Introduction to Active Filtering - Categories of Filters - LP, HP, BP, BE and All Pass Filters - Second Order s-domain equations in each case and their pole-zero plots.
Filter approximations – Butterworth, Chebyshev, Elliptic and Bessel - Phase and group delay characteristics of approximation functions - Delay equaliser functions - Frequency transformations.
Review of opamp characteristics: Single opampbiquads - First order LP, HP, BP, All pass filters - Biquad topologies - Analysis and design of single opamp Biquads
with finite gain. Analysis and design of LP, HP and BP filter with second order response. Use of bridged T network in active Filters - Sensitivity analysis of single opamp filters.
Multiple opamp Filters: KHN (Universal Active Filter) filter, Tom-Thomas biquad - Analysis and design for various categories of filters - Q enhancement and pole
frequency error problem - Elementary ideas of compensation.