Operational amplifiers: Equivalent circuit, voltage transfer curve - Open loop Opamp configurations – Voltage series, Voltage shunt feedback amplifiers configurations, closed loop differential amplifiers for single and differential outputs.
Output Off set voltage, offset null pins. Minimizing output offset voltage due to input bias current and input offset current, Factors affecting off set parameters. CMRR - Open loop and closed loop frequency response of op-amps, Circuit stability, Slew rate and its effects in applications.
Applications of Op Amp: DC & AC amplifiers - Summing, Scaling and Averaging amplifiers - Instrumentation Amplifier - voltage to current converter for floating and grounded loads - Current to voltage converter - Integrator, Differentiator. Voltage comparators – ZCD-Schmitt trigger with voltage limiter - Precision rectifier circuits - Peak detector - Sample and Hold circuit.
Active Filters: Frequency response characteristics of major active filters, first and higher order low pass and high pass filters, all pass filters.
Oscillators and waveform generators: Requirements for oscillations, Op-amp RC oscillators, square wave generators, triangle and saw tooth waveform generators, astable and monostable operations, Voltage controlled oscillators - IC 555 timer, astable and monostable operation.
Circuit board layout techniques: General considerations – PCB mechanical construction – Grounding – Decoupling – Input, output isolation.