Background Theory: Origin of potential – electrical double layer – reversible electrode potential – standard hydrogen electrode – emf series – measurement of potential – reference electrodes (calomel and silver/silver chloride) indicator and ion selective electrodes – Nernst equation – irreversible processes – kinetic treatment – Butler- Volmer equation – Overpotential, activation, concentration and IR overpotential – its practical significance – Tafel equation and Tafel plots – exchange current density and transfer coefficients.
Batteries: Primary batteries: The chemistry, fabrication and performance aspects, packing classification and rating of the following batteries: (The materials taken their function and significance, reactions with equations, their performance in terms of discharge, capacity, and energy density to be dealt with). Zinc-carbon (Leclanche type), zinc alkaline (Duracell), zinc/air batteries; Lithium primary cells – liquid cathode, solid cathode and lithium-ferrous sulphide cells (comparative account).
Secondary batteries: Lead acid and VRLA (valve regulated (sealed) lead acid), nickel-cadmium, nickel-zinc, nickel- metal hydride batteries, lithium ion batteries, ultrathin lithium polymer cells (comparative account). Advanced Batteries for electric vehicles, requirements of the battery – sodium-beta and redox batteries.
Fuel Cells: Description, working principle, anodic, cathodic and cell reactions, fabrication of electrodes and other components, applications, advantages, disadvantages and environmental aspects of the following types of fuel cells: Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells, alkaline fuel cells, phosphoric acid, solid oxide, molten carbonate, direct methanol fuel cells.
Membranes for fuel cells: Nafion – Polymer blends and composite membranes; assessment of performance – recent developments.
Fuels for Fuel Cells: Hydrogen, methane, methanol – Sources and preparation, reformation processes for hydrogen – clean up and storage of the fuels – use in cells, advantages and disadvantages of using hydrogen as fuel.
Objectives and Outcomes
To provide sound knowledge on the application of electrochemistry in energy storage systems.
- CO1: Understand the fundamental concepts of electrochemistry through electrode potential and reaction kinetics
- CO2: Learn the application of the electrochemical principles for the functioning and fabrication industrial batteries and fuel cells
- CO3: Analysis of practical problem solving in fabricating batteries and fuel cells
- CO4: Evaluation of comprehensive knowledge through problem solving