Background Theory: Origin of potential - electrical double layer - reversible electrode potential - standard hydrogen electrode - emf series - measurement of potential - reference electrodes (calomel and silver/silver chloride) indicator and ion selective electrodes - Nernst equation - irreversible processes - kinetic treatment - ButlerVolmer equation - Overpotential, activation, concentration and IR overpotential - its practical significance - Tafel equation and Tafel plots - exchange current density and transfer coefficients.
Batteries: Primary batteries: The chemistry, fabrication and performance aspects, packing classification and rating of the following batteries: (The materials taken their function and significance, reactions with equations, their performance in terms of discharge, capacity, and energy density to be dealt with). Zinc-carbon (Leclanche type), zinc alkaline (Duracell), zinc/air batteries; Lithium primary cells - liquid cathode, solid cathode and lithium-ferrous sulphide cells (comparative account).
Secondary batteries: Lead acid and VRLA (valve regulated (sealed) lead acid), nickel-cadmium, nickel-zinc, nickel-metal hydride batteries, lithium ion batteries, ultrathin lithium polymer cells (comparative account). Advanced Batteries for electric vehicles, requirements of the battery - sodium-beta and redox batteries.
Fuel Cells: Description, working principle, anodic, cathodic and cell reactions, fabrication of electrodes and other components, applications, advantages, disadvantages and environmental aspectsof the following types of fuel cells: Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells, alkaline fuel cells, phosphoric acid, solid oxide, molten carbonate, direct methanol fuel cells.
Membranes for fuel cells: Nafion – Polymer blends and composite membranes; assessment of performance – recent developments.
Fuels for Fuel Cells: Hydrogen, methane, methanol - Sources and preparation, reformation processes for hydrogen – clean up and storage of the fuels – use in cells, advantages and disadvantages of using hydrogen as fuel.