Qualification: 
M. Pharm.
skkanthlal@aims.amrita.edu

Mr. S. K. Kanthlal joined Amrita School of Pharmacy as Lecturer in the year 2013. He completed his B. Pharm in the year 2009 and M. Pharm in the year 2012 from The Tamilnadu Dr. M.G.R Medical University, Chennai. He has more than 10 research publications in per reviewed journals to his credit. His current research focuses on the area of cardiovascular disorders. Other areas of interest include preclinical screening and molecular pharmacology. He is presently supervising B. Pharm students in their research project in in-vitro pharmacological studies. He is a co-investigator in an ongoing funded project on “Effect of Large Cardamom Extract on Experimental Models of Hypertension and Endothelial Function” funded by Spices Board of India.

Publications

Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Title

2020

S.K. Kanthlal, Jipnomon Joseph, Paul, B., M, V., and Dr. Umadevi P., “Antioxidant and vasorelaxant effects of aqueous extract of large cardamom in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats”, Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 581-589, 2020.[Abstract]


ABSTRACT Purpose The present work aimed to study the effect of aqueous extract of large cardamom (AELC) to prevent vascular remodeling and oxidative stress in Nω-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertension. Method Male Wistar rats were administered with L-NAME 40 mg/kg/day for 28 days by oral gavage. The treatments included captopril (20 mg/kg/day) or AELC (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day) along with L-NAME administration. Results L-NAME treated rats showed high systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure, decreased nitric oxide level, increased level of malondialdehyde in plasma, heart, aorta and kidney, hypertrophy of the vascular wall and reduced vascular response to acetylcholine in phenylephrine-precontracted aorta. Treatment with AELC markedly reduced the blood pressure, restored the nitric oxide level, reduced the malondialdehyde level, alleviated the hypertrophy in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. Additionally, it also improved the vascular response to acetylcholine in phenylephrine pre-contracted aorta. Conclusion In conclusion, our results demonstrate the preventive effect of AELC in L-NAME-induced hypertensive model, which is possibly related to antioxidant activities and restoration of nitric oxide level.

More »»

2019

V. Ajaya Kumar, Ramkumar, M., and S.K. Kanthlal, “The Benefit of Passion Fruit as an Anti-ulcerogenic Diet: Scientific Evidence by In-vitro and In-silico H+/K+ATPase Inhibitory Activity Assessment”, Curr Comput Aided Drug Des, 2019.[Abstract]


Background: H+/K+ ATPase a protein present in the gastric parietal cells is a better target for the prevention and treatment of gastric ulcer. Plant flavonoids have been reported to elicit anti-ulcer activity by inhibiting the proton pump as well as by antioxidant defense mechanism.

Methodology: Chloroform fraction of hydro-alcoholic extract of passion fruit was screened for proton pump inhibitory assay using goat parietal cell. In-silico computational docking studies were carried out using Glide program in order to validate the inhibitory action of selected constituents.

Report and Conclusion: The flavonoid rich fruit possess a promising radical scavenging activity against DPPH. 10.41μg/mL is sufficient to inhibit 50% of ATPase enzyme activity. A synergistic activity was also achieved by the fruit with sub-effective doses of lansoprazole. Fenton's oxidation induced by H2O2 was also blunted by the fruit extract. The in-vitro and in-silico findings indicated that, passion fruit can be a good dietary supplement for the prevention and management of ulcer.

More »»

2019

G. M. Nair, Skaria, D. Sheba, James, T., and S.K. Kanthlal, “Clozapine Disrupts Endothelial Nitric Oxide Signaling and Antioxidant System for its Cardiovascular Complications.”, Drug Res (Stuttg), vol. 69, no. 12, pp. 695-698, 2019.[Abstract]


OBJECTIVE:Many drugs in current practice require additional safety labels in order to prevent potential risks to the major organ system. Psychotropic agent clozapine has been reported to produce myocarditis and other cardiac complications on repeated use. Our study aimed to establish the role of clozapine in vascular damage associated with nitric oxide metabolism.
METHOD:Isolated aortic strips incubated with clozapine at different dose levels were estimated for nitrite release and antioxidant systems such as glutathione and catalase. Vascular integrity assessment was performed by recording the acetylcholine induced relaxation of phenyephrine pre-contracted aorta.
RESULT:From our study, it was found that clozapine depletes the nitric oxide level in the endothelium and enhance the oxidative stress. The aorta fails to relax completely after the addition of acetylcholine indicates the deranged eNOS signaling in the endothelium.
CONCLUSION:From the experimental findings, it was concluded that clozapine could depress the eNOS regulation and thereby perhaps initiates cardiovascular complications through subsequent vascular events.

