Back close

Course Detail

Course Name Batteries and Fuel Cells
Course Code 19CHY241
Program B. Tech. in Computer and Communication Engineering
Year Taught 2019


Unit 1

Background Theory: Origin of potential – electrical double layer – reversible electrode potential – standard hydrogen electrode – emf series – measurement of potential – reference electrodes (calomel and silver/silver chloride) indicator and ion selective electrodes – Nernst equation – irreversible processes – kinetic treatment – Butler- Volmer equation – Overpotential, activation, concentration and IR overpotential – its practical significance – Tafel equation and Tafel plots – exchange current density and transfer coefficients.

Unit 2

Batteries: Primary batteries: The chemistry, fabrication and performance aspects, packing classification and rating of the following batteries: (The materials taken their function and significance, reactions with equations, their performance in terms of discharge, capacity, and energy density to be dealt with). Zinc-carbon (Leclanche type), zinc alkaline (Duracell), zinc/air batteries; Lithium primary cells – liquid cathode, solid cathode and lithium-ferrous sulphide cells (comparative account).

Secondary batteries: Lead acid and VRLA (valve regulated (sealed) lead acid), nickel-cadmium, nickel-zinc, nickel- metal hydride batteries, lithium ion batteries, ultrathin lithium polymer cells (comparative account). Advanced Batteries for electric vehicles, requirements of the battery – sodium-beta and redox batteries.

Unit 3

Fuel Cells: Description, working principle, anodic, cathodic and cell reactions, fabrication of electrodes and other components, applications, advantages, disadvantages and environmental aspects of the following types of fuel cells: Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells, alkaline fuel cells, phosphoric acid, solid oxide, molten carbonate, direct methanol fuel cells.

Membranes for fuel cells: Nafion – Polymer blends and composite membranes; assessment of performance – recent developments.

Fuels for Fuel Cells: Hydrogen, methane, methanol – Sources and preparation, reformation processes for hydrogen – clean up and storage of the fuels – use in cells, advantages and disadvantages of using hydrogen as fuel.


  • Dell, Ronald M Rand, David A J, ‘Understanding Batteries’, Royal Society of Chemistry, (2001).
  • M. Aulice Scibioh and B. Viswanathan ‘Fuel Cells – Principles and Applications’, University Press, India (2006).



  • Kanani N, ‘Electroplating and Electroless Plating of Copper and its Alloy’, ASM International, Metals Park, OH and Metal Finishing Publications, Stevenage, UK (2003).
  • Curtis, ‘Electroforming’, London, (2004).
  • F. Barbir, ‘PEM Fuel Cells: Theory and Practice’, Elsevier, Burlington, MA, (2005).
  • G. Hoogers, ‘Fuel Cell Handbook’, CRC, Boca Raton, FL, (2003).

Evaluation Pattern

Assessment Internal External
Periodical 1 (P1) 15
Periodical 2 (P2) 15
*Continuous Assessment (CA) 20
End Semester 50
*CA – Can be Quizzes, Assignment, Projects, and Reports.

Objectives and Outcomes

Course Objective

To provide sound knowledge on the application of electrochemistry in energy storage systems.

Course Outcomes

  • CO1: Understand the fundamental concepts of electrochemistry through electrode potential and reaction kinetics
  • CO2: Learn the application of the electrochemical principles for the functioning and fabrication industrial batteries and fuel cells
  • CO3: Analysis of practical problem solving in fabricating batteries and fuel cells
  • CO4: Evaluation of comprehensive knowledge through problem solving

DISCLAIMER: The appearance of external links on this web site does not constitute endorsement by the School of Biotechnology/Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham or the information, products or services contained therein. For other than authorized activities, the Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham does not exercise any editorial control over the information you may find at these locations. These links are provided consistent with the stated purpose of this web site.

Admissions Apply Now