distribution module.

More »»
PDF iconmulti-single-wafer-processing-apparatus.pdf

2005

Patent

S. H. Lee and Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, “Method for the Formation of Diffusion Barrier”, U.S. Patent US 10/425,3062005.[Abstract]


Electronic components such as semiconductor wafer VLSI and ULSI integrated circuit devices are provided having a robust barrier layer in the device interconnects. The robust barrier layer provides excellent step coverage, low resistance and enhanced adhesion to CVD copper and the interconnect has a double structure of a layer of a barrier material and a metal layer thereon. The metal layer is preferably tungsten and is formed by replacing silicon or other such atoms on the surface of the barrier layer with tungsten metal. A layer of silicon can be formed on the barrier layer, silicon atoms can be formed on the surface by reacting the barrier layer with a silicon containing reactant or a silicon containing barrier layer can be used.

More »»
PDF iconmethod-for-the-formation-of-diffusion-barrier.pdf

2005

Patent

S. Gopinath, Van Cleemput, P. A., Schulberg, M., Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, Juarez, F., and Joyce, P., “Method and Apparatus for Introduction of Solid Precursors and Reactants into a Supercritical Fluid Reactor”, U.S. Patent US 10/016,0172005.[Abstract]


The present invention pertains to apparatus and methods for introduction of solid precursors and reactants into a supercritical fluid reactor. Solids are dissolved in supercritical fluid solvents in generator apparatus separate from the supercritical fluid reactor. Such apparatus preferably generate saturated solutions of solid precursors via recirculation of supercritical fluids through a vessel containing the solid precursors. Supercritical solutions of the solids are introduced into the reactor, which itself is charged with a supercritical fluid. Supercritical conditions are maintained during the delivery of the dissolved precursor to the reactor. Recirculation of supercritical precursor solutions through the reactor may or may not be implemented in methods of the invention. Methods of the invention are particularly well suited for integrated circuit fabrication, where films are deposited on wafers under supercritical conditions.

More »»
PDF iconmethod-and-apparatus-for-introduction-of-solid-precursors-and-reactants-into-a-supercritical-fluid-reactor.pdf

2005

Patent

X. Liu, Seidel, T., Lee, E., Doering, K., and Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, “Methods and Apparatus for Cycle Time Improvements for Atomic Layer Deposition”, 2005.[Abstract]


Different periods of an ALD cycle are performed using different purge flows and, in some cases, different pumping capacities, while maintaining the reactor chamber at a nominally constant pressure. The purge flows may, in some cases, utilize different gasses and/or may be provided through different flow paths. These operations provide for ALD cycle time improvements and economical operation with respect to consumables usage. In some embodiments the use of an annular throttle valve provides a means for controlling downstream flow limiting conductances in a gas flow path from the reactor chamber.

More »»
PDF iconmethods-and-apparatus-for-cycle-time-improvements-for-atomic-layer-deposition.pdf

2004

Patent

A. R. Londergan, Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, Winkler, J., and Seidel, T. E., “Passivation Method for Improved Uniformity and Repeatability for Atomic Layer Deposition and Chemical Vapor Deposition”, U.S. Patent US 10/262,9922004.[Abstract]


A method to deposit a passivating layer of a first material on an interior reactor surface of a cold or warm wall reactor, in which the first material is non-reactive with one or more precursor used to form a second materials. Subsequently when a film layer is deposited on a substrate by subjecting the substrate to the one or more precursors, in which at least one precursor has a low vapor pressure, uniformity and repeatability is improved by the passivation layer.

More »»
PDF iconpassivation-method-for-improved-uniformity-and-repeatability-for-atomic-layer-deposition-and-chemical-vapor-deposition.pdf

2003

Patent

J. Dalton, Powell, R. A., Kailasam, S. K., and Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, “Forming Metal-derived Layers by Simultaneous Deposition and Evaporation of Metal”, U.S. Patent US 09/975,6122003.[Abstract]


The present invention pertains to methods for forming metal-derived layers on substrates. Preferred methods apply to integrated circuit fabrication. In particular, selective methods may be used to form diffusion barriers on partially fabricated integrated circuits. In one preferred method, a wafer is heated and exposed to a metal vapor. Under specific conditions, the metal vapor reacts with dielectric surfaces to form a diffusion barrier, but does not react with metal surfaces. Thus, methods of the invention form diffusion barriers that selectively protect dielectric surfaces but leave metal surfaces free of diffusion barrier.