More »»

2019

V. Simon, V, S. K., R, S., and S.K. Kanthlal, “In Vitro Protective Effect of Ascorbic Acid Against Antibiotic-Induced Hepatotoxicity”, Curr Drug Discov Technol, 2019.[Abstract]


BACKGROUND: Although antibiotic-induced hepatotoxicity is recoverable with mild impairment, and few of them were reported to cause morbidity. Hence, an adjuvant is essential in reducing such incidences.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study to evaluate the protective effect of ascorbic acid on antibiotic induced liver toxicity using liver slices.

METHOD: Fresh liver slices collected from leghorn chicken were incubated with different concentrations of sulfamethoxazole tetracycline and clavulanic acid along with ascorbic acid (200μg/ml) for 2 hours. The liver homogenate was assessed for markers like ALT, AST, MDA and CAT levels. Cytotoxicity assessment was performed using MTT assay.

RESULTS: Incubating liver slices with all three antibiotics shows elevated levels of aminotransferases, MDA and CAT enzyme when compared to the control groups which indicates the level of hepatotoxicity. In presence of ascorbic acid, the elevated levels of TBARS, ALT and AST were significantly reduced which showcases the protective effect of ascorbic acid. The percentage survival of cell was also shown to have improved while accessed using cell viability assay.

CONCLUSION: Obtained data suggests that consumption of vitamin C or vitamin C rich food like citrus fruits or green leafy vegetables equivalent to 3g/day during antibiotic treatment, perhaps put down the risk of liver toxicity to a greater extent.

More »»

2017

V. Simon, Sreerag, K. V., Sasikumar, R., and S.K. Kanthlal, “High dose antibiotics induced hepatotoxicity and altered markers: An in-vitro liver slices study”, Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, vol. 10, 2017.[Abstract]


The aim of the study was to assess the degree of liver toxicity produced by commonly used antibiotics using in vitro liver slices. Method: The freshly isolated liver lobes were transferred into KRH medium and sliced into small pieces using surgical blade. It was then preincubated in KRH medium at 37°C by replacing fresh medium every 10 minutes for 1 hour. Then the slices were incubated with different concentrations of sulfamethoxazole, clavulanic acid and tetracycline for 2 hours. After 2 hours the prepared liver homogenate was assayed for the markers like ALT, AST, and MDA level and catalase activity for the assessment of toxicity. Results: After incubation with the three antibiotics at different doses, the liver parameters were altered in a dose dependent fashion. At the highest concentration of the antibiotics (2000 µg/ml) the parameters were found to be elevated which shows a clear indication of the degree of toxicity. Conclusion: The observed data reveals that repeated dosing and consuming these antibiotics at higher doses may lead to hepatotoxicity and it can be indicated by change in the parameters.

More »»

2016

K. J. Megha, Babu, H. C., Kutty, M. V. Sree, and S.K. Kanthlal, “Polyphenyl rich passion fruit ihnibits fenton’s regent induce lipid peroxidation in rabbit colon”, International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, vol. 8, pp. 25158-25163, 2016.[Abstract]


The present study was aimed to estimate the phenol content of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) fruit and to study its antioxidant property in rabbit colon. Cold extraction of fruit was performed with 50% ethanol and fractionation was done using chloroform in a separating funnel. The phenol content was estimated by Gallic acid curve method. Oxidation was induced by incubating rabbit colon tissue substrate with Fenton’s reagent and the formed thiobarbituric acid reactive species was estimated using spectrophotometer at 535nm.The total phenolic content of fruit was found to be 102.7mg/gm. There is a gradual increase in antioxidant potency with increase in concentration from 20μg/ml. The maximum prevention (58.40%) was shown by the fruit at 50 μg/ml which is found to more effective than standard drug diclomine at the same dose (57.33 %). Imbalanced ROS production and defense mechanism by various factors may ultimately results in lipid peroxidation in colon cells which may leads to inflammatory bowel disoreders, ulcers and colitis etc,. Thiobarbituric acid- reactive substances are the byproducts of lipid peroxidation which is considered to be the clinical bio marker for of ulcerative colitis. In our study the fruit has the ability to protect from lipid peroxidation which may prevents the complications associated with IBD. © 2016, International Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. More »»

2016

S.K. Kanthlal, Jipnomon Joseph, Pillai, A. K. Baskaran, and Dr. Umadevi P., “Neural effects in copper deficient Menkes disease: ATP7A-a distinctive marker”, Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease, vol. 6, pp. 668-672, 2016.[Abstract]


