Unit I (08 Hours)
Biomolecules: Introduction, classification, chemical nature and biological role of carbohydrate, lipids, nucleic acids, amino acids and proteins.
Bioenergetics: Concept of free energy, endergonic and exergonic reaction, Relationship between free energy, enthal- py and entropy; Redox potential.
Energy rich compounds; classification; biological significances of ATP and cyclic AMP
Unit II (10 Hours)
Glycolysis – Pathway, energetics and significance
Citric acid cycle- Pathway, energetics and significance
HMP shunt and its significance; Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase G6PD) deficiency
Glycogen metabolism Pathways and glycogen storage diseases (GSD)
Gluconeogenesis- Pathway and its significance
Hormonal regulation of blood glucose level and Diabetes mellitus
Electron transport chain (ETC) and its mechanism.
Oxidative phosphorylation & its mechanism and substrate level
Inhibitors ETC and oxidative phosphorylation/Uncouplers
Unit III (10 Hours)
β-Oxidation of saturated fatty acid (Palmitic acid)
Formation and utilization of ketone bodies; ketoacidosis
De novo synthesis of fatty acids (Palmitic acid)
Biological significance of cholesterol and conversion of cholesterol into bile acids, steroid hormone and vitamin D
Disorders of lipid metabolism: Hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerosis, fatty liver and obesity.
Amino acid metabolism:
General reactions of amino acid metabolism: Transamination, deamination & decarboxyl- ation, urea cycle and its disorders
Catabolism of phenylalanine and tyrosine and their metabolic disorders
(Phenyketonuria, Albinism, alkeptonuria, tyrosinemia)
Synthesis and significance of biological substances; 5-HT, melatonin, dopamine, noradrena- line, adrenaline Catabolism of heme; hyperbilirubinemia and jaundice
Unit IV (10 Hours)
Nucleic acid metabolism and genetic information transfer
Biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides
Catabolism of purine nucleotides and Hyperuricemia and Gout disease
Organization of mammalian genome
Structure of DNA and RNA and their functions
DNA replication (semi conservative model)
Transcription or RNA synthesis
Genetic code, Translation or Protein synthesis and inhibitors
Unit V (07 Hours)
Introduction, properties, nomenclature and IUB classification of enzymes
Enzyme kinetics (Michaelis plot, Line Weaver Burke plot)
Enzyme inhibitors with examples
Regulation of enzymes: enzyme induction and repression, allosteric enzymes regulation
Therapeutic and diagnostic applications of enzymes and isoenzymes
Coenzymes –Structure and biochemical functions
‘Biochemistry – Theory’ is a course offered in the second semester of B. Pharm program at School of Pharmacy, Health Sciences campus, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham.
Scope & Objectives
Course Duration: 45 Hours
Biochemistry deals with complete understanding of the molecular levels of the chemical process associated with living cells. The scope of the subject is providing biochemical facts and the principles to understand metabolism of nutrient molecules in physiological and pathological conditions. It is also em- phasizing on genetic organization of mammalian genome and hetero & autocatalytic functions of DNA.
Upon completion of course student shell able to
- Understand the catalytic role of enzymes, importance of enzyme inhibitors in design of new drugs, therapeutic and diagnostic applications of enzymes.
- Understand the metabolism of nutrient molecules in physiological and pathological conditions.
- Understand the genetic organization of mammalian genome and functions of DNA in the synthesis of RNAs and proteins.