More »»
PDF iconforming-metal-derived-layers-by-simultaneous-deposition-and-evaporation-of-metal.pdf

2000

Patent

Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, A., K., and A., F. G., “Surface Modification of Semiconductors using Electromagnetic Radiation”, U.S. Patent 60157592000.[Abstract]


Deposition rates of undoped silicate glass dielectric layers on thermal oxide are increased by pre-treating the thermal oxide layer With electromagnetic radiation in the ultraviolet (UV) and/or vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) Wavelengths. The surface smoothness of the resulting ?lms are also increased by pre-treating ?lms With UV and/or VUV radiation. Furthermore, the gap ?lling abilities of the undoped silicate glass ?lms are increased by pre-treating the thermal oxide With UV and/or VUV radiation. NeW equipment and meth ods are presented for exposing semiconductor devices to UV and/or VUV radiation, and for enhancing the deposition rates and ?lm quality for semiconductor manufacture. Semi conductor devices incorporating the neW methods are also described.

More »»
PDF iconsurface-modification-of-semiconductors-using-electromagnetic-radiation.pdf

1999

Patent

Dr. Sasangan Ramanathan, B., D. S., and C.A., S., “Flash Evaporator”, 1999.[Abstract]


A device and method for ?ash evaporating a reagent includes an evaporation chamber that' houses a dome ~on WhlCh evaporation occurs. The dome is solid and of high thermal conductivity and mass, and may be heated to a temperature suf?cient to vaporize a speci?c reagent. The reagent is supplied from an external source to the dome through a noZZle, and may be supplied as a continuous Stream, as a Shower, and as discrete drops_ Acarrier gas may be introduced into the evaporation Chamber and Create a vortex ?ow therewithin, After evaporation, the gas vapor may be removed from the evaporation chamber through a regulating valve to a reaction chamber. Another embodiment of the invention includes a plurality of evaporating domes that separately receive reagent, and may receive reagents of differing composition.

More »»
PDF iconflash-evaporator.pdf

Publication Type: Book

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2013

Book

B. R., ,, and Rangarajan, M., Ancient Temple Theater Forms in South India. Melattur Bhagavata Mela Natya Natak Trust, 2013.

2011

Book

Dr. Jayanarayanan K., Studies on in situ Microfibrillar Composites Based on Blends of Polyolefins and Polyester. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing, 2011.[Abstract]


This monograph discusses a new class of fiber reinforced composites called as microfibrillar composites(MFCs)prepared from two fibre forming thermoplastic polymers. MFC technology provides an excellent method to make use of commingled plastics in which both low melting temperature general plastics and high melting temperature engineering plastics co-exist. In this work, the properties of MFCs prepared from polypropylene (PP)/ polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and low density polyethylene (LDPE)/PET blends were analyzed. In the case of PP/PET MFCs the effect of draw ratio on the morphology, static and dynamic mechanical, thermal, rheological properties were studied. The MFCs prepared at the optimum draw ratio exhibited significant increase in the tensile and flexural moduli in comparison with the conventional blends. In LDPE/PET system, the effect of blend ratio and the effect of compatibilizer content on the properties of normal blends,microfibrillar blends and composites were evaluated. The static and dynamic mechanical, solvent sorption and thermal degradation properties of the microfibrillar blends/composites were found to be superior to conventional LDPE/PET blends.

More »»

Publication Type: Report

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2008

Report

P. Jennings, Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy Ragula, and Dutta, S., “Selective Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst for Producing C9-C16 Hydrocarbons”, 2008.[Abstract]


A conceptual Fischer-Tropsch (FT) based process is proposed for converting synthesis gas to C9 C16 hydrocarbons suitable for Navy use as synthetic JP5 fuel. We shall develop an advanced FT catalyst selective for C5-C8 olefins that will be subsequently dimerized to C10-C16; optionally, the process will include product upgrading, e.g., partial reduction. Phase I will investigate in parallel two crucial issues: (1) Development of a suitable FT catalyst based on zeolite supported ruthenium (at Eltron), and (2) Design of a novel FT multi-channel reactor (MCR) with ultra-efficient heat removal capability for near-isothermal operation at relatively low temperature and high pressure (at Florida Institute of Technology). The developed catalyst will first be tested for its potential in the proposed performance using a packed-bed mini-reactor with highly efficient heat removal; initial MCR testing will follow. Phase II will investigate full operation of the MCR, the dimerization reaction, and product separation, recycle and upgrading; more catalyst development will include aging and regeneration studies in addition to optimization, full characterization, and scale-up. Successful Phase I and II will lead to Phase III -- building and operating a fully-integrated prototype JP5 FT mini-plant based on syngas from natural gas reforming.

More »»
  • A faculty development program on Chemical Process Modeling & Simulation during June 10-15, 2013.
  • Invited talk by Dr. G. Arthanareeswaran, Assistant Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Trichy, on Membrane Separation Technologies, on 2nd April 2011, at the Ettimadai campus.
  • Dr. G. Madhu, Head, Division of Safety and Fire Engineering, Chemical Engg Group, CUSAT delivered a seminar on 29th March 2011 on the following topics: Safety and Health concerns in chemical process industry; Hazard identification and Risk assessment; Tools for emergency planning in process plants.
  • DR. R.M.V.G.K. Rao, formerly Scientist G, Director Grade, & Founder Head of Fibre Reinforced Plastics Division. at National Aerospace Laboratories (CSIR), Bangalore, gave six Invited Talks between 21st and 23rd March 2011 on the following topics: Introduction to Advanced Composites, Potentials and Applications Diversity, Property Relationships and Choice, Processing and Manufacture-Different Approaches, Testing, Evaluation and Design Considerations, Advanced Applications and some Case studies.
  • Dr. P. Raveendran, Reader, Department of Chemistry, University of Calicut, gave four Invited Talks on Green Chemistry and Green Technologies, on 18th and 19th March 2011. The topics are as follows: Environment and its protection, Alternative solvents, Ionic liquids, Green plastics, Microwave heating, and Green Chemistry and nanosynthesis.
  • Dr. Kalyanasundaram, EPFL, Switzerland gave expert lecture series on Solar Photovoltaics from 18thto 23rd March 2011.
  • Dr. Madhusudan V. Atre, President & Managing Director, Applied Materials, Bengaluru, India, visited the Ettimadai campus on 8th February 2011 to inaugurate Techfest, ANOKHA events of Chemical Engineering Department.
  • Sri. Shekhar Kumar, Scientist G, Nuclear Reprocessing Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research gave expert lecture on 22nd January 2011. The topics of the lecture were: (i) Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Reprocessing - An Introduction, and (ii) Design and Development of Nuclear Solvent Extraction Equipment.
  • Dr. Sriram Devanathan conducted a one-day workshop on Design of Experiments for students of IV Year B.Tech Chemical Engineering at Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore campus, on 19th January, 2011.
  • Dr. Alok Ray from Stanford India Biodesign (India), IIT Delhi visited the department on 23rd April 2010 to discuss the possible research areas of common interest.
  • Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science and Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering of Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham jointly organized theInternational Conference on Photochemical Conversion of Solar Energy, during 30 - 31, March 2010. Read More»
  • Dr. Lakshmi Vaideeswaran, of Dow Chemical International Pvt Ltd gave a guest lecture on 12th February 2010.
  • Dr. A.V. Rama Rao, CMD of Avra Laboratories Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad, gave a guest lecture on 30th January 2010.
  • Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science organized a one-day program onCareer Opportunities in Chemical Technology by Dr. N.S. Venkat Raman and Mr. P. Shyamasundar of Nandini Chemicals Consultancy Center, Chennai in collaboration with CIR for all students of chemical engineering in and around Coimbatore on 23rd January 2010.
  • Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science organized a guest lecture onRole and function of Atomic Energy Regulatory Board by Mr. S. E. Kannan, Director, Safety Research Institute, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Chennai On 31st October 2009.
  • A two day national conference on Smart Electronic Materials and Devices during 23-24, October 2009.
  • Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science organized a one day guest lecture series on 29th August 2009. Dr. S. Antony Swamy, Head, MPCS, CG, IGCAR, Kalpakkam gave guest lectures on Nanocrystalline nuclear materials / nano nuclear ceramics, nuclear materials (Fabrication and Thermochemistry) and phase equilibria (theory and experimental methods), and solution thermodynamics. Dr R.V. Subba Rao delivered lectures on Fundamentals of Separation Sciences and Solvent Extraction, Ion Exchange, Liquid Membranes, and Process Chemistry Aspects of Spent Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing.
  • A two day national symposium on Water for All in collaboration with Indian Desalination Association co-sponsored by Board of Research in Nuclear Sciences (BRNS) and supported by Tamil Nadu Institute of Urban Studies (TNIUS) during 5- 6, February 2009.
  • Dr. Sriram Devanathan elected as President, Coimbatore Chapter of Indian Institute of Chemical Engineers (IIChE) in June 2013.

  • Dr. Udaya Bhaskar Reddy won ESEC Distinguished Alumnus Award from Erode Sengunthar Engineering College, Thudupathi, Erode in February 23, 2013.

  • Defence Research and Development Organisation (Extramural Research/Intellectual Property Right) sanctioned the project titled Development of New and Efficient Photo Sensitizers for Nanocrystalline TiO2 Based Dye Sensitized Solar Cells with a project outlay of 45.65 Lakhs. Dr. Duraisamy Kumaresan is the Principal Investigator and Dr. Nikhil Kothurkar and Dr. Yamuna are Co-investigators. Dr. K. Kalyanasundaram (Switzerland) and Dr. M. K. Nazeeruddin (Switzerland) are the Foreign Collaborators for the project. The project is aiming to develop various new organic and inorganic sensitizers for the dye sensitized solar cells to achieve higher efficiencies from their current level. The project also aims to achieve benchmark cell level efficiency of 12- 13 % from Ru dyes. The organic and inorganic sensitizers will be prepared from cost effective chemicals to facilitate the larger scale preparation of solar cells.

  • Mr. K. Jayanarayanan, Assistant Professor of the Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Sciences was awarded the Ph. D. degree from Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, in the area of Polymer Science in May 2011. The Ph. D. thesis was titled, Studies on Microfibrillar based Composites. The research work was focused on the preparation and characterization of novel polymer-polymer composites from blends of polyolefins and polyesters. The processing of an incompatible polymer pair in which the dispersed phase forms in situ reinforced fibers is the preferable way to achieve the highest mechanical properties for polymer blends. The morphological, static & dynamic mechanical, thermal, and rheological characterization of the microfibrillar in situ composites prepared was carried out. Seven International journal papers were published from this work.

  • Mr. P. Kanakasabai, Assistant Professor of the Department of Chemical Engineering & Materials Sciences was awarded the Ph. D. degree from IIT Chennai for his thesis titled, Novel Polymer Electrolyte Membranes based on PVA and PVA/SPEEK Blends, in July 2011. In his work cross linked poly (vinyl alcohol) and its blends with sulfonated poly (ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) as novel polymer electrolyte membranes are investigated for fuel cell applications. Blend membranes showed better properties for fuel cell applications. Wetting characteristics studies also suggests that these blend membranes are suitable for fuel cell applications.

  • Dr. Sriram Devanathan gave a Plenary Lecture, Statistical Thinking and Six Sigma Methodology for Chemical Engineering Applications at the International Conference on Recent Advances in Chemical Engineering and Technology (RACET 2011) held at Cochin, on 10th March 2011.

  • Mr. Vinoj Vasu gave a guest lecture, MOLD FLOW: Practical Approach in the Guest Lecture series organized by Indian Plastics Institute, Coimbatore Subchapter at Roots Industries Ltd., on 25th March 2011.

  • Dr. S. S. Bhagawan gave an invited talk on Nitrile rubber based nanocomposites, NCNM2010, NSS College, Ottapalam, on 17th March, 2011.

  • Dr. S. S. Bhagawan gave an invited talk on Role of mechanical property evaluation techniques in structural analysis of polymer composites, ICNC 2011, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam, on 8th January, 2011.

  • Dr. S. S. Bhagawan and Mrs. Meera B. Sasikumar delivered an Invited Talk at ICMST 2010 on 31st October 2010, titled, Role of DoE [Design of Experiments] in development of Nanoclay – nitrile rubber composites, Proceedings of International Conference on Manufacturing Science and Technology (ICMST 2010), jointly organized by Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology and Materials Research Society of India, Thiruvananthapuram, October 29th – 31st, 2010.

  • Dr. Sriram Devanathan conducted a two-day workshop on Quality Control for Composites, at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Center, Trivandrum, on Oct 25th – 26th, 2010.

  • Dr. Duraisamy Kumaresan gave an Invited Talk on Design and Development of Efficient Photosensitizers for the Dye Sensitized Solar Cells, as part of the Technical Session at the ISAMPE AGM, NAL campus, Bangalore, on 23rd July, 2010.

  • Dr. S. S. Bhagawan gave an invited talk on Applications of DoE in polymer process/ product development during All Indian Rubber Industries Association Workshop, Coimbatore , 20th August, 2010

  • Dr. S. S. Bhagawan gave an invited talk on Polymer Characterization Techniques, Workshop on Polymer Science & Technology organized by the Society for Polymer Science of India, Thiruvananthapuram Chapter, on 24th July, 2010

  • Prof. R. Subba Rao was awarded FELLOW of Indian Plastics Institution by the Governing Council of IPI on 14th June, 2010.

  • Dr. K. S. Balaraman, Distinguished Professor, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, received Leadership and Excellence Award for Energy Conservation at Chemtech World Expo 2010, May 4, 2010.

  • Dr. S. S. Bhagawan and Mrs. Meera Balachandran, gave an invited talk onElastomer-based nanocomposites: Trends and Challenges at the National conference on Frontiers in Polymer Nanomaterials and Composites, organized by Dept of Polymer Technology, B. S. Abdur Rahman University, Chennai, on March 18th and 19th, 2010.

  • Dr. S. S. Bhagawan gave invited talk on Polymer Composites in Space Technologyduring the National Seminar on Engineering Design, Analysis & Testing of Composite Structures, organized by Hindusthan College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, on February 11th, 2010.

  • Dr. Murali Rangarajan, Associate Professor along with Dr. T. Ramachandran, Professor,Department of Chemistry and Dr. Krishnashree Achuthan, Professor initiated a project titled,Electrochemically Tailored Compliant Solder Materials for Flip‐Chip Joining, The project received a grant of Rs. 62.48 lakh from the DRDO.

  • Dr. Murali Rangarajan gave an invited talk on Model-based Optimization and Control of an Atmospheric Crude Distillation Unit, at the two-day "National Conference on Control of Nonlinear Systems", at Adhiyaman College of Engineering, Hosur, on the 6th October 2009.

  • Mr. Vinoj Vasu, gave an invited talk on Principles of Plastics Product Design, as part of the Guest Lecture Series for Indian Plastics Institute at Roots Industries Ltd., Coimbatore, on 17th July, 2009.

  • Dr S. S. Bhagawan, gave an invited talk on Polymers in Space Technology – during the Workshop on “Emerging Trends in Specialty Polymers”, Yenepoya University, Mangalore, February 2009.

  • Mrs. Meera B. Sasikumar, gave an invited talk on Flow Behavior Plastics in Processing Equipment, in the Guest Lecture Series for Indian Plastics Institute at Roots Industries Ltd., Coimbatore, on 11th October 2008.

Student Internships

Our students have been offered paid internship during their course of study in Organizations such as

Students Achievements

  • Petrotech Student Chapter of Amrita won the 2nd Runner up award for the Chapter activities in the 7th Annual Petrotech Annual Conclave First & Second prizes - Industry defined problem event conducted by ICT, Mumbai
  • First Prize- Young Innovators Choice Competition @ ICT, Mumbai
  • Titans of Innovation Award by Titan Industries Ltd. Finalists of Tata Crucible Campus Quiz 2013
  • 4th place in the National All India Management Association Student Quiz @ New Delhi
  • Chemical Engineering Mr. Varun Mukthinuthalapati of 2007-2011 batch of B.Tech was selected for the BARC-OCES-2011 programme and will be working at IGCAR on completion of the training program at BARC.
  • Chemical Engineerig students, Mr. Hari. S. Ganesh and Ms. Sharmila S. of 2007-2011 batch of B.Tech joined Indian Institute of Science for M.Sc (Engineering).
  • Polymer Engineering student, Mr. C. Rajasundar was selected for the Willpower Erasmus Mundus Programmes 2010 for the 2 year Research Masters in Nanosciences at Ecole Centrale Paris, France, which comes under the category of elite universities called the Grande Ecoles. He will be doing his first semester in 3 universities at Ecole Centrale, Ecole Polytechnique and Ecole Normale Superiere de Cachan.
  • BTech Chemical Engineering II Year students, Mr. Hariharan, Ms. Suhanya, and Ms. Vijayalakshmy won the 3rd prize at the TechFest Pragyan in the event Delta T held in February, 2010 at NIT, Trichy.
  • Fourth Year Polymer engineering students, Mr. C. Raja Sundar, Mr. M. Aravind and Mr. B. Arun were awarded silver medal in Chemical Engineering discipline for their project, Design and Fabrication of a Spin Coater Machine for Thin Film Coating and its potential Applications in the 40th All India Student Design Competition by National Design Research Forum, Bangalore on November 1, 2009.
  • The Student Chapter of I.I.Ch.E. was inaugurated on 15th September 2009 by Dr. Ramesh Ramachandran, President and CEO of Dow Chemical International Pvt. Ltd. He was accompanied by Dr. Balaji Venkatraman, President of India Engineering Center, Dow Chemicals, Chennai.
  • Third Year Polymer Engineering students, Ms. P. Vidyalakshmi and Ms. S. Srividya, won second prize in Technical quiz contest and presented a paper titled Polymer Opals in the national conference Elastoplaz ‘09 at MIT Chennai, in March 2009.
  • Plastindia Foundation has awarded the following Scholarships to the students of B.Tech Polymer engineering :
    • Mr. K.N. Prabhu-3rd Year Topper .Rs. 25,000/-
    • Ms. Harini -4th Year TopperRs. 25,000/-
    • Ms. Hema Priya- All Round Topper Gold Medal
  • Final Year Polymer engineering students, Mr. C. Raja Sundar, Mr. M. Aravind and Mr. B. Arun secured the first prize at Futura- 2009, a National Level Technical Symposium organized by Bannari Amman Institute, beating 92 contestants across India. They were given a cash prize of Rs. 50,000/- and a Plaque for their project, Design and Fabrication of a Spin Coater Machine for Thin Film Coating and its potential Applications.
207
PROGRAMS
OFFERED
6
AMRITA
CAMPUSES
15
CONSTITUENT
SCHOOLS
A
GRADE BY
NAAC, MHRD
8th
RANK(INDIA):
NIRF 2018
150+
INTERNATIONAL
PARTNERS
  • Amrita on Social Media

  • Contact us

    Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham,
    Amritanagar,
    Coimbatore - 641 112,
    Tamil Nadu, India.
    • Fax                 : +91 (422) 268 6274
    • Coimbatore   : +91 (422) 268 5000
    • Amritapuri    : +91 (476) 280 1280
    • Bengaluru     : +91 (080) 251 83700
    • Kochi              : +91 (484) 280 1234
    • Mysuru          : +91 (821) 234 3479
    • Chennai         : +91 (44 ) 276 02165
    • Contact Details »