Menkes disease, also termed as “Menkes's syndrome”, is a disastrous infantile neurodegenerative disorder originated by diverse mutations in cupric cation-transport gene called ATP7A. This gene encodes a protein termed as copper transporting P-type ATP ase, essential for copper ion transport from intestine to the other parts of our body along with other transporters like copper transporter receptor 1 and divalent metal transporter 1. The copper transportation is vital in the neuronal development and synthesis of various enzymes. It is found to be an appreciated trace element for normal biological functioning but toxic in excess. It is essential for the metallation of cuproenzymes which is responsible for the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters and other vital physiological mechanisms. Copper is also actively involved in the transmission pathway of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and its subsequent molecular changes in neural cells. The expression of ATP7A gene in regions of brain depicts the importance of copper in neural development and stabilization. Studies revealed that the mutation of ATP7A gene leads the pathophysiology of various neurodegenerative disorders. This review focused on the normal physiological function of the gene with respect to their harmful outcome of the mutated gene and its associated deficiency which detriments the neural mechanism in Menkes patients. © 2016 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press

More »»

2016

I. Thomas, Resmy, K. R., and S.K. Kanthlal, “Pharmacological exploration of vernonia cinerea flower extract on experimental cataract using isolated goat lenses”, Research Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 1-5, 2016.[Abstract]


The aim of the present study was to evaluate the methanol extract of Vernonia cinerea flowers for its in vitro anticataract activity on isolated goat lenses. Transparent isolated goat lenses were incubated in artificial aqueous humor for 72 h. Experimental catatact was induced by adding glucose at 55 mM and the methanol extracts Vernonia cinerea at the doses of 200 and 400 μg mL-1 were added simultaneously into the aqueous humor. After the incubation period photographic evaluation of lens was performed and biochemical estimation of electrolytes (Na+ and K+), total protein, malondialdehyde and lipid peroxidase were done in the lens homogenate. Photographic evaluation clearly indicates the suppression of cataract at 400 μg mL-1 of extract in which the lenses appears hazy and less cloudy. Cataractous lenses showed higher Na+, MDA and LPH (p<0.001) and lowers the K+ and total protein content. Lenses treated with Vernonia cinerea extract prevented the formation of cataract in a dose dependent manner as evidenced by the correcting the altered biochemical parameters. The anticataract activity of Vernonia cinerea may because of balancing anti oxidant defense system either by direct anti oxidant action or by free radical scavenging mechanism as evidenced by correcting MDA and LPH levels. Further, in vivo studies are required for confirmation and elucidation of molecular the role of Vernonia cineria in preventing cataract formation. © Medwell Journals, 2016.

More »»

2014

S.K. Kanthlal, B. Kumar, A., Jipnomon Joseph, Aravind, R., and P. Frank, R., “Amelioration of oxidative stress by Tabernamontana divaricata on alloxan-induced diabetic rats”, Ancient Science of Life. , vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 222-228. , 2014.[Abstract]


Objective:
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-diabetic activity of ethanol extract of Tabernamontana divaricata (L.) and its ameliorative effect on oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.

Materials and Methods:
Diabetes was induced by single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate (140 mg/kg body weight). Methanol extract of T. divaricata was administered at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight in diabetic induced rats including glibenclamide (3 mg/kg) as a reference drug. In the continuous 21 days treatment, fasting blood glucose level was determined on 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. On day 21, serum lipid profiles and glycosylated hemoglobin, liver antioxidant enzymes levels were estimated.

Results:
Experimental findings showed a significant anti-diabetic potential of the extract in terms of reduction in blood glucose levels and a correct effect on the altered biochemical parameters. Observed data were found statistically significant in correction of antioxidant enzyme level accompanied with diabetes, particularly at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight.

Conclusion:
Based on the results, it can be concluded that the T. divaricata is found to be effective in type 2 diabetes in rats and to have an ameliorative effect on the associated oxidative stress.

KEY WORDS: Alloxan, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, methanol extract, Tabernamontana divaricata

More »»

2014

S.K. Kanthlal, Krishnan, R., Radhakrishnan, R., Rajalekshmy, M., Priyalakshmi, K. G., and Soman, N. P. Priya, “An updated compact review on diabetes and moleculer target of oral hypoglycemic agents”, Research Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 8, pp. 6-12, 2014.[Abstract]


Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder resulting from a defect in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. Data has been revealed that that >200 million people worldwide are having DM and almost it will reach to 300 million by 2025. Elevated glucose level in the blood drives to chronic complication which affects kidney, retina, heart and nervous system. Impaired insulin secretion and its resistance are the fact of non-insulin dependent DM, where as insulin deficiency as the factor of insulin dependent DM. Hormonal replacement therapy (insulin injection) is must for the later and the former type is managed by oral hypoglycemic agents. Hypoglycemic agents are shortlisted as secretagogues and insulin senziters based on their mechanism like stimulation of alpha-cells of pancreas, enhancing the peripheral uptake of glucose, diminishing the insulin resistance and inhibition of gluconeogenisis. Glucose absorption in GUT and re-absorption in the kidney were also targeted in order to get a beneficial activity. Prescription of combinational therapy is the recent trends of the physicians to get better results. Since, the status is on progress day by day, a better medicament with limited adverse effects should be bloomed to minimize the morbid status. © Medwell Journals, 2014.

More »»

2012

S.K. Kanthlal, “Anti-obesity and Hypolipidemic activity of methanol extract of Tabernamontana divaricata on Atherogenic diet induced obesity in rats”, International Research Journal of Pharmacy, vol. 3, p. 157, 2012.[Abstract]


Tabernaemontana divaricata (Fam-Apocynaceae) is traditionally used for various treatments and also in the cases of arteriosclerosis and circulatory irregularities. Hence the present investigation was designed to evaluate the potential effect of methanol extract of aerial parts of Tabernaemontana divaricata (METD) on obesity and hyperlipidiemia on Atherogenic diet induced obese rats. In this study, METD at the doses of 100mg/kg and 200mg/kg were administered along with Atherogenic diet for a period of 42 days. Parameters such as body weight, body temperature, serum lipid profiles, SGOT and SGPT were evaluated. METD at the dose of 200mg/kg significantly (p<0.001) corrected the altered parameters, similar to that of standard drug sibutramine (2mg/kg). From the observations of the study performed, it could be predicted that Tabernaemontana divaricata exerted significant anti-obese and anti-hyperlipidemic effects in rats fed on Atherogenic diet. Further investigation needs to figure out the therapeutic potential and exact mechanism of T.divaricata in the treatment of obesity. More »»

2012

S.K. Kanthlal, “Evaluation of Tabernamontana divaricata for its Antibacterial Activity against Marine Pathogens”, Inventi Rapid: Pharm Biotech & Microbio, 2012.

2011

S.K. Kanthlal, Suresh, V., Ganesan, A., P Frank, R., and Kameshwaran, S., “In vivo Evaluation of Analgesic and Antipyretic activity of Aerial parts of Tabernaemontana divaricata in Experimental Animal models”, Pharmacologyonline, vol. 3, p. 1127, 2011.[Abstract]


The present study was designed to investigate the analgesic and antipyretic activity of methanol extract of aerial parts of Tabernaemontana divaricata in experimental animal models. The analgesic activity of T. divaricata at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg was assessed by various experimental models such as Acetic-acid and Hot-plate induced writhing and Hafner's Tail-clip method, by using indomethacin (10mg/kg) pentazocine (10mg/kg) as standard drugs, while Yeast-induced hyperpyrexia was used to evaluate the anti-pyretic activity using parecetamol(150 mg/kg) as standard. The methanol extract of T. divaricata (METD) at 200 mg/kg was found to be significantly (p < 0.001) reduced the Acetic-acid induced writhings in mice. Moreover in Hot-plate test, there was a significant dose dependent inhibition of pain (p < 0.01 & p < 0.001) at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w. respectively. Also in the tail-clip test, METD caused a significant increase in the reaction time at both the doses used. METD significantly reversed the yeast induced hyperthermia in a dose dependent manner at different time of observation (1-4hr). The obtained results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of T. divaricata in the treatment of pain and pyrexia.

More »»

2011

S.K. Kanthlal, “Pharmacognostic Standardization and Phytochemical Evaluation of Aerial Parts of Tabernaemontana divaricata”, Inventi Rapid: Planta Activa, vol. 2011, 2011.[Abstract]


Plants are well known as a major source of modem medicines. From ancient times, humans have utilized plants for the treatment or prevention of diseases, leading to the dawn of traditional medicine. Plant kingdom holds many species of plants containing the substance of medicinal values. In the developing world the trend has been changed from synthetic to natural herbal medicine. They show minimum or no side effects and are considered to be safe. There is a growing interest in the Pharmacological evaluation of various plants used in Indian traditional systems of medicine. As the result of rapid development of Phytochemistry and Pharmacological testing method, in recent years new plant drug show their way into medicine as purified phytochemical preparations. Tabernaemontana divaricata (syn. Ervatamia coronaria) commonly called as Crepe Jasmine, a glabrous, evergreen, dichotomously branched shrub mostly grown in tropical countries. The plant grows up to a height of about 6-feet, bears attractive, white colored sweet-scented flowers having five-petal pinwheels gathered in small clusters on the stem tips.The leaves are large, shiny and deep green in color and the size is about 6-inches in length and 2-inches wide 1 . The flower juice is used in the treatment of eye infection. The root is acrid More